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The chloride-chlorate process is a highly efficient, easy to operate, and cost effective tool for generating ClO₂, wherein the theoretical ClO₂/Cl₂(η) ratio is 2. The present study attempts to investigate the optimal conditions for the best reaction yield in terms of chlorine dioxide production and minimal contamination of chlorine. The effects of the molar concentration of sulfuric acid, the temperature, and the chlorate/chloride (φ) ratio on the ClO₂/Cl₂(η) ratio is examined. The experimental η-value ranged from 0.46 to as high as 3.4 under different conditions. A reaction mechanism compatible with the experimental observations is proposed, and the role that side reactions have on influencing the ClO₂/Cl₂ ratio is highlighted. A general equation is derived to express the ClO₂/Cl₂ ratio.
Chlorine dioxide (ClO₂) has achieved a remarkable degree of commercial attention not only because of environmental concerns but also because of its wide range of applications in the fields of bleaching, oxidation, and disinfection. There is a growing interest in the development of simpler, more easily operated, more efficient. and more cost effective techniques for the generation of chlorine dioxide. This present comprehensive review highlights the various methods used for the manufacture of chlorine dioxide using sodium chlorate as the raw material and discusses their process chemistries, including the reaction kinetics and the mechanisms of the various reactions responsible for ClO₂ generation. Efforts have been made to incorporate all the pertinent details, including the most recent developments in the manufacture of chlorine dioxide. This review not only provides a deep insight into the manufacturing processes but also it paves the ways for improvements to the existing traditional processes and the design of advanced processes in the future.
Chlorine dioxide (ClO₂) has emerged as a highly efficient chemical agent for bleaching, oxidation, and disinfection. Various fundamental studies have been performed to investigate the reaction kinetics and the mechanism of ClO₂production. These studies have led to improvements in the manufacturing processes and to the optimization of reaction conditions to provide a better yield and the rational utilization of raw materials. In this comprehensive review, various aspects of process chemistry in the manufacture of ClO₂from sodium chlorite are reported. This knowledge will be useful for improving the current processes and for developing a more advanced process in the future.