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본 연구는 한강교량의 야간경관조명에 관한 조명연출효과를 분석하기 위해 한강교량 8곳을 대상으로 경관조명 현황을 조사하였다. 선행연구를 통해 교량의 경관조명에 있어서 중요한 조명학적물리량 평가요소로 '휘도대비', '색상', '색온도'를 선정하였다. 디지털 광학 계측기인 Radiant Imaging Prometric 1400에 의해 측정된 휘도 색온도 색도분포 등의 물리량 분석결과, '교량의 구조형식' 및 '조명광원'이 한강교량의 야간경관조명의 물리적 특징에 큰 영향을 미치는 요소로 나타났으며, 특히 '교량의 구조형식'에 따라 강조하는 경관조명의 패턴이 유사하게 나타났다. This study aims to analyze the illumination effects of bridges across the Han River. For the purpose, 8 bridges were selected. Field survey and measurements were performed, and the physical values such as luminance, color temperature and chromaticity were measured by Radiant Imaging Prometric 1400 Color. The results of the study are as follows; (1) Metal halide lamp, sodium lamp and LED(Light Emitting Diode) of various colors, are used in illuminating the bridges and create color contrasts and color changing by color filters. (2) Luminance contrast of the illuminated bridges affects 'modeling' and 'spare sense' of bridges, and it might improve people's preference and impression. (3) Color temperature of the illuminated bridges is influenced by 'color of bridge', 'material of bridge' and, 'color temperature and color of light sources'. (4) 'Structure of bridges' and 'luminaires' influence on the physical feature of the bridges. Especially, illumination of the bridges shows resemblant patterns by 'structure of bridges'.
The political projects of modernity, which the Enlightenment in the 18th century designed, from the beginning were based on the idea of world citizenship and permanent peace. The goals of this idea are the ending of the state of war among the billiard ball-like sovereign states and the creation of world confederation of self-weakened severeign states and the universal constituting of human rights of men as world citizens. This political idea of the Enlightenment is critically synthesized in the political pholosophy of Immanuel Kant. From the viewpoint of Kant's political project, this paper considers and interprets the international constitution today : The Enlightenment project is still in the process of realization. The existence of United Nations, the shaping of the European Union, the codification of the Crimes against Humanity, UN's Universal Declaration of the Human Rights, European Convention on the Human Rights, the weakening of the state sovereignty, the globalisation of the national civil societies etc. are all proofs of progressing, although often suspending realization of the Enlightemment. We are living still in the era of modernization. Besause of such world interpretation, this paper defintively negates the postmodern understanding of the world situation todays. Simutaniously it objects to the traditional (mis)understanding of the sovereign state as modern state and traditional 'state of nature' amomg states and 'balance of power' as modern international sytem. Because these were not elements of the Enlightenmental modernity project, but existing empirical realty, which this modernity project has contrived to break away. This reality war created and given by the premodern absolute sovereign states, which belongs to the end phase of the feudal Middle Ages.
Objectives: Under the fee-for-service system, Korean hospitals have been suffering from the worsening profitability caused by law medical care fees. To overcome the difficulties, they have maximized the quantity of medical services and made relatively large investment in developing new medical services using high-priced medical equipment, medicines and medical supplies which were not covered by medical insurance system rather than reduced running costs. Materials and Methods: This study was made to analyze and forecast the revenue change of the department of Obstetrics and gynecology of an university hospital in Seoul, expecting the implementation of DRG system in 2000. Results: The results were as follows : 1.During the first two days of hospitalization. 41% of total medical service fee was occurred, which was thought that most of the check-ups and operations were made during this period. After two days of hospitalization, the new occurrence of medical service fee tended to reduce. 2.Out of total medical service fee, 67% of admission fee was occurred after 5 days of hospitalization. This was because medical service fees in obstetrics and gynecology department occurred during the first 5 days of hospitalization. 3.Out of fees for operation, treatment, medical supplies and blood transfusion. 71% was occurred during the first two days. 4. In case of fees for examination, 50% was occurred during the first two days. 5.A total of 53% of fees for medication and injection was occurred during the first 5 days. Conclusions: By the implementation of the DRG system, the income is forecast to increase by 800 won to 310,000 won by the disease group of obstetrics and gynecology department. To increase hospital income with the implementation of DRG system, the results of this study suggest that examinations should be done at out-patient departments before the hospitalization of patient, the discharge of patient should be noticed in advance to reduce the period of hospitalization, and admission appointment system should be implemented for the immediate operation and delivery.
Conventional high-dose antipsychotics tend to result in more side effects, negative symptoms and dysphoria, and at the same time lower the cognitive function which is already impaired in most schizophrenics. Florid psychotic symptoms, negative symptoms and cognitive impairment greatly impede psychosocial performance and eventual reintegration into society. The reduction of symptom and the improvement of cognitive funtions and social skills are therefore central to the psychiatric rehabilitation process. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dose-reduction effects of antipsychotics on chronic schizophrenics prescribed conventional high-dose antipsychotics more than 1,500mg equivalent of chlorpromazine. Fifty-one chronic schizophrenics who maintained high-dose antipsychotics for more than three months were randomly assigned to two groups : 20 patients comprised the dose-maintaining group and 31 patients made the dose-reduction group. Over a sixteen weekperiod Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale(PANSS), Extrapyramidal Symptom(EPS), Nurses' Observation Scale for Inpatient Evaluation(NOSIE-30), Continuous Performance Test(CPT), Quality of Life(QOL), and haloperidol/reduced haloperidol blood levels were determined at the base line and after 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16 weeks to evaluate the dose reduction effects of high-dose antipsychotics. The results were as follows : 1) Dose-reduction is highly effective in reducing positive and negative symptoms, and general psychopathology. Effects were most prominent at 8, 12, 16 weeks. Among the dose reduction group, positive symptoms in positive symptom group and negative symptoms in negative symptom group were more reduced. 2 Extrapyramidal symptoms showed no significant difference between two groups. But the EPS was reduced time after time within two groups. 3) Hit rates of Continuous Performance Test, which indicate attentional capacity, increased significantly after dose reduction. 4) Haloperidol and reduced haloperidol blood levels decreased until the 4th week, after which they were constant. 5) Total scores of Nurses' Observation Scale for Inpatient Evaluation were unchanged between the two groups. But among the indices, social interest and personal neatness were improved in the dose-reduction group and retardation was aggrevated in the dose-maintaining group. 6) Total quality of life scores were unchanged between two groups. But in the dose maintaining group, satisfaction scores of attention, autonomy, and interpersonal relationship decreased progressively. These findings suggest that the dose reduction of antipsychotics for chronic schizophrenics on programs of high-dose antipsychotics were effective. Dose reduction should therefore be implemanted to spread the rehabilitation and improve quality of life for chronic schizophrenics.