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Someone said that has many similar structures between the Korean and Japanese languages but I think there are many differences. So I'll prove what is different in both National languages by using compound-nouns, which are ill the National language text books in elementary schools. Hers, the compound-words do not contained derivatives. As follows, I'll divide compound-nouns under 10 forms in accordance with the division of speech between the constructive essential of the vocabulary. The numbers in the following parenthesis are the number of compound-nouns in each form. ◁표 삽입▷ (원문을 참조하세요) As the above, we can see this form-Noun+Noun-of the Korean language, have many examples. That means it has a special character in the Korean language, which can compound each noun easily. And here is a great different point between both National languages; it can not make a compound-noun, attributive adjective and adjectival use of the declinable word of the Japanese language, but it can make a compound-noun easily, attributive adjective and adjective use of the declinable word of the Korean language. On the contrary, we can find very few examples of these following forms gerund+noun, gerund+gerund, and the adverbial use of the declinable word+gerund in the Korean language. Generally, in the Japanese language, gerund is an element of compound-nouns, but in the Korean language, gerund can not be an element of those. That great different point or similarity in the abode, sometime we can see that the stem is an element of compound-nouns, and this form, noun+gerund, hove many examples in both National languages. Now, I divide the relation of meaning between essential of compound-nouns under two general parts; one is the relation of equality, and the other is the relation of subordination. And I divide the second part under seventeen detailed items as follows; 1) subject 2) object(I) 3) object(II) 4) subsidiary 5) means 6) material 7) cause 8) kind 9) time 10) place 11) direction 12) one's position 13) existence 14) condition 15) having the verval meaning of the preceeding and succeeding articles16) loss of the original meaning 17) the others (See table 3, then you can see a distributional table of the items.) In both National languages, noun+noun form is distributed equally in the items which express the relation of meanings, but there are different points in items of "equality", "subject", "hind", and "less of the original meaning" That means there are few compound-nouns in the real Japanese language which is in "the relation of equality" arid these are unusual which is coming to be "subject." We can see that "kind" have many examples in the Korean language, that means there are many examples to have same the element of succeeding articles in compound-nouns of the Korean language. In the Japanese language, you can see that many compound-nouns lost their own meanings. The compound-nouns in Japanese language are not compound freely more than those in the Korean language, and that means compound-nouns in the Japanese language are common used to be idioms. You can find that the form, noun-gerund, shows very interest situation: The Japanese language is seperated among all but the Korean language is about 80% "Object". But the 14.9% of "kind" also are structed same succeeding article which is '~놀이'(=nolli) so if we put these into the "Object", then the Korean language is coming to be 95.1% "Object". This is the point of the differences. In the Japanese language, there are many examples of these items "subsidiary", having the verval meaning of precee ding and succeeding articles, and less of the original meaning. That means those, the succeeding articles of compound-verbs do as like as the subsidiary verb in many cases, are the main character in compound-words of the Japanese language.
자연녹지의 미생물 생태 변화를 살펴보기 위하여 오대산, 남산, 청량산, 마니산 및 창덕궁 후원의 신갈나무림 서어나우림, 소나무림, 리기다 소나무림 및 아까시나무심의 표토와 심토를 채취하여 미생물 밀도, 분포 및 다양성 지수를- 조사하였다. 총균수는 표토에서 서어나무림 1,97×10^(7), 신갈나무림 2.64×10^(7), 소나무림 3.32×10^(7), 아까시나무림 5,37×10^(7), 리기다소나무림 2,60×10^(7) c.f.u,/g soil였다. 사상균의 총균수 는 지역별로 남산 3.54×10^(6), 오대산 0.69×10^(6), 마니산 0,32×10^(6), 청량산 0.29×10^(6), 창덕궁 0.21×10^(6) c.f.u/g soil이었다. 다양성 지수는 지역별로는 오대산(0.4897) > 마니산(0.4638) > 남산(0.3699) > 창덕궁 (0.3577) > 청량산(0,2847) 순서였으며, 서식림별로는 소나무림((),4772) > 서어나무림(0.4517) > 신갈나무림 ((),4316) > 리기다소나무림(0.3366) > 아까시나무럼(0,3232)으로 나타났다. Microbial density, proportion and diversity in surface and sub soil under Queraus mongolica, Carpinus laxiflora, Pinus densiflora, Robinia Pseudoacacia, Pinus rigida of Mt. Nam, Mt. Odea, Mt. Manee, Mt, Chungyand and Chanduckgung were examined. Total microbial density were Carpinus laxiflora 1.97×10^(7) c.f.u./g-soil, Quercus mongolica 2.64×10^(7) Pinus densiflora 3.32×10^(7) Robinia Pseudoacacia 5.37×10^(7) Pinus; rigida 2.60×10^(7) c.f.u./g soil in surface soil. Density of fungi were Mt. Nam 3.54×10^(6), Mt. Odea 0.69×10^(6), Mt. Manee 0.32×10^(6). Mt. Chungyang 0.29×10^(6) Changduckgung 0.21×10^(6) c.f.u./g soil in location. Microbial diversity were Mt. 0dea(0.4897) > Mt. Manee(0.4638) > Mt. Nam(0.3699) > Changduckgung(0.3577) > Mt. Chungyang(0.2847) in location and Pinus densiflora(0.4772) > Carpinus laxifloa(0.4517) > Quercus mpgolica(0.43l6) > Pinus rigida(0.3366) > Robinia Pseudoacacia(0.3232) in forest.
This study attempted to investigated the women appearing in'Isemonokadari' by dividing them into active women and passive women. As mentioned in the background of the times, women in the Heian age, can be seen to have a servile and unstable married life due to the social custom of the plural marriage system and the marriage form of 'Shoseinkon'. In such a social custom, women could avoid resign themselves and accommodate its evils in their life. In such a miserable environment, ambitious women recognized such realities at the higher level and sublimated their grief and agony. Some tome, such pure women's heart gave good impressions on men and motivated them to return to their women. It could be found in this study that understanding men's custom in their own way and deciding not have a servile life for men, not a few women who could not put up with men's indifference and ran away from them was heartfelt. On the other hand, There were women who made reverse use of men's custom and mentality and inveigled men. It allowed the writer to take a sigh of relief. But seeing the literary works of the Heian age Japan(or any country), it seems that we can not always sympathize that women were not placed in a miserable position. There is no ideal in any country in any age, and there may well be many problems. It is thought that it is important to discover and establish one's idemtity and such a social environment. It is thought that it is a task given to hunam beings regardless of sex.
Murasakisikibu, the writer of Murasakisikibu's Nitki was the person who served as court lady serving Syousi, emperor Ichizyo's empress contary to her will. But Murasakisikibu was much agonized because of failure to adapt herself to the luxurious and sociable life. She tool a passive life and paod attention to her relations with fellow court ladies. The reason for it might originate from a deep awareness of the enviornment, difference in social status, age and the like, in which we can take a look at Murasakisikibu's reflective and strict look at any object or thing. This personlity of hers led her to own the spiritual world of agonizing and being distressed all the time. What Murasakisikibu never forgot all the time in her view of life was to feel aware that this world is transient and to abandon this world. But it was to become a Buddhist priest. But she found herself accustomed to the conflict and agony coming from failure to carry it into practice, and further this world(court life) and longing for its life and deplored her contradictory figure. Murasakisikibu's this endless self-introspection and self-criticism causes Murasakisikibu's Nitki to be called self-mocking literature.
SUMMARY This study was intended to investigate the theory of women that four male exhibited in the 'Hahaki' volume, the second volume of "Gengimmonkatari" This theory of women started with the high evaluation of the personality and fascination of women in the middle class in the upper class aristocratic society. It was addressed in such diverse aspects as several types of women, the theory of women likened to accomplishments, the desirable image of woman and wife, narratives of their husbands' personal experiences, and the like. In consequence, it could be seen that its content naturally reflected the climate of the then upper middle-class aristocratic society. It is equal to the 'sentiment leaving latitudes behind'. The ideology of beauty underlies everything which include words, expression callisgrapic style, concentration of Indian ink, voice and so on in composing the 'waka' to name a few. Consequently, it could be seen that greater importance was first of all attached to women's mentality of understanding elegance or refinement as well as their generous and good-natured mantality.