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        진안군 중평마을 계조직에 관한 일검토 -19세기 말~20세기 초 자료를 중심으로-

        이주형 전북사학회 2010 전북사학 Vol.0 No.36

        In Jung-pyeong, there used to be four mutual aid societies called ‘Gye’ in Korean: Dong-gye, Song-gye, Janghak-gye, and Heunghak-gye. Dong-gye and Song-gye were organized in mid 1800's, and retained until early 1980's. We don't know exactly the purpose, rules, and systems of Dong-gye, however, it is believed that the Wollang Lees who inhabited in Jung-pyeong did a major part to plan and set up it. People who lived in Jung-pyeong and Jeom-chon organized Song-gye to gather wood for fuel and compost materials. Since Song-gye was surrounded with Mt. Ryugok, people in this area could gather sticks for fire and compost materials that needed to maintain their daily living. Janghak-gye and Heunghak-gye were organized for financial support in educating children during Japanese colonial rule of Korea. When they were organized, there was only one educational institution called ‘Seodang‘-a private school which is for study of Chinese classics. Later, another institution, Ma-ryeong public school, was founded in 1922. Thereafter, children in Jung-pyeong could learn not only at seodang but also at public school. However, Japanese gradually oppressed educating children at seodang, and then much more children couldn't help attending public school instead. The organization of gye in Jung-pyeong consisted of three parts: a ‘Gyejang’, ‘Yusa’, and ‘Gyehoi’. A gyejang was a symbolic duty and was entrusted to the Lees. A yusa carrying out practical affairs of gye was appointed to the oldest member of gye annually, but it was often reappointed the one person. A gyehoi was the meeting held periodically once in a year, which usually took place between October and December of the lunar calendar during off farming season. The financial resources for gye mostly was appropriated by the money which was raised by its members, and the rest of it was supplied by the interests yielded from that money, which targeted the members. The fund from the interests was an important way in order to increase the finances for gye. Additionally, the fund was also made up by a farm rent or by renting the appliances which belonged to gye. The money raised through these various processes was used to repurchase and repair the items they shred, paid taxes, or support seodang. It was generally used to deal with communities' common affairs. On the surface the objective of each gye appears to be different, however, its purpose had been focused on solving common businesses related with everyday life. Other gye were organized in many parts other than Jung-pyeong. Dong-gye and Song-gye were especially organized a lot at the end of Joseon, and Janghak-gye and Heunghak-gye were formed during Japanese colonial rule in particular with respect to establishing schools. Most of Dong-gye and Song-gye were declined or discontinued by the Japanese colonial policy, reforming administrative district of Korea. However, Dong-gye and Song-gye in Jung-pyeong is the case continued during Japanese colonial rule. Janghak-gye and Heunghak-gye in other parts grew smaller or were abolished, supporting funds for founding schools. Unlike them, Janghak-gye in Jung-pyeong just supported children so that they could continue learning.

      • KCI우수등재
      • KCI등재

        한국인 마음과 영적분별

        이주형 한국실천신학회 2018 신학과 실천 Vol.0 No.59

        본 소고는 이냐시오 영성전통 내의 영적분별에 대한 정의와 개념을 한국 기독교적 상황과 환경에 적용하여 기독교영성 형성을 고취시키기 위한 실천신학적 연구이다. 우선, 본 연구는 영적분별의 구성적 전제를 세 가지 제시한다. 첫째, 영적분별은 전인적이어서 삶의 모든 영역과 체험 속에서 추구되어야 한다. 둘째, 영적분별은 결정적이기보다는 과정적이어서 영적 여정으로 이해되어야 한다. 셋째, 영적분별은 영적수련 혹은 기도수련을 동반해야 한다. 하나님의 초월성과 내재성, 임마누엘, 특정한 결정과 선택을 영적분별의 세 가지 토대로 소개하면서, 그 필수적 토대위에 영적분별의 구성요소를 다음과 같이 제시한다. 첫째, 인간의 욕망에 대한 관상적 이해와 성찰, 둘째, 영적초연의 궁극적 목표, 셋째, 거룩한 상상력의 영성적 수용, 넷째 영적분별에 있어 영성지도의 필수적 동반, 이다. 기독교의 영적분별이 전인적이며 통합적인 영성형성을 지향한다는 논점은 신앙인의 삶의 자리와 환경을 영적 체험과 분별에 있어 중요한 구성요소 수용할 것을 요청한다. 즉, 영적 체험은 사회문화적으로 진공상태에서 진행될 수 없다는 사실을 거론하며, 전인성과 통합성이 담보된 온전하고 건강한 영적분별은 사회문화적 요소와 환경적 요인들을 영적분별의 구성적 요소로 수용할 수 있어야 한다는 사실을 주장한다. 이에 따라 본 소고는 문화심리학이 제시하는 한국인의 심리적 특징들인, 한, 정, 우리, 체면, 눈치를 탐구하고, 그 역사문화적 기원을 고찰한다. 한국인들의 고유한 심리기재의 역사문화적 기원을 집단주의, 상호의존적 자아, 모순과 역설에 관대한 변증적 사고방식으로 분석하며 한국인의 마음의 문화적 특징을 제시한다. 집단주의는 개인의 가치와 이익보다는 집단논리가 우선적으로 작동하는 한국인의 사회화과정에 있어 보편적 현상으로 소개한다. 상호의존적 자아는 독립적 자아의 대칭되는 자아개념으로 내적 신념과 가치체계를 외연화하기보다는 외적 체계와 신념을 개별자의 마음에 내면화하도록 안내하거나 교육하는 사회적 특징을 담아낸다. 동양의 변증체계는 일관성과 합리성을 추구하는 서양과 달라서, 모순과 역설에 관대한 인식 사고체계를 수용하는데, 이는 모순된 변화와 역설을 수용하는데 관대한 사회적 인식체계를 형성하는 특징을 보여준다. 영적분별에 있어 한국사회와 구성원들에게 보이는 이런 사회문화심리학적 특징들을 제대로 인지하지 못하면, 온전한 열매를 기대할 수 없다는 논점을 주장한다. 이를 바탕으로 한국 교회와 기독인의 전인적이며 통합적인 영성형성을 위해 추구해야 할 다섯 가지 영적분별 지침을 제공한다. This study sets the practical theological inquiry on the cultural implication or application of the concept and description of spiritual discernment within Ignatian spirituality for spiritual formation of Korean Christian context. It argues that Korean cultural features or social characteristics should comprehensively be taken into account as constitutive components, as spiritual discernment of korean christians purse holistic and integrating in spiritual formation. Presenting critical foundation, presuppositions and crucial factors of spiritual discernment, it makes endeavor to demonstrate that spiritual experiences and discernment could not be embodied or fully implemented without consideration of cultural context. It inquires psychological traits of Korean self such as Han, Jung, we-ness, chymyun (social face) and noon-chi, and digs in its historical or cultural origins. It leads into the analysis that Collectivism, Interdependent self, and being generous to contradiction and paradox in Logic as psychological origins in Korean mind. Lastly it proposes five significant guidelines as spiritual discernment would practice in Korean context for holistic and integrating spiritual formation of Korean Christian context.

      • KCI등재

        Grace in the Divine Milieu: Re-appreciation of Divine Initiatives in Nature

        이주형 한국대학선교학회 2017 대학과 선교 Vol.0 No.35

        This re search makes endeavor to invite the Chri stian Reformed tradition to take into serious consideration of reformulating Divine Grace in con- temporary context in which natural scientific findings have challenged the existing religious formation. It initially confronts to the neuroscientific as- sumption of biological or materialistic reductionism in religious experiences. The philosophical insights are presented as critical vehicle to demonstrate the realities are perceived as mechanical or dualistic ways; rather it is rela- tional and communal. At next, aesthetic experiences encapsulate the way in which divine grace would manifest throughnature, and the experiences of beauty give rise to spiritual awareness to interconnected or interpenetrated nature. The holistic perspective leads us to the new awareness that Divine grace will not legitimate human supremacy over nature; rather human nature is inherently connected and related with Nature, the divine milieu.

      • KCI등재후보

        복부대동맥류의 혈관 내 치료 시 내장골동맥 색전술의 유용성

        이주형,김현지,최선근,신우영,김장용,홍기천,전용선,조순구 대한혈관외과학회 2011 Vascular Specialist International Vol.27 No.4

        Purpose: Embolization of the internal iliac artery (IIA) is frequently required during endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) because of a concurrent common iliac artery aneurysm, a short common iliac artery, or deployment of aortouni-iliac devices. This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of IIA embolization during EVAR. Methods: A retrospective study was performed in patients undergoing EVAR and IIA embolization from December 2005 to March 2011 from a prospectively registered database of patients with aneurysms. Patient clinical characteristics, procedures, and follow up data were collected and analyzed. Results: Eighteen patients (33.3%) required IIA embolization among 54 EVARs. The mean age was 73.5years, and 17 patients were male. Indications were a common iliac artery aneurysm (11/18), short iliac artery (3/18), thrombosed common iliac artery (1/18), arteriovenous malformation (1/18), and deployment of aortouniiliac artery devices (1/18). One mortality occurred in a patient with a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. No type I endoleaks were observed. IIA embolization was achieved with conventional coils (7/18),a vascular plug (6/18), and detachable coils (5/18). After EVAR, there were two cases of ileus, a limb occlusion that required additional stenting in the external iliac artery, a type II endoleak, and two cases of buttock claudication. Conclusion: IIA embolization during EVAR is effective to prevent a type II endoleak with minor morbidities.

      • KCI등재후보

        노인 부적절 약물 처방의 선별 도구로서 Beers Criteria와 Screening Tool of Older Person's Prescription의 비교

        이주형,노주현,서예원,이정화,이은숙,이병구,김광일,김철호 대한노인병학회 2013 Annals of geriatric medicine and research Vol.17 No.1

        Background: Beers criteria are used to identify the potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) in elderly patients. However, the criteria have limitations such as lacking consideration of drug-drug and duplicated prescriptions. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of newly developed screening tool of older person's prescriptions (STOPP) with Beers criteria in identifying PIMs and adverse drug events (ADEs) in elderly patients. Methods: We included 115 elderly patients older than 65 years who visited the outpatients’ clinic or have been hospitalized for medical illness. Comprehensive geriatric assessments including medication review by the pharmacists were performed by the multidisciplinary team. Beers criteria and STOPP were used to find out PIMs. The association between PIMs defined by both criteria with ADEs was also evaluated. Results: A total of 59 patients (50.4%) by Beers criteria and 76 patients (65.0%) by STOPP had been prescribed with PIMs. Compared with Beers criteria, STOPP had advantage in identifying more PIMs. In addition, STOPP could identify more ADEs related medications than Beers criteria. STOPP was also useful to detect duplicate drug class prescription and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for renal impaired patients. Conclusion: STOPP criteria PIMs can detect more duplicated prescription and are significantly associated with avoidable ADEs in older individuals compared with that of Beers criteria PIMs.

      • KCI등재후보

        전신마취와 Rose 자세가 하비갑개 크기의 변화에 미치는 영향에 대한 연구

        이주형 대한비과학회 2009 Journal of rhinology Vol.16 No.1

        Background and Objectives:Enlargement of the inferior turbinates can be caused by allergic rhinitis, vasomotor rhinitis, or emotional responses. However, the effects of general anesthesia and the Rose position on the enlargement of the turbinates are unknown. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of general anesthesia and the Rose position on the size of the inferior turbinates and nasal passage. Materials and Methods:Fifty patients undergoing tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy or snoring surgery without nasal pathology from February, 2007 to July, 2007 at a university hospital were included in the study. The size of the inferior turbinates was measured under the following conditions:1) pre-anesthesia in the supine position;2) post-anesthesia in the supine position;3) post- anesthesia, lying in the Rose position, and 4) at the end of the operation 30 to 50 minutes after anesthesia, with endoscopic nasal photographs. Using an acoustic rhinometry, the minimal cross-sectional area of the nasal cavity was, during conditions one and four, listed above, simultaneously. Results: The size of the inferior turbinates was increased statistically in condition three, post-anesthesia, lying in the Rose position, and condition four, at the end of surgery 30 to 50 minutes after anesthesia, compared to condition one, pre-anesthesia lying in the supine position. In addition, the minimal cross-sectional area of the nasal cavity was decreased in condition one compared to condition four. Conclusion:The size of the inferior turbinates was influenced by general anesthesia and the Rose position, presumably due to engorgement of the venous sinuses and/or mucosal edema. Background and Objectives:Enlargement of the inferior turbinates can be caused by allergic rhinitis, vasomotor rhinitis, or emotional responses. However, the effects of general anesthesia and the Rose position on the enlargement of the turbinates are unknown. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of general anesthesia and the Rose position on the size of the inferior turbinates and nasal passage. Materials and Methods:Fifty patients undergoing tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy or snoring surgery without nasal pathology from February, 2007 to July, 2007 at a university hospital were included in the study. The size of the inferior turbinates was measured under the following conditions:1) pre-anesthesia in the supine position;2) post-anesthesia in the supine position;3) post- anesthesia, lying in the Rose position, and 4) at the end of the operation 30 to 50 minutes after anesthesia, with endoscopic nasal photographs. Using an acoustic rhinometry, the minimal cross-sectional area of the nasal cavity was, during conditions one and four, listed above, simultaneously. Results: The size of the inferior turbinates was increased statistically in condition three, post-anesthesia, lying in the Rose position, and condition four, at the end of surgery 30 to 50 minutes after anesthesia, compared to condition one, pre-anesthesia lying in the supine position. In addition, the minimal cross-sectional area of the nasal cavity was decreased in condition one compared to condition four. Conclusion:The size of the inferior turbinates was influenced by general anesthesia and the Rose position, presumably due to engorgement of the venous sinuses and/or mucosal edema.

      • KCI등재후보

        복부대동맥류의 혈관 내 치료 후 발생한 제1형 Endoleak 치료경험

        이주형,전용선,조순구,최선근,신우영,김장용,홍기천 대한혈관외과학회 2011 Vascular Specialist International Vol.27 No.4

        Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) has become prevalent and is expanding beyond conventional indications. A type I endoleak in the aortic neck is one of the main complications after EVAR, which limits long-term survival and requires immediate intervention. We experienced three cases of successful treatment of a type I endoleak after EVAR with adjunctive procedures and report them with a literature review.

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