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이철원 한국교통대학교 2020 한국교통대학교 논문집 Vol.55 No.-
This paper attempts to translate the studies on traditional Chinese human emotion, method by sociological and psycological suggestions for understanding the Chinese culture. What is Chinese cultural peculiarty, intensity and duration with which human emotions are typically expressed. Chinese tradional cultural beliefs about human emotions support this general moderation and have implications for conceptions of psychopathology. Concerning the action component of human emotions, evidence suggests that the expression of emotion is carefully regulated out of concern for its capacity to disrupt group harmony and status hierarchies. In this paper the Chinese human emotions are construed as interpretations of psychological response to ordnary social lives with other people and interpretations explaing their behavior. Concerned to the Chinese action in the traditional ethics, the human emotion’s dimensions used by Chinese to understand emotion-eliciting events are the same as those found in many other cultures. Which are keyed to these dimensions appear to differ, however, in ways consistent with theorizing about power distance and collectivism. Concerning psyscological reactions, there appears again to be evidence for universality in the pattern of response for given human emotions. It is concluded that all these features of Chinese emotional responding are likely to be found in other groups that share cultural characteristics with the Chinese.
魯津生,李哲遠 公州大學校 스포츠科學硏究所 1996 스포츠科學硏究所論文集 Vol.- No.10
I'll explain the types and traits of education policy, the basic charicteristics of physical education policy, the nature of imperialistic Japan through the suppress of nationalistic physical education, and the inevitable irrationality of colonial policy, dividing colonial policy with had been executed in the field of education, economy, physical education of our country for thirty-six years from 1910, the year of Korea-Japan annexation into three period(the period of military control, the period of cultural politics, and the period of race obliteration). 1. The Period of Military Control On August 23, 1911, the next year after annexation, Japan pronounced the Decree of Chosun Education and with the aim of raising faithful people carried out race policies discriminating Koreans from Japanese in the curriculum and education system, and spurred the spread of their own language, Japanese. Physical education of this period was the obligatory course, bur nit can not be evaluated as development to pay considerable attention to sanitation and introduce physical activities into everyday life. It was not accomplished independently by the earnest demands of our nation, and was processed by the Japanese' colonial persons in authorities under the name of modernization. At that time, there were not the given class hours and the contents in physical education, so they could be handled freely by the local problems and were neglected intentionally. We can imagine .that Japanese were afraid of race unity through physical education. School physical education of the late Old Korea encouraged the patriot of the young domestically through army gymnastics, and showed the national power abroad. Japan noticed that the physical education of the private school encouraged the anti-Japanese sentiment. So Japan changed the contents of physical education into ordinary gymnastics and heavy gymnastics in 1911 to soften the anti-Japanese sentiment. Japan used physical education as the tools of mobocracy policy to cultivate the faithful colonial people. 2. The Period of Cultural Politics The Second Decree of Chosun Education in 1922 lengthened the school years and increased the education, and school Physical Education and Chosun Physical Education Association play the important role. In the period, inter-school games were prevailed a lot, and thus school physical education took charge of social education. Since 1920's, school physical education has meant pure-sensed one, in other words, physical education was taught to students according to the curriculum of physical education, and social physical education, in which each school raised its own team and played with other teams, strictly speaking, is beyond the school physical education. At that time most of school physical education games were field and track events, baseball, and basketball. With all the lack of sports equipment, people loved to play seasonal sports. The basic policy of physical education was children and interest - centered education based on the curriculum of school physical education revised in 1927. 3. The Period of Race Obliteration In this period, education was completely organized under the control of army which is called the fascism - a kind of militarism, according to the Third Decree of Chosun education and was directed to growing of military ability rather than education. This period was the dark age in physical education. Japan pronounced reforming guiding principles of school physical education on April 18, 1942 and decided the basic direction of physical education. They also abolished ball games in college and university, and restricted inter-school ball games in secondary schools. So physical games had only the meaning of examination of physical strength for military training. These policies of Japan made girl students in all schools be treated as military men to accomplish the aim of war. The basic policies of physical education in late colonial period had not original aimes of physical education in itself, but focussed on raising the ability of war performance of Japanese militarism. These policies abolished the independence and Olympic spirits which are the guiding principles of physical education world and planted the totalitarian, militarian physical education in Korea.
기백석,이철원 大韓神經精神醫學會 1995 신경정신의학 Vol.34 No.6
The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of a Geriatric Depression Scale Korea version(GDS-K). GDS-K, BDI and SDS were administered to 176 depressed elderly and 84 nondepressed elderly. The GDS-K was highly correlated with the BDI(r=0.70) and the SDS(r=0.63). The median correlation between items of the GDS-K was 0.19. The value of Cronbach's α coefficient was 0.87. The split-half reliability coefficient and test-retest correlation coefficient were 0.78 and 0.90 respectively. The results of testing the validity of the GDS-K examined by the t-test provided evidence for the validity of the scale[t(194.30)=-6. 30, p<0.001]. The results of examining the sensitivity and the specificity of GDS-K were revealed that cut-off score of 10yielded a 71.3% sensitivity rate and a 60.6% specificity rate. Also, cut-off score of 12, a discrimination analysis score, yielded 58.0% sensitivity rate and 75.8% specificity rate. To identify the factor structure of GDS-K, we performed the factor analysis. As a result, we found 3 factors in GDS-K, which were labeled as Anti-vitality factor(factor 1), Depression factor(factor2), and Cognitive function factor(factor 3). The total percents of variance of 3 factors were 43.1%. The suggestions fof GDS-K and the cross cultural considerations were discussed.