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Purpose: This study examined the effects of heat therapy combined with aromatherapy on pain, flexibility, sleep, and depression in elderly women with osteoarthritis. Methods: This study was designed as a nonequivalent control group quasi-experimental study based upon data acquired through a pre-post test. The experimental group (n=21) was treated using an aroma-permeated hot compress applied to the knee. The cotton towel was heated in a microwave to 45℃, and 2~3 drops of lavender were applied on it. The towel was wrapped with plastic bag to prevent aroma leakage and retain heat. The treatment was applied the towel for 20 minutes, three times a day for 3 weeks. The control group (n=24) was not given any treatment. Data were collected using a VAS(100㎜) for pain, questionnaire for sleep and depression, and a goniometer for knee flexibility. The data were analyzed with χ2-test and t-test using SPSS/Win18.0. Results: There were significant differences in knee pain (p=.001) and flexibility (p<.001), subjective quality of sleep (p=.020) and depression (p=.003) between the groups. Conclusion: Heat therapy combined with aromatherapy may be an effective nursing intervention and self-care technique to ameliorate pain and depression and to improve flexibility and sleep in elderly suffering from osteoarthritis.
The purpose of this study is to study rhythm techniques of music for expressing characteristics of behaviors and conditions of characters in musical plays such as a musical and film music. In general, various elements including music, which form a musical play, should interact with each other and help narrative without disturbing the flow of play. < West Side Story >, which was premiered as a musical on Broadway in 1957 and produced as a musical film in 1961, was recognized for its harmonized balance of script, music and direction by winning the Academy Awards for ten categories including Best Picture in the same year. The story of this movie is based on < Romeo and Juliet > and the composer, Leonard Bernstein used a variety of musical techniques to express the lines and dance of this movie effectively. This paper studied a correlation between mental states of characters and musical techniques, focusing on the melodic and harmonic techniques and rhythm techniques used in this movie. The study result showed that diverse rhythms including polyrhythm were organically connected to mental states of characters. Based on this result, various musical techniques for expressing emotions in music and the possibility of expanding them were discovered.
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This study constructed curriculum for high school students majoring in cosmetology by applying ‘the project-learning methods’ as the teaching-learning approach to enhance the students’ creativity and problem-solving ability in art makeup courses. Considering the learners’ levels, an art makeup course model that uses a mask as a teaching tool was suggested. First, the definition, types, and characteristics of art makeup and project-learning methods were examined through a literature review. In the next step, Kilpatrick’s Project Method was applied, and courses were planned, using masks to effectively present art makeup classes. In the final chapter, the results of the actual courses were described. The curriculum was planned and implemented in 4 stages: purposing, planning, accomplishing, and evaluating. As a result, the students’ fear of failure was reduced while learning effects were enhanced. In addition, unique and creative results were obtained.
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공주 애니메이션 영화는 동시대의 사회적 관습과 여성상과 일치하는 경향을보였다. 특히 가부장적 사회에서 탈피하여 점차 여성 중심의 사회로 변화함에따라 영화 제작은 기존의 여성상의 이미지에서 벗어나 여성 개인의 삶에 초점이맞춰진 캐릭터로 제작되기 시작했다. 영화에 사회적, 문화적 의미들을 간접적으로 제시하기 위해서 치밀한 계획으로 연관성 있게 제작되었다. 영화 음악 역시음악으로서 단독적으로 존재하지 않고 이미지와 상응하여 제작된다. 완성된 영화작품을 분석하는데 있어서도 이미지와 음악을 연관성을 갖고 분석해야 할 필요성이 있다. 따라서 1930년부터 2020년까지 시대별 공주 캐릭터의 이미지 특징과음악의 특징을 분석하고 이미지와 음악의 특징들의 상관관계를 도출하는 것이목적이다. 분석 결과 이미지와 음악의 변화의 상관관계에서 크게 연관된 것은 머리 스타일과 목소리 발성과 톤이 연관 있었음을 발견하였다. 도출된 결과의요소들로 여성 캐릭터의 이미지와 음악을 제작할 때 적용할 수 있을 것이다. Princess animated films are often consistent with contemporary social customs and female images. In particular, as the patriarchal society gradually changed to a female-centered society, princess films have moved away from the traditional image of women and began to produce films that focus on the personal lives of female characters. The film was produced with an elaborate plan, to indirectly present social and cultural meanings to it. Film music does not exist alone as music, but is produced corresponding to images. It is also necessary to analyze images and music with correlation when analyzing a complete film work. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to analyze the characteristics of princess images and characteristics of the music by period from 1930 to 2020 and to draw a conclusion by deriving the correlation between images and music characteristics. The analysis found that the correlation between image and music changes was largely related to hair style and voice vocalization and tone. The elements of the derived results can be applied to the production of images and music of female characters.
영화음악은 영화 속 등장인물의 심리상태를 나타내거나 암시하는 역할을 한다. 따라서 본 연구는 스티븐 달드리(Stephen Daldry)감독의 영화 ?디 아워스?에 나오는 등장인물의 심리변화에 따라 음악이 변화하는 과정을 제시한다. 이것에 입각하여 심리상태에 따른 음악적 요소는 각각의 인물에게 나타나는 우울증상이 음악적 요소의 상징적 방법으로 구성 가능하다는 것을 입증한다. Film music expresses the inner mentality of characters and performs a suggestive role of narrative. This study suggests the process of musical change according to the psychological change of the characters in the movie ?The Hours? by Stephen Daldry. These musical elements depending on the mental states prove that the minute differences of each depression symptom could be expressed using symbolic methods of musical elements.