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선박에서 발생되는 다양한 형태의 디지털 정보를 그 특성에 따라 적절하게 처리하기 위해서는 용도에 적합한 네트워크의 구성이 필요하다. 이러한 필요성에 부합하는 표준으로 NMEA 2000과 IEC 61162-4가 있다. NMEA 2000은 실시간 데이터의 처리에 적합한 표준이고, IEC 61162-4는 데이터의 통합 관리에 적합한 표준이다. 따라서, NMEA 2000 데이터를 통합하여 관리하기 위해서는 IEC 61162-4 포맷으로 변환하여야 한다. 본 논문에서는 이러한 변환을 위한 참조화일 및 알고리즘을 제시하고 그 구현 결과를 기술한다. Appropriate networks are required for the processing of various kinds of data generated on shipboard. The international standards, NMEA 2000 and IEC 61161-4, meet this requirement. NMEA 2000 is good for the processing of real time data, and IEC 61162-4 is better for the integrated management of such data. Therefore, NMEA 2000 data should be conversed into IEC 61162-4 format for the integrated management. This paper presents files and algorithm for the format conversion, and also describes their implementation.
This paper discusses an information architecture for integrated management of ship information. To manage various devices of lower layer and applications of upper layer, we have introduced data structure based on the NMEA 2000 and IEC 61162-4. An introduced information architecture will be effectively applied to implement e-Navigation.
본 연구의 목적은 사회문화적 발달이론의 관점에서 숲 체험 학습이 아동의 인지적, 정의적 발달에 긍정적인 영향을 미친다고 보고, 상황학습이 가능한 숲 체험 교육의 효과를 논의하는 것이다. 이를 위해 Vygotsky, Lave와 Wenger, Rogoff의 사회문화적 발달이론과 상황학습(situated learning)에 대해 알아보고, 이러한 관점에서 논의되는 비계설정(scaffolding), 근접발달영역(zone of proximal development), 상황인지(situated cognition) 등의 핵심 이슈들을 중심으로 상황학습의 실천가능성을 숲 체험 교육에서 찾아보고자 하였다. 마지막으로 레지오 에밀리아(Reggio Emilia) 교육, 발도르프(Valdorf) 교육, 공동육아 교육의 국내외 관련 교육사례를 통하여 숲 체험이 아동의 생태적 성장에 미치는 교육적 효과에 대해 논의하였다. The purpose of this study is to discuss the effect of forest experience education which can provide situated learning from the perspective of socio - cultural development. In order to achieve the purpose of this study, first, Vygotsky's socio - cultural development theory, Lave and Wenger, and Rogoff's situated learning, situated cognition, communities of learner were reviewed. Next, the possibility of situated learning was examined in the forest experience education based on key issues such as scaffolding, zone of proximal development, and situated cognition. Lastly, the educational effects of forest experience on ecological growth of children were discussed through domestic and international education cases of Reggio Emilia, Valdorf, and Cooperative Child care.
Benzene is a very harmful and toxic compound known as human carcinogen by all routes of exposure. Owing to the risky feature of benzene, several countries such as Japan, UK and EU have established the ambient air quality standard and protect from that risk of it. Korea also has designated it as one of the criteria air pollutants and established the concentration limit (5 ㎍/㎥) in the air and is going to apply the standard from 2010. Benzene is emitted from various sources such as combustion plants, production processes, waste treatment facilities and also automobiles. Mobile source is known as one of the major emission sources of benzene. In this study, we estimated the domestic emissions of benzene from mobile source and compared the results with those of advanced countries. Mobile source was divided into 2 categories, i.e., on-road source and non-road source. The total emissions of benzene from mobile source were estimated as 3,106 tons/yr and 1,612 tons/yr was emitted from on-road source and 1,494 tons/yr was from non-road source. Emission ratio of benzene from on-road source showed that 80.0% was from passenger cars, 10.1% was from taxis, 7.2% was from light-duty vehicles, 2.5% was from heavy-duty vehicles and 0.2% was from buses. In the case of non-road source, the distribution showed that 66.3% was from construction machineries, 14.5% was from locomotives, 11.7% was from ships, 7.1% was from agriculture equipments and 0.5% was from aircrafts. The cold-start emissions were estimated as 942 tons/yr and this value was almost 1.5 times greater than that for hot engine emissions (608 tons/yr). In addition, the fuel-based distribution was 65.9%, 31.1% and 2.8% from gasoline, LPG and diesel vehicles, respectively. The emission ratio from mobile source occupied 65% and 30% of total benzene emissions in USA and UK, respectively. In case of Korea, the emission ratio of benzene from mobile source occupied 29% (15% from on-road source, 14% from non-road source) which showed similar value with UK.
In order to increase the capacity of the superconducting fault current limiter(SFCL), the current and voltage grades of the SFCL must be increased. As a method for the increase of the current and voltage grades of the SFCL, we compared the various characteristics between the flux-lock type SFCL with three superconducting units connected in series and the transformer type SFCL using the transformer with three secondary circuits. One of three superconducting units had not quenched in the flux-lock type SFCL. Therefore, the unbalanced power burden happened because of the voltage difference generated by unbalanced quenching between the superconducting units. In the meantime, the three superconducting units were all quenched in the transformer type SFCL using the transformer, and the voltage difference generated between the superconducting units was decreased. Therefore, the difference of critical characteristics was complemented by distribution of fault current in accordance with the turn's ratio between primary and secondary windings. The unbalanced power burden of the superconducting units was reduced due to flux-share between the superconducting units in the transformer. In conclusion, the capacity increment of the SFCL using a transformer was easier due to equal distribution of voltages generated by simultaneous quench of the superconducting units. We think that the characteristics is improved more because of the decrease of saturation in the iron core if the secondary winding is increased in the SFCL using the transformer.
도시숲에서의 건강증진효과와 이에 대한 방문객들의 인식조사를 통해 숲의 치유기능 및 도시숲에서의 건강 증진과 숲의 다목적기능을 고찰하고자 본 연구를 수행하였다. 베를린을 비롯한 하노버와 프라이부르크 등 독일의 3개 도시에서 도시숲 방문자 153인을 대상으로 한 인식조사를 통해 도시숲의 이용행태와 휴양기능 및 도시숲에 대한 평가 그리고 숲의 치유기능에 대한 독일인들의 인식을 조사했다. 조사결과 응답자의 95%가 숲에서의 건강증진 및 치유효과에 대해 매우 긍정했으며 도시숲의 치유기능에 대해서도 73%의 응답자가 긍정했다. 도시숲의 이용행태는 매우 높은 방문빈도와 짧은 도달시간으로 조사되었다. This research focused on understanding of healing function as a multi-functioning of city forest which based on clarifying the current using form and on evaluating the nature experience of the city forests and city green places. Berlin Hannover and Freiburg in Germany were selected as capital city most green surface city and environment friendly city. All 15 research areas were chosen in three cities and in all 153 visitors were surveyed by an individual oral interview method. The Result is very remarkably and differently. 95% of visitors perceived the healing effect of forest and 73% of visitors approved that there are also a healing effect in city forest. According to location of city forest some different results were founded which of satisfaction of city forest and evaluation of recreational function. However 87% of people are satisfy the recreational function of city forest and most of them lived near by city forest (57%) they needs only 5 to 15 minute of visiting time by bicycle and walk.
隨着中國經濟發展速度的放緩,地方政府在經濟快速發展時期,擧借的天价債務問題也越來越明顯,面對如此?大的地方債務,?樣償還成爲當今社會關注的焦点。根据審計署的報告稱,地方政府在債務的管理上出現了融資不合理,債務還款壓力大等問題,借新債還舊債,是絶大部分地方政府償還債務的方法,但是新債給予政府部門的貸款利息壓力是巨大的,一旦地方政府无力償還,就會出現一系列的經濟社會問題,如何解決這一問題,不僅關系到中國各級政府能否良性運轉,也關乎整個社會的穩步發展,只有了解地方政府債務的實際情況,才能采取措施,防范和控制金融風險. 本文針對經濟發展中地方政府債務存在着巨大問題,幷對債務發展的可控性,反應債務發展的優劣程度和風險進行了分析,最后在此基礎上提出完善地方債務管理的方法和措施。想通過本論文的硏究能從政治經濟學的角度爲中國地方債務的發展提供一定的理論參考和實際借鑒意義,從而更好地促進中國地方債務的發展。 As the economic development,the government debt also increased in China. In particular,the local government debt scale annually increased,affect the new burden to the local government and local finance. This paper survey the present condition of the local government debt in China,and analyze the main causes and the risks. This paper summarized the cause of the local government debt increased. First is the aggravation of the local finance. The central government financial condition more strengthened by finance reform,and the local government financial condition more weakened relatively. Second is the increased burden of the local government by macro economic readjustment. For the purpose of the stimulate of the economy,the central government practice the various policy,and needs the matching fund of the local government. This is the important cause of the local government financial burden. Third is the weakness of the governance system. Because the local government`s supervise function very weak,and cause the moral hazard of the local government. This paper consider the increasing of the local government debts will effect to the financial risk,real estate risk,and delay of the economic readjustment. Finally,this paper suggest the three policy implications. First is the reform of the local financing platform. Second is the control of the land bubble. Third is the strengthening of the debt management.
자연경관보전과 함께 휴양기능에 중점을 둔 독일의 자연휴양림(Naturpark)은 오랜 역사를 가진 성공적인 휴양공간이다. 본 연구에서는 지정배경과 성격, 현황, 휴양이용행태 등을 조사함으로써, 우리와 다른 휴양특성을 밝히고 이를 통해 우리나라의 휴양계획에서 고려하고 개선해야 할 점들을 찾고자 수행하였다. 91개 독일의 자연휴양림과 97개 한국의 자연휴양림을 연구대상으로 하였으며, 연구결과 독일의 자연휴양림은 다양하고 전문화된 휴양활동과 숲 교육프로그램을 제공하고 있음을 알 수 있었다. 이는 휴양이용객들의 구체적이고 다양한 휴양요구를 반증하는 것 으로 이용객들의 많은 자연체험, 휴양체험으로 풀이될 수 있다. 지역사회에 기반을 둔 운영체제와 잘 개설된 다목적 임도는 독일 숲휴양활동의 중요한 근간으로 규명되었으며, 이는 휴양계획 수립시 반드시 고려할 점으로 사료된다. The purpose of the present research is to study the recreational use of German Nature Parks with comparing the Korean Recreational Forests. They were studied because both were not only founded for nature protection, but also for recreational use. The recreational offerings of German Nature Parks and Korean Recreational Forests found to reflect the expectations of their recreation users. Therefore the recreational uses of both countries will be recognized throughout this study. To review recreational offerings, services and infrastructure, a complete search of all German Nature Parks and Korean Recreational Forests was conducted. In summary, there were very good and varied activities that posed few demands on German Nature Parks. Some broad and very good offerings could be identified in the form of environmental education programs as well as many different kinds of services and infrastructure. Korean Recreational Forests were characterized by passive activities having few environmental education programs with only simple tour themes. The reason for this condition was that there were fewer holiday periods in Korea than in Germany and the conurbation life style in Korea, due to geological conditions, has led to less experience with nature.