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This study was aimed at finding the effects of consumer experience related to experience providers of apparel companies on brand loyalty. The participants of this study included experienced SPA fashion brand shopping female consumers who are between the ages of 20 to 50 residing in Seoul. A total of 285 questionnaires were used for the survey of this study. Methods of data analysis included. The result of this study revealed the 9 factors of experience providers in apparel companies: co-branding, advertising, visual/verbal identity & signage, design & quality, physical environment, people, emotional environment, websites, and sales promotion. The 5 factors of consumer experiences were behavioral experience, relational experience, affective experience, intellectual experience, and sensory experience. The experience providers of the apparel company had a significant impact on consumer experience of SPA, such as behavioral experience, sensory experience, affective experience, intellectual experience and relational experience. Of all, consumer experience of SPA as well as behavioral, sensory and affective experiences had a positive impact on brand loyalty. In conclusion, experience providers, at the disposal of the apparel company, are tactical implementation components for creating consumer experience. Therefore, the marketing strategy of apparel companies should be focused on eliciting affirmative responses from consumers.
황정인 ( Jeong In Hwang ),전상오 ( Sang Oh Jeon ),이상협 ( Sang Hyeob Lee ),강민수 ( Min Su Kang ),정혜현 ( Hye Hyun Jung ),곽세연 ( Se Yeon Kwak ),이성은 ( Sung Eun Lee ),김장억 ( Jang Eok Kim ) 한국환경농학회 2015 한국환경농학회 학술대회집 Vol.2015 No.-
Pesticides persisted in soil environment may be subjected to the unexpected uptake by plant root. As these absorbed pesticides can result eventually in safety problems to agricultural products, it is required to predict the plant uptake extent of soil-persisting pesticides inadvance. One of the previous prediction methods is to assess the uptake extent using a mathematical model. When developing the plant uptake model of soil-persisting pesticides, adsorption and dissipation interactions between pesticides and soil may be parameters that play major roles in determining the uptake extent into plant. With considerations of parameters relative to these interactions, we developed a chemical-specific residue (CSR) model, Ce(t)=C0·(1/2)t/T/Kd, in order to predict the residual patterns of endosulfan isomers ( - and -) in soils containing different organic matter contents. The adsorption (Kd) and dissipation (T) parameters were obtained from indoor experiments, and the applicability of CSR model was assessed by comparing between experimental measurements and modeled estimates. The Kd and T values were significantly varied depending on organic matter contents in the tested soils. For the low organic matter-containing soil, the Kd and T values of the -isomer were 50.2 mL g-1 and 16 d, respectively; the values of the -isomer were 54.4 mL g-1 and 231 d, respectively. On the other hand, for the high organic matter-containing soil, the Kd values were 377.4 mL g-1 for the -isomer and 407.4 mL g-1 for the -isomer, and the T values for the - and -isomers were 139 and 347 d, respectively. Using these parameter values, the modeled values were in good agreement with the measured values with standard errors of less than 23.5%. Therefore, the developed CSR model may be used as a tool for predicting the residual amount of endosulfan in soil.
황정인 ( Jeong-in Hwang ),곽세연 ( Se-yeon Kwak ),이상협 ( Sang-hyeob Lee ),강민수 ( Min-su Kang ),류준상 ( Jun-sang Ryu ),강자군 ( Ja-gun Kang ),정혜현 ( Hye-hyeon Jung ),홍성현 ( Sung-hyeon Hong ),김장억 ( Jang-eok Kim ) 한국환경농학회 2016 한국환경농학회지 Vol.35 No.4
BACKGROUND: Uptake patterns of α-, β-isomers and sulfate metabolite of endosulfan (ED) by radishes grown in treated soils with ED concentrations of 2 and 10 mg/kg were investigated to establish soil management guidelines for ensuring the safety of radishes from ED residues. METHODS AND RESULTS: All samples of soils and radish plants separated into shoot and root parts were analyzed for ED residues using a gas-chromatography mass spectrophotometer, and the results were used to calculate the bioconcentration factor (BCF), indicating the ratio of ED concentrations between radishes and soils. During the experimental period, uptake and distribution rates of ED-sulfate in radishes were the highest, followed by α- and β-ED. The BCF values to initial ED concentrations in soils were greater for root parts (0.0077 to 0.2345) than for shoot parts (0.0002 to 0.0429) and used to obtain regression equations by time. Long-term BCFs estimated by the obtained equations (R<sup>2</sup> of 0.86 to 1.00) were evaluated with the maximum residue limit (0.1 mg/kg) of ED for radishes, in order to suggest safe management guidelines of ED for radish-cultivating soils. CONCLUSION: Suggested guidelines showed the significant dependency on duration for radish cultivation and exposed concentration of ED in soil.
황정인 ( Jeong In Hwang ),전영환 ( Young Hwan Jeon ),김효영 ( Hyo Young Kim ),김지환 ( Ji Hwan Kim ),이윤정 ( Yoon Jeong Lee ),박주영 ( Ju Young Park ),김도훈 ( Do Hoon Kim ),김장억 ( Jang Eok Kim ) 한국환경농학회 2011 한국환경농학회지 Vol.30 No.1
BACKGROUND: Because dried herbal medicines have many active ingredients, it is not easy to determine the residue amount after extraction, partition and clean up of pesticides from them. Especially, liquid-liquid partition method is consuming many times and solvents. Macroporous diatomaceous earth(MDE) column was used to replace the separatory funnel for liquid-liquid extraction with dichloromethane to analyze the endosulfan and its metabolite. METHODS AND RESULTS: The residue analysis method using MDE column instead of liquid-liquid partition for determining insecticide endosulfan and its metabolite in 4 dried herbal medicines was developed by GC/MS. As a result, the recovery rates of the pesticides in 4 herbal medicines were ranged from 80.3 to 93.5% for α-endosulfan, from 81.0 to 100.3% for β-endosulfan and from 80.6 to 95.6% for endosulfan sulfate, respectively. The coefficients of variation for triplicate were ranged from 1.1 to 3.4%. CONCLUSION: The improved methods are more ecofriendly, safer, faster and less laborious than conventional method by KFDA.
황정인(Jeong-In Hwang),전영환(Young-Hwan Jeon),김효영(Hyo-Young Kim),김지환(Ji-Hwan Kim),안지운(Ji-Woon Ahn),석다롱(Da-Rong Seok),이윤정(Yoon-Jeong Lee),박주영(Ju-Young Park),김도훈(Do-Hoon Kim),김장억(Jang-Eok Kim) 한국농약과학회 2011 농약과학회지 Vol.15 No.2
식품의약품안전청에서 고시한 한약재 중 잔류농약 분석법에 따라 천궁 중 bifenthrin, chlorfenapyr 및 chlorpyrifos 와 황기 중 acetamiprid, azoxystrobin을 분석한 결과 크로마토그램 상에 많은 간섭물질이 나타나고 회수율이 낮은 문제점이 나타났다. 이를 개선하기 위한 방법으로 액-액 분배 과정 대신 macroporous diatomaceous earth(MDE) 컬럼을 적용하고 정제 시 용출용매 조건을 최적화함으로써 회수율은 황기에서 acetamiprid 89.6~94.1 %, azoxystrobin 86.8~94.4%, 천궁에서 bifenthrin 83.6~88.4%, chlorfenapyr 77.4~83.8%, chlorpyrifos 82.6~84.3%, 변이계수(CV)는 전체시료에서 0.5~1.7%로 나타나 잔류농약 분석기준인 70~120%의 회수율과 10% 이내의 변이계수를 만족하였다. 액-액 분배 과정을 대신하여 MDE 컬럼을 적용함으로써 발암가능 물질로 분류된 methylene chloride 사용을 배제할 수 있어 분석자의 안전성을 증대 시킬 수 있었다. 또한 발생하는 폐액의 감소와 전처리 시 노동력 및 시간의 절감, 분석자간의 재현성 양호 등의 이점도 얻을 수 있었다. The official analytical method of residue pesticides in herbal medicines by KFDA cannot be applied to all of the pesticides and herbal medicines because of various active materials in herbal medicines and various physicochemical properties of pesticides. Moreover, liquid-liquid partition uses harmful solvents such as methylene chloride and is consuming a lot of time and effort. In order to improve the problems, we have studied for the availability of the analytical method applying the macroporous diatomaceous earth (MDE) column instead of liquid-liquid partition to simultaneously analyze five pesticides in two dried herbal medicines The results showed that the recovery rates of acetamiprid and azoxystrobin in Astragalus root by GC/ECD ranged from 89.6 to 94.1%, from 86.8 to 94.4%, respectively, and those of bifenthrin, chlorfenapyr, chlorpyrifos in Cnidii Rhizoma by GC/MS ranged from 83.6 to 88.4%, from 77.4 to 83.8%, from 82.6 to 84.3%, respectively. Also, the coefficients of variation (CV) for triplication ranged from 0.5 to 1.7%. The results satisfied the criteria of residue pesticide analysis, setting 70~120% for the recovery rate and below 10% for the coefficient of variation. The improved methods are safer to residue pesticide analysts, faster and less laborious than the KFDA official method.
인삼 중 농약 잔류량 조사 결과 부적합율과 검출 빈도가 높은 boscalid 농약에 대하여 부적합 원인을 구명하기 위해 안전사용기준에 따라 농약을 살포하되, 그 살포방법을 달리하여 잔류량을 분석하였다. 인삼은 4년근과 6년근을 사용하였으며 분석 시 인삼의 뇌두와 몸통을 나누어 분석하였다. 그 결과 boscalid의 잔류량은 몸통부분보다 뇌두부분에서 더 많은 양이 검출되었으며, 랩 처리구의 잔류 결과로부터 boscalid의 흡수이행 경로를 추정할 수 있었다. 또한 인삼의 전체부위에 대한 최대 잔류량은 4년근 인삼의 관행 처리구에서 0.76 nig/kg, 토양 처리구에서 0.69 mg/kg, 랩 처리구에서 0.62 mg/kg으로 나타났으며,6년근 인삼에서의 전체부위에 대한 최대 잔류량은 관행 처리구에서 0.74 mg/kg, 토양 처리구에서 0.40 mg/kg, 랩 처리구에서 0.28 mg/kg으로 나타나 4년근 인삼에서 6년근 인삼보다 더 많은 잔류량을 나타내었다. 뿐만 아니라,4년근과 6년근 인삼 모두 식품의약품안전청에서 제시한 잔류허용기준인 0.3mg/kg을 초과하였다. This study was conducted to identify the residue patterns of fungicide boscalid in ginseng cultivated for 4 or 6 years treated by various spraying methods. The pesticide was sprayed separately on ginseng according to safe use guideline, and the field was divided into three groups and they were traditional, soil and vinyl mulching applications. The maximum residue amounts of boscalid were 0.76 mg/kg in traditional application group, 0.69 mg/kg in soil application group, 0.62 mg/kg in vinyl mulching application group in the whole part of 4 years old ginseng, respectively. These residue levels in ginseng exceeded the maximum residue limit established by Korea Food & Drug Administration, which is 0.3 mg/kg.
Distribution of organochlorine insecticide, endosulfan isomers (α- and β-) and their metabolite (-sulfate) absorbed from soil into cucumber plug seedling was investigated in relation with passed time, treated amount, and plant growth. Cucumber plants were sampled with corresponding soils at 15 and 30 days after transplanting, and their weight and length were measured in each part such as root, stem, leaf, and fruit. The length and weight of plant parts showed increasing tendencies during the experimental period. The residual amounts of endosulfan isomers in soil were continuously declined, while endosulfan-sulfate was slightly produced. The amounts of endosulfan isomers absorbed into plants were increased by 10 days; however, after the time, the amounts were insignificantly decreased. The absorbed amounts of endosulfan isomers from soil were ranged from 0.4 % to 1.1 %, and 3.4∼4.6 % of the produced metabolite were subjected to plant uptake. Distribution of endosulfan (α-, β-, and -sulfate) was the greatest in root throughout the experimental period, whereas that in stem, leaf, and fruit was varied with the passed time. The residual amount of β-endosulfan in a cucumber plant was dominantly great, followed by α-endosulfan and endosulfan-sulfate. Consequently, it is most likely that endosulfan isomers and their metabolite could be absorbed by cucumber root and be transferred to subsequent parts such as stem, leaf, and fruit.
사과 중 살응애제 etoxazole 및 flufenoxuron의 출하 전 잔류허용기준(PHRL)을 설정하기 위해 각 농약의 생물학적 반감기와 감소상수가 산출되었다. 안전사용기준의 희석배수에 따라 조제된 각 농약을 사과에 대하여 각각 1회 및 3회 살포한 후 사과 중 일자별 잔류량을 조사하였으며, 잔류시험 결과들은 first order kinetics의 지수감소식에 대입되었다. 시험기간 중 두 농약의 잔류량은 모두 잔류허용기준(MRL) 미만으로 나타났으며, 사과 중 생물학적 반감기를 조사한 결과 etoxazole의 경우 1회 처리구에서 8.8일, 3회 처리구에서 21.7일로 나타났다. 반면에 flufenoxuron은 1회 처리구에서 21.7일, 3회 처리구에서 23.1일로 나타나 etoxazole 보다 반감기가 더 길었다. 사과중 각 농약의 감소상수는 etoxazole은 0.0788, flufenoxuron은 0.0319이었으며, 산출된 감소상수들을 대입하여 PHRL을 계산하였다. 그 결과, 안전사용기준을 준수한 농약살포 시 출하 일주일 전 농약의 잔류량이 etoxazole은 0.87 mg/kg, flufenoxuron은 0.88 mg/kg 이하이면 출하 시 잔류량이 MRL 이하일 것으로 예측되었다. Dissipation constants and half-lives of acaricides etoxazole and flufenoxuron in apples were calculated to establish their pre-harvest residue limits (PHRLs). The acaricides were sprayed on apples with single and triple doses based on safe use guidelines, and their residual patterns in the apple were interpreted using first order kinetics equation. The residual amounts of acaricides during the experimental period were below their maximum residue limits (MRL) for apple. The dissipation constants of acaricides in the apples were calculated at 0.0788 for etoxazole and 0.0319 for flufenoxuron corresponding to their biological halflives; 8.8~21.7 days for etoxazole and 21.7~23.1 days for flufenoxuron. The PHRLs of acaricides in the apple showed the residual amounts of etoxazole and flufenoxuron at the harvesting date would be below their MRLs if their residual amounts were less than 0.87 and 0.88 mg/kg, respectively, at 7 days prior to harvesting the apples.
토양 중 잔류하는 chlorpyrifos의 오이 흡수·이행과 잔류분포를 조사하기 위하여 생장상 내 실내시험과 시설재배 포장에서의 실외시험을 실시하였다. 실내 및 실외시험 기간에 토양 중 chlorpyrifos의 분해 반감기는 각각 25.8~73.0일과 32.4~42.3일로 비슷하였다. 실내시험 오이 중 chlorpyrifos의 잔류량은 정식 후 15일까지 증가하다가 그 이후로 감소하는 양상을 나타내었으며 오이 뿌리로부터 흡수된 농약의 양은 초기 처리된 절대량의 1.0~1.3% 수준이었다. 흡수된 농약의 대부분은 뿌리에서 가장 많았으며 그 다음 줄기와 잎 순이었다. 반면에 실외시험 중 수확된 오이열매에서 chlorpyrifos의 잔류량은 LOQ (0.02 mg/kg) 미만으로 안전한 수준이었으며 오이 부위별 시료 분석결과, 실내시험에서의 결과와 마찬가지로 뿌리에서 대부분의 잔류량이 검출되었다. 실외시험에서 오이 한 개체에 흡수된 chlorpyrifos는 초기 토양에 살포된 양의 0.03~0.04%로 실내시험에서의 흡수율에 비해 30배 낮은 수준이었다. 따라서 실제 토양환경 중 chlorpyrifos의 잔류수준은 본 시험에서 시험된 고농도(40 mg/kg) 처리구보다 낮은 수준이므로 안전한 농산물의 생산이 가능하다고 할 수 있다. The transfer pattern of chlorpyrifos present in soil to cucumber plants were assessed and reported with plant growth, concentration dependency, and duration. Cucumber seedlings cultivated in a growth chamber for 30 days and a greenhouse for 120 days. Weight and length of cucumbers cultivated in the chamber increased with the increasing time, while the uptake of chlorpyrifos by cucumber increased a period from 0 to 15 days and decreased after 15 days. Uptake rates of chlorpyrifos into a cucumber plant were 1.0~1.3% to initial amounts treated with 20 and 40 mg/kg to soil. Most chlorpyrifos residues were detected in root, followed by stem and leaf. Results of the greenhouse test showed that chlorpyrifos amounts in cucumber fruits were present less than LOQ (0.02 mg/kg), and chlorpyrifos was mainly found in the root of the cucumber plant. Chlorpyrifos absorbed in a cucumber under greenhouse condition was smaller than that in chamber condition as 0.03~0.04%. Degradation patterns of chlorpyrifos in soils were similar during indoor and outdoor tests with half-lives of 25.8~73.0 days. These results may be useful for establishing the management strategy of residual pesticides in soil environment.
불가벌적 사후행위는 구성요건을 충족하는 행위의 가벌성을 부정하는 것이므로 그 근거와 요건이 명확해야 한다. 종래 학설은 죄수론을 추상화ㆍ위계화 하는 데 치중한 나머지 정작 불가벌적 사후행위의 판별 기준에 대해서는 상대적으로 소홀하였던 측면이 있다. 이 글에서는 불가벌적 사후행위가 어느 범주에 속하는 지에 대한 기존의 논의에서 비켜서서, 죄수판단의 기준 내지 원칙에 천착하여 불가벌적 사후행위를 판별하는 실천적인 방법을 제시하고자 하였다. 우선 형법 제37조와 제40조에서 죄수판단의 기준에 관한 실마리를 발견하였다. 그것은 ‘행위의 數’와 ‘罪의 數’인데, 여기서 ‘행위’는 ‘사회적ㆍ형법적 행위’로, ‘죄’는 구성요건 충족으로 각각 파악하였다. 이것을 기준으로 하여 一罪가 되는 유형들을 3개의 群으로 나누어 보았다. 단일 행위로 1회 구성요건을 충족한 《제1군》, 단일 행위로 複數의 구성요건을 충족한 《제2군》, 그리고 複數의 행위로 複數의 구성요건을 충족한 《제4군》등이 그것이다. 이중 《제1군》은 행위와 구성요건충족의 단일성만으로, 또 《제2군》 중 일부 유형들은 충족된 구성 요건들의 추상적ㆍ논리적인 해석만으로 각각 비교적 간명하게 一罪判別이 가능함을 밝혔다. 그러나 나머지 유형들은 해당 유형의 표지를 추출하여 개별적으로 판별기준을 설정해야 하는 것으로 확인되었다. 이에 그 대표적인 유형인 불가벌적 사후행위의 표지를 추출한 끝에, 사후행위가 ‘범죄’이고 사후행위에 의해 침해되는 법익이 선행행위의 침해법익을 초과하지 않아야 한다는 불가벌적 사후행위의 판별기준을 도출할 수 있었다. 이어서 이 판별기준을 절도죄의 사후행위에 적용해 보았다. 절도죄에 의해 침해되는 법익은 절취품에 대한 소유자의 사용ㆍ수익ㆍ처분권이라는 점에서 출발하여, 절도범인이 절취품을 사용ㆍ수익ㆍ처분하는 각각의 양태를 그 절취품의 종류에 따라 가벌성을 추적한 결과 절취품의 ‘사실적 처분행위’만이 불가벌적 사후행위에 해당한다는 결론에 도달하였다. 'The unpunishable act after crime' is a legal term referring to a criminal act which is unpunishable because it relates to a preceding crime. In other words, if the act has been done separately, it should be punished. Thus, it would be very important to verify the legal basises and qualifications of the unpunishable act after crime. However, until now, researchers have solely focused on abstracting and grading the theories of counting crimes, and disregarded the basic matter. This paper introduces several practical standards to differentiate 'the unpunishable act after crime'. Stepping aside from a debate where a crime act belongs which most research had been done, it is written for the purpose to suggest the standards of counting crimes. Articles 37 and 40 of the criminal code refer to two standards of counting crimes. One is "the number of action" which regards the action as a 'social and penal' action; the other one is "the number of violating the criminal law". With this two standards, we tried to classify the single crime into three groups. Single crimes which are combinations of 'single action' and 'single violation' belong to the first group, while combinations of 'single action' and 'multiple violations' fall under the second group. And combinations of 'multiple actions' and 'multiple violations' are regarded as the fourth group. Among them, the first group could easily be judged by the unicity of action and violation. And we realized that some of the single crimes can belong to the second group by abstract and logical interpretation of the articles of criminal law which can be applicable to each crime. Relatively, it also is not so difficult. By contrast, It is verified that for the other single crimes (the fourth group including some of the second group), we should establish individual standards by extracting the distinct features of each type. 'The unpunishable act after crime' is a typical type of the fourth group and its distinct features are identified as followings; After crime is an another crime distinct from other crimes. And deprived 'benefit and protection of the law' by the after crime act should not excess that of the preceding crime. Finally, as a result of application of these two features upon the act been done after theft, we reach a conclusion that only the physical disposals of stolen goods should be classified as unpunishable acts after larceny.