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        • KCI등재

          Barratt 충동성 검사의 요인구조

          정연(Yeon Ok Chung),이철원(Chul Won Lee) 한국심리학회 1997 Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology Vol.16 No.1

          본 연구의 목적은 Barratt충동성검사의 3가지 하위요인(인지, 운동, 및 무계획충동성)이 한국대학생집단에서도 동일하게 나타나는지를 알아보는 것이었다. 또한 충동성의 성차가 있는지를 검증 하고자 하였다. 본 연구의 피험자는 총 354명이었으며, 남자가 189명, 여자가 165명이었다. 요인 분석결과, 고유가가 1.0이상인 요인이 7개로 나타났으며, 이는 한국대학생의 경우 충동성이 보다 다양한 내용으로 구성되어있음을 시사해주는 결과로 볼 수있다. 특히 Barratt의 요인구조와 직접적인 비교를 위하여 요인의 수를 3개로 제한한 경우에는 각 하위요인이 서로 혼합되는 경향을 보였다. 이는 한국 대학생의 경우 충동성이 덜 분화되어 있음을 시사해주는 것으로 해석되었다. 또한 남·녀성차이를 알아 보기 위해 일원변량분석을 한 결과, 운동충동성점수와 인지충동성점수에서 남자가 여자보다 유의하게 높았고, 무계획충동성점수에서는 남자가 높은 경향성을 보였다. 이러한 성별차이를 전체집단의 요인구조와 비교한 결과 Barratt의 하위요인구조와 여자집단의 요인구조가 유사함이 발견되었다. 따라서 앞으로 충동성과 관련된 연구를 할 때에는 남녀를 구분하여 해석하는 것이 바람직할 것으로 사료되었다. The purpose of this study was to identify three subfactors of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale(BIS) - Cognitive, Motor, and Nonplanning Impulsiveness - in Korean university students. In addition, this study was done to test the gender differences. The BIS was administered to 189 male and 165 female university students. Results of the factor analysis of the BIS scores showed seven factors which suggest the variety of impulsivenss of the subject group. When the number of factors was limited to three to compare with Barratt`s original scale, the items of the subfactors were confounded with each other. These results were interpreted that the impulsivity of Korean students did not differentiate more than Americans. In the result of one way analysis of variance to test the gender difference, the male group showed significantly higher scores on the Motor and Cognitive subfactors than the female group. But in the comparison of the Non-planning subfactor, gender difference was not significant. The structure of the subfactors in the male and female group showed smiliarity only in female group to the structure of the BIS. It was suggested that it is desirable to consider the gender differences in interpreting the scores of the BIS.

        • 農漁村住民의 醫療費支出에 關한 調査

          李喆玉,朴營洙,許 程 서울大學校 保健大學院 1974 公衆保健雜誌 Vol.11 No.1

          In order to survey on medical care expenditure spent by rural areas in Korea, the survey were conducted on 1,700 households consisting of 16,655 persons during the one-month period from August 1 to 31, 1973. As a result, the following conclusions have been reached: 1. Socio-demographic characteristics 1) In the surveyed areas, the average number of persons per household was 5.43 persons. 2) Agedness population (60 years or above) constituted 5.3 per cent of the total population in the surveyed areas. 3) Of the total population at age of five and above (excluded children below the school age). illiterates occupied 17.8 per cent. Those who received college education constituted 1.9 per cent only. 4) Of the total population at the age of 15 and above, those engaged in farming and fishery constituted 18.5 percent. Jobless people including unemployed persons, those engaged in housekeeping, and students occupied 60.0 per cent. 5) In surveyed areas, 79.9 per cent of the population did not practice religion. 2. Morbidity 6) As of August 1,1973 (the first day of survey), point prevalence rate at the beginning was 46.3 per 1,000 capita. 7) Monthly prevalence rate was 115.0 (106.0 for male and 124.7 for female) per 1,000 capita. 8) Rate of sick call to sickness was 85.1 per cent (89.5 per cent for male and 81.0 per cent for female). 9) The average day of sick was 7.8 days per case, 9.3 days per treatment case, 0.9 days per capita. 3. Medical care expenditure10) Medical care expenditure was classified into direct medical cost and indirect medical cost. Direct medical cost constituted 70.6 per cent of the total amount of medical care expenditure. Supply cost constituted 38.5 per cent of the total amount of indirect cost, nursing cost 26.2 per cent, traffic cost 35.3 per cent. 11) The average amount of medical care expenditure was ₩1,315 per treated case and ₩151 per capita. 12) The amount of medical care expenditure varied by age groups. (Refer table 13) 13) The higher the educational level was, the greater amount was spent in medical care expenditure. 14) No significant difference was noted of medical care expenditure among different occupation. 15) Medical care expenditure by type of medical care amounted ₩3,178 for hospitalization, ₩2,345 for herb drug store, ₩1,683 for herb clinic and ₩1,685 for Dr's home visit. 16) During the survey period, 45.8 percent of sick persons were "completely cured, 37.9 per cent" undergoing treatment, 8.6 per cent "no charge" and 6.5 per cent "improvement". 17) As reasons for uncurability, 51.5 per cent of uncured patients cited financial reasons.

        • KCI등재

          비정규직 근로자들의 직업적 특성과 사회심리적 스트레스

          고상백,손미아,공정,이철,장세진,차봉석 大韓産業醫學會 2004 대한직업환경의학회지 Vol.16 No.1

          목적: 이 연구는 정규직 근로자들과 비교하여 비정규직 근로자들의 직무스트레스 요인으로서 직무요구도, 직무자율성, 그리고 직무불안정의 차이를 분석하고, 직무스트레스 결과로 발생하는 사회심리적 스트레스에 영향을 주는 요인을 파악하고자 한다. 방법: 이 연구는 영남지역에 위치한 조선업종을 대상으로 원청 사업장 2개 회사의 정규직 681명과 하청업체 40개 회사의 하청근로자, 일용직, 계약직 근로자 1,032명으로, 총 연구대상자는 1,713명이었다. 자료수집 방법은 사업장을 방문하여 연구의 취지를 알린 후 구조화된 설문지를 이용하여 조사자 직접 기입법으로 사회인구학적 특성, 직업적 특성, 사회심리적 스트레스 수준 등에 대하여 설문 조사를 하였다. 사회심리적 건강수준에 미치는 요인을 파악하기 위하여 사회인구학적 특성(성, 연령, 학력, 결혼상태), 직무특성(근무년수, 급여, 주 평균근무시간, 고용형태, 실직, 이직 등), 직무요구도, 직무자율성, 사회적지지, 직업불안정을 독립변수로 하여 다중회귀 분석을 시행하였다. 결과: 정규직과 비정규직의 직업적 특성의 차이를 알아보기 위해 단일변량 분석한 결과, 유의한 차이를 보인 변수는 흡연, 취미생활, 불충분한 수면, 근무기간, 주당 평균 노동시간, 이직, 실직, 직무요구도, 직무자율성, 사회적지지 및 직업불안성 등이었다. 직업성긴장 수준에 따른 분포는 고긴장집단의 경우 정규직의 비해 비정규직이 훨씬 많은 분포를 보였고, 고립된 고긴장집단(iso-strain group) 역시 정규직에 비해 비정규직이 유의하게 많은 분포를 보였다. 사회 심리적 스트레스에 영향을 미치는 요인을 파악하기 위하여 다중회귀 분석을 시행하였다. 일반적 특성에서는 연령이 유의한 변수였으며 나이가 젊을수록 스트레스가 높았다. 직무특성에서는 과거 실직경험이 있거나 이직 경험이 있는 경우 스트레스가 높았으며, 고용형태는 정규직보다 비정규직에서 스트레스가 높았음을 보여주었다. 직업적 특성에서는 직무요구가 높을수록, 사회적지지가 낮을수록, 직업불안정이 높을수록 스트레스가 높았으며 유의한 결과를 보여주었다. 결론: 이 연구를 통해 비정규직 근로자의 사회심리적 건강수준이 정규직 근로자와는 다른 실직경험, 이직경험 및 직업불안정 등 다양한 직무스트레스 요인에 의해 부정적인 영향을 주고 있다고 추정 할 수 있다. 향후 객관적인 건강지표의 비교분석을 통한 비정규직의 건강문제에 대한 더 많은 연구가 필요하다고 생각된다. Objective: This study was conducted to compare the job characteristics (work demand, decision latitude, and job insecurity) and psychosocial stress levels of typical workers in the parent firm, to those of atypical workers in subcontracted firms. In addition the risk factors for psychosocial stress of atypical workers are evaluated. Method: The study design was cross-sectional, and 1,713 shipbuilding workers (681; typical workers, 1,032; atypical workers) were recruited. A structured-questionnaire was used to assess the general characteristics, job characteristics and psychosocial stress levels. We used the chi-square test for univariate and multiple regression analyses. Results: In univariate analyses, there were significant differences in smoking, hobby, insufficient sleeping, work hours per week, quitting, unemployment, job decision latitude and job insecurity. The job strain was significantly higher in the atypical workers than in the typical workers. The proportion of iso-strain groups was significantly greater in the atypical workers than typical workers. Using psychosocial stress as the dependent variable, multiple regression models were estimated. After adjustment for sociodemographic factors, unemployment, quitting employment type, job demand, job decision latitude and job insecurity were all found to be significantly associated with psychosocial stress. Conclusion: This result suggests that the psychosocial stress of atypical workers is related to job characteristics such as job insecurity and labor flexibility.

        • KCI등재

          한국인 직무 스트레스 측정도구의 개발 및 표준화

          장세진,고상백,강동묵,김성아,강명근,이철,정진주,조정진,손미아,채창호,김정원,김정일,김형수,노상철,박재범,우종민,김수영,김정연,하미나,박정선,경용,김형렬,공정,김인아,김정수,박준호,현숙정,손동국 大韓産業醫學會 2005 대한직업환경의학회지 Vol.17 No.4

          Background and Purposes: Over the past three decades, numerous studies performed in Korea have reported that job stress is a determinant risk factor for chronic diseases and work disability. Every society has its own culture and occupational climate particular to their organizations, and hence experiences different occupational stress. An occupational stress measurement tool therefore needs to be developed to estimate it objectively. The purpose of this study is to develop and standardize the Korean Occupational Stress Scale (KOSS) which is considered to be unique and specific occupational stressors in Korean employees. Subjects and Methods: Data were obtained from the National Study for Development and Standardization of Occupational Stress (NSDSOS Project: 2002-2004). A total of 12,631 employees from a nationwide sample proportional to the Korean Standard Industrial Classification and the Korean Standard Occupational Classification were administered. The KOSS was developed for 2 years (2002-2004). In the first year, we collected 255 items from the most popular job stress measurement tools such as JCQ, ERI, NIOSH and OSI, and 44 items derived from the a qualitative study (depth interview). Forty-three items of KOSS, in the second year, were retained for use in the final version of the KOSS by using Delphi and factor analysis. Items were scored using conventional 1-2-3-4 Likert scores for the response categories. Results: We developed eight subscales by using factor analysis and validation process: physical environment (3 items), job demand (8 items), insufficient job control (5 items), interpersonal conflict (4 items), job insecurity (6 items), organizational system (7 items), lack of reward (6 items), and occupational climate (4 items). Together they explained 50.0% of total variance. Internal consistency alpha scores were ranged from 0.51 to 0.82. Twenty-four items of the short form of the KOSS (KOSS-SF) were also developed to estimate job stress in the work setting. Because the levels of the subscales of occupational stress were gender dependent, gender-specific standard norms for both the 43-item full version and the 24-item short form using a quartile for the subscales of KOSS were presented. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that KOSS might be an appropriate measurement scale to estimate occupational stress of Korean employees. Further and more detailed study needs to be conducted to improve the validity of this scale.

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