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This study aims to understand the conditions of central place facilities of myons at Kongju county through field surveys and to find out the problems of the facilities. Hence the purpose of this study is to provide a basic material which can be used for rural development. Field Surveys were done at 11 myon's central places at Kongiu County for 2 years from 1989 to 1990 about 183 categories of business and 1,185 facilities. According to the analysis of the research materials, the problems of the rural areas and ways of resolution of the problems are shown as follows. 1)The central places of myons at Kongju County has a small population. Because a small population of a myon means that its potentiality of development is weak, it has to have more people. 2)The central places of myons are lacking in the number and function of facilities. So that they do not provide enough goods and servies for rural residents. Thus, it is necessary to develop facilities of the central places. 3)We have to increase the number of facilities which are directly related to farming such as farming appliance shops, farming appliance repair shops, and agricultural medicine drug store. And other facilities such as tea rooms, billiard rooms and coin machine rooms which are not related to farming, have to be regulated. 4)Some facilities at central places of the rural areas have to have a small threshold size population and other facilities need big population. When we plan the development of rural areas, we have to take this into consideration.
The current trend of "health food" plants such as arrowroots, yams, and acorns have much to do with the "shiny leaf tree culture"(照葉樹林文化) which originated from Southeast Asia. Historically, these plants have been used as food for man before the full-scale agricultural stage. Through pointing out this, the thesis tries to elucidate a side of profound agricultural culture(基底農耕文化). Shiny leaf tree culture, proposed by a professor Nakaosaske(中尾佐助) in Japan is the first agricultural culture of Asia, and its distributed areas cover the Himalayas, Assam, the north of Southeast Asia, Woonnam upland, the south of the Yangtze River, the southern coast of the Korean peninsula, and the southwest of Japan, a mountain area. An oak, an oriental chestnut oak, a chestnut tree belonging to the oak family, evergreens such as a camellia, and a camphor tree grow in those areas. The trees are called shiny leaf trees because they have shiny leaves, and in Japan there are many researches to discover primitive culture in this shiny leaf tree areas. They divide the origin of the two world civilization as Mediterranean "hard leave tree culture"(硬葉樹林文化) and Southeast Asian "shiny leave tree culture"(照葉樹林文化). Various people lived in the shiny leaf tree areas with different languages, but they shared cultural common features and lead their own living culture of burning cultivation in a mountain area. Shiny leaf tree culture, which precedes a paddy field culture, formed burning cultivation in which they had mainly grown cereals(including upland rice, 陸稻) and became a matrix to bring out a paddy field culture and to form a rice farming culture. Given that agricultural culture originated from the South and spread to the North, it is easy to hypothesize that shiny leaf tree cultural elements that originated from Southeast Asia were introduced into the Korean peninsula. Taking into account that the ancient circumstances of the Korean peninsula in the prehistoric age after the ice age, the hypothesis is even more substantiated. When a glacier covered almost of the world, the seawater level might have dropped to a maximum of 130 meters and it might have been easy for man, and for plants and animals to move and settle down because the Korean peninsula and the Japanese Islands would have been linked to the continent of China In the warm postglacial age, Neolithic culture blossomed all over the world. As is shown in the evolution of living plants, pollen analysis in Korea showed that coniferous trees flourished 6000 years ago and that latifoliate trees thrived afterwards. The Paleolithic Age ended in 8000 B. C. and the Neolithic age started from 5000 B. C., and at this time China was in "Aangso"(仰韶) and "Yongsan"(龍山) cultural age and Japan was in "Jomon"(繩文) age. At this time, the Chinese and Japanese prehistoric culture was in the pre-agricultural stage, and at this stage man knew how to gather and use wild yams or nuts. The same may be said of the prehistoric age of Korea. Given that the turning point from the stage for man to gather and use roots, stems, fruits and seeds of trees to the stage for them to protect and cultivate them is the start of agriculture, it has been known that man used arrowroots, yams, and acorns as food from the pre-agricultural stage. Although there was a problem in the processing technique to rid the yams and nuts like arrowroots, yams, and acorns of astringent taste and to get starch, we solved the problem both by "water bleaching"(水漂白法) and by "boiled bleaching"(加熱處理法) as we explained with the concrete examples in chapter 3 of this thesis. Water bleaching is a method to get starch through the processing of powdering and washing yams and nuts, and then ridding them of their astringent taste; boiled bleaching is a method to bake or steam them and to use them as food. There is an opinion that water bleaching started in the shiny leaf tree areas, and boiled bleaching started in the tropics as food processing techniques. The technique to remove astringent taste by water bleaching, especially in shiny leaf tree areas, is often applied to use the wild yams. It is also applied to rid evergreen oaks or acorns of astringent taste and has contributed to being able to use them for food. It was used to relieve hunger in the past when they were on a normal diet or went hungry, and the food processing technique is still being used today. In shiny leaf tree areas of pre-agricultural stage, the technique to remove astringent taste by water bleaching is one of the principal methods to get food, and one of the most important elements to distinguish shiny leaf tree living culture. Therefore, we can discover the fact that a side of profound agricultural culture in Korea is connected to shiny leaf tree culture of Southeast Asian through arrowroot sap, yam sap, and acorn jelly used as "health food" today. For further detailed study, concrete examples of food processing technique and the process of using the plants should be gathered and analyzed, and a study on the development of food processing tools should be made as well.