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      • KCI등재

        토양중 유기물함량 차이에 따른 고구마뿌리혹선충(Meloidigyne incognita)에 대한 Carbofuran과 Ethoprophos의 효력변동, 수직이동성 및 잔효성조사

        송철,황인택,장경수,조광연,Song, Cheol,Hwang, In-Taek,Jang, Kyoung-Soo,Cho, Kwang-Yun 한국응용곤충학회 1999 한국응용곤충학회지 Vol.38 No.1

        토양중 유기물 함량 차이에 따른 토양내에서 carbofuran과 ethoprophos의 약효 변화, 수직 이동성 및 잔효성에 미치는 영향을 조사하기 위하여 고구마뿌리혹선충 (Meloidogyne incognita)을 공시하여 실험하였다. 두 약제 모구 토양중 유기물 함량이 많을수록 약효는 감소였다. 약제의 수직이동성은 토양 표면에서 0~2cm층에서는 유기물의 함량에 관계없이 두 약제 모두 80%이상의 높은 방제가를 보였으나, 2~4cm층에서는 유기물의 함량에 관계없이 두 약제 모두 80%이상의 높은 방제가를 보였으나, 2~4cm 층에서는 두 약제의 방제가가 다르게 나타났다. Carbofuran의 경우 유기물 함량에 따라 10~30%의 방제가를 나타냈으나, ethoprophos는 0.4% 유기물 토양에서만 약 30%의 방제가를 나타냈으며, 나머지 유기물 토양에서는 효과가 거의 없었다. 또한 4cm 이하의 토양에서는 carbofuran은 대부분의 토야에서 5~20%의 내외의 약효를 나타냈으나, ethoprophos은 거의 나타내지 않았다. 따라서 , 두 약제 중에서 토양중 이동성은 carbofuran이 더 큰 것으로 나타났다. 토양중 유기물 함량은 두 약제의 잔효지속기간에 큰 영향을 주었으며, 유기물 함량이 증가함에 따라 약효지속기간이 감소하였다. 약효의 반감기는 carbofuran의 경우 유기물 함량이 0.4%인 토양에서는 2~3주로 나타났으나, 0.8%, 1.6% 토양에서는 1주 정도였다. 한편, ethoprophos의 경우 0.4%, 0.8%의 토양에서는 3~4주, 1.6%인 토양에서는 1~2주로 나타났다. 그러나 두 약제 모두 3.2%의 유기물함량 토양에서 약제의 효과가 거의 나타나지 않았다. Effects of organic matter content in soil on activity. vertical migration. and persistence of two nernaticides. carbofuran and ethoprophos. to root-knot nematode, Mrloitlog!~iei ~lcognita.w ere investigated. As the organic matter content increased. activity of the nernaticides tended to be reduced. Both nematicides exhibited control values of more than 80'k' to M. iix.o,yilit~iln 0-2 cm depth soil layer from the surface. regi~rdless of organic matter content in soil. In 2-4 cm depth soil layer. however. the control value of the neniaticides varied with the organic niatter content in soil. The control value of carbofuran in the soil layer was ranged from I0 to 30'2,. depending on the soil organic niatter content. In contrast. ethoprophos had no control value against M. i/ic.o,ytlitcr in the \oil layer, except that the nematicide had a control value of 30% when the organic matter content was 0.4%. Furthermore. ethoprophos had no effect on controlling M. i/ic.o,gtiitrr in soil layer of below 4cm. whereas control values of carbofuran were approximately from 5 to 20% in all test soils having different organic matter contents. These results indicate that carbofuran has more vertical migration effect than ethoprophos. Persistence of the two neniaticides was also decreased with increasing soil organic matter content. Half life of carbofuran was 2-3 weeks in soil containing 0.4% organic matter, whereas it was found to be I week in soils containning 0.8 ant1 1.6% of organic matter. On the other hand. activity of ethoprophos was reduced to half in 3-3 weeks and in 2-3 weeks in soil containing 0.4 and 0.8%, and 1.6%) of organic matter, respectively. However, no activity of the both nernaticides was found in soil containing 3.2% of organic matter.

      • Paraquat의 세포독성과 흰쥐의 폐에서 3-Methylcholanthrene의 독성경감효과

        임요섭(Yo-Sup Rim),김덕수(Doc-Soo Kim),한두석(Du-Seok Han),황인택(In-Taek Hwang) 한국농약과학회 2002 농약과학회지 Vol.6 No.2

        Paraquat의 세포독성을 알아보기 위하여 NIH 3T3 섬유모세포에 적용한 후 MIT와 NR 분석법을 이용하여 세포독성을 측정하고, paraquat의 세포독성에 대한 3-MC의 독성경감효과를 알아보기 위하여 Spraque Dawley계 수컷 랫드에 paraquat 단독 및 paraquat와 3-MC 병용투여 후 랫드의 폐를 경시적으로 채취하여 관찰하였다. Paraquat의 NIH 3T3 섬유모세포에 대한 MIT??은 1668.97 μM, NR??은 1030.25 μM로 산출되어 Borenfreund와 Puemer(1984)의 독성판정기준에 의하면 저독성 물질이었다. Paraquat 단독 투여군은 H&E 염색에서 3시간째부터 폐 모세혈관 내에 적혈구 수가 증가하기 시작하여 24시간째에는 충혈상태에 이르렀으며, 폐포사이 중격에서는 큰폐포상피수가 증가하였다. 또한 폐 조직을 둘러싸고 있는 결합조직 내에는 임파구, 대식세포 및 다형핵 백혈구 등이 다수 관찰되었고, 48시간째부터 폐포사이 중격과 폐포 내에 폐포큰포식세포가 증가하기 시작하여 96시간째에는 다수의 폐포큰포식세포가 관찰되었다. Verhoeff의 iron hematoxylin 염색에서도 paraquat 단독 투여 후 24시간째에 조직변화가 가장 심하였고, 교원섬유량의 급격한 증가, 폐포의 넓이와 폐포 구멍(alveolar pore) 간격의 확장 등이 관찰되었다. 한편, paraquat와 3-MC 병용투여군은 paraquat 단독 투여 군에 비하여 조직변화가 약하게 관찰되었는데, 병용투여 후 3시간 째에는 단독투여 3시간째의 소견과 유사하였으나 점차 회복되어 폐 모세혈관 내에 적혈구 수가 증가하여 24시간째에는 대조군의 구조와 거의 유사하였다. 또한 폐 조직을 둘러싸고 있는 결합조직과 임파소절에서도 paraquat 단독 투여 군에서 보였던 변화가 거의 관찰되지 않았다. Verhoeff의 iron hematoxylin 염색에서도 병용투여 후 24시간째에는 교원섬유량이 단독 투여 군에 비하여 크게 감소하였고 폐포와 폐포 구멍의 넓이도 대조군과 유사하였다. This study was carried out to investigate cytotoxicity of paraquat on NIH 3T3 fibroblasts, toxicity of paraquat and compensatory effects of 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) on the rat lung. In order to conduct MTT [3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl) -2,5-diphenyl -2H-tetrazolium-bromide] and NR (Neutral red) assay, the 5.0×10⁴ cell/㎖ of NIH 3T3 fibroblast in each well of 24 multi-dish were cultured. After 24 hours, the cells were treated with solution of paraquat (1, 25, 50 and 100 μM respectively). After the NIH 3T3 fibroblast of all groups were cultured in same condition for 48 hours. MIT and NR assay were performed to evaluate the cytotoxicity of cell organelles. MIT?? and NR?? of paraquat were 1668.97 μM and 1030.85 μM, respectively. These IC?? of Paraquat were decided as a low cytotoxicity by Borenfreund and Puemer (1984). In order to observe the toxicity and compensatory effects of paraquat on the rat lung, Spraque Dawley male rats were used as experimental animals and were divided into paraquat only treated group and simultaneous application group of paraquat and 3-MC, at 30 min and 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 96 hrs interval after each treatment. The animals were sacrificed by decapitation and their or the lungs were immediately removed, immersed in fixatives, and were processed with routine method for light microscopic study. Paraffin sections were stained with H&E and iron hematoxylin of Verhoeff. Under the light microscopy, erythrocytes were full in alveolar capillaries at 3 hrs and congested at 24 hrs after paraquat administration. The great alveolar cells (Type Ⅱ cell) were increased and mitosis of great alveolar were observed in interalveolar septa. Many lymphocytes, macrophages and polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells were observed in connective tissue surrounding lung tissue and germinal center in lymph follicles of terminal bronchiole. Alveolar macrophages were increased in interalveolar septa and alveoli at 48 hrs. And observed many alveolar macrophages at 96 hrs. In iron hematoxylin stain of Verhoeff, Collagen fiber were increased in respiratory bronchiole, interalveolar septa and alveoli and breath of alveoli, and alveolar pore were broaden. But, in paraquat plus 3-MC treated group, morphological changes were mild in lung tissue. These results indicate that 3-MC has a compensatory effects against toxicity of paraquat by conjugation with oxygen.

      • KCI등재

        잡초 및 농림부산물을 이용한 Biorefinery 기술개발

        황인택(In Taek Hwang),황진수(Jin Soo Hwang),임희경(Hee Kyung Lim),박노중(No-Joong Park) 韓國雜草學會 2010 Weed&Turfgrass Science Vol.30 No.4

        이제 바야흐로 21세기 탈석유 시대에 대비하기 위해서는 범국가적 차원의 새로운 산업전략이 필요하게 되었다. "바이오리파이너리"란 원유로부터 각종 화학제품을 생산하는 기존의 기술과 달리 석유대신 나무나 볏짚 등과 같은 식물을 원료로 해서 바이오화학제품이나 바이오연료 등을 생산하는 기술을 총칭한다. 바이오리파이너리를 통한 바이오매스 기반의 화학산업은 석유로부터 생성되는 많은 역기능적인 문제점들을 해결할 수 있다. 바이오리파이너리 기술을 이용해서 생산할 수 있는 제품을 특성별로 분류하면, 바이오 연료, 대체원료, 특수 기능물질, 바이오폴리머 등이 있으며, 이러한 공정기술 개발이 미래지속 성장 화학기술의 중심기술이 될 것이다. 바이오 연료에는 에탄올, 디젤, 수소 등이 있고, 대체원료(chemical feedstock)로서는 글리세롤, 젖산, 아세톤, 부탄올, 프로피온산, 부틸산, 부탄디올, 프로판디올, 구연산, 숙신산, 각종 아미노산 등이 해당된다. 특수기능물질 중에는 항생제, 다당류, 미생물농약, 생리활성물질 등과 각종 생촉매 전환반응 생산제품, 바이오 식품소재 등이 있고, 바이오 폴리머는 미생물 대사산물 유기산을 원료로 하는 고분자와 미생물이 직접 생산하는 바이오 폴리머 등이 있다. 이러한 공정기술 개발이 미래 지속 성장 화학기술의 중심기술이 될 것이며, 공정기술 중에서 가장 핵심이 되는 것은 충분한 양의 바이오매스 확보 및 생화학적/열화학적 전환기술이다. 바이오매스 확보를 위하여 환경적응성이 큰 잡초의 이용이 기대된다. 바이오리파이너리는 농업으로 시작되며, 농업과 화학산업의 다리역할을 하는 기술이 바로 바이오리파이너리인 것이다. The depletion of fossil fuels, ecological problems associated with CO₂ emissions climate change, growing world population, and future energy supplies are forcing the development of alternative resources for energy (heat and electricity), transport fuels and chemicals: the replacement of fossil resources with CO₂ neutral biomass. Several options exist to cover energy supplies of the future, including solar, wind, and water power; however, chemical carbon source can get from biomass only. When used in combination with environmental friend production and processing technology, the use of biomass can be seen as a sustainable alternative to conventional chemical feedstocks. The biorefinery concept is analogous to today"s petroleum refinery, which produce multiple fuels and chemical products from petroleum. A biorefinery is a facility that integrates biomass conversion processes and equipment to produce fuels, power, and value-added chemicals from biomass. Biorefinery is the co-production of a spectrum of bio-based products (food, feed, materials, and chemicals) and energy (fuels, power, and heat) from biomass [definition IEA Bioenergy Task 42]. By producing multiple products, a biorefinery takes advantage of the various components in biomass and their intermediates therefore maximizing the value derived from the biomass feedstocks. A biorefinery could, for example, produce one or several low-volume, but high-value, chemical or nutraceutical products and a low-value, but high-volume liquid transportation fuel such as biodiesel or bioethanol. Future biorefinery may play a major role in producing chemicals and materials as a bridge between agriculture and chemistry that are traditionally produced from petroleum. Industrial biotechnology is expected to significantly complement or replace the current petroleum-based industry and to play an important role.

      • 잡초 및 농림부산물을 이용한 Biorefinery 기술개발 현황

        황인택(Hwang, In Taek) 한국잡초학회 2010 한국잡초학회 별책(학술대회 초록집) Vol.30 No.2

        The depletion in fossil feedstocks, increasing oil prices and the ecological problems associated with CO₂ emissions are forcing the development of alternative resources for energy (heat and electricity), transport fuels and chemicals: the replacement of fossil resources with CO₂ neutral biomass. When used in combination with environmentally sound production and processing techniques, the use of biomass can be seen as a sustainable alternative to conventional feedstocks. A biorefinery is a facility that integrates biomass conversion processes and equipment to produce fuels, power, heat, and value-added chemicals from biomass. The biorefinery concept is analogous to today’s petroleum refinery, which produce multiple fuels and products from petroleum. The International Engineering Alliance (IEA) Bioenergy Task 42 on Biorefineries has defined biorefining as the sustainable processing of biomass into a spectrum of bio-based products (food, feed, chemicals, materials) and bioenergy (biofuels, power and/or heat). By producing multiple products, a biorefinery takes advantage of the various components in biomass and their intermediates therefore maximizing the value derived from the biomass feedstock. Future biorefinery may play a major role in producing chemicals and materials as a bridge between agriculture and chemistry that are traditionally produced from petroleum. Industrial biotechnology is expected to significantly complement or replace the current petroleum-based industry and to play an important role in bringing about so-called ‘bio-based society’.

      • KCI등재

        배 과수원에서 오차드그라스와 여러 종류의 클로버 혼파에 따른 녹비작물의 양분공급량 추정

        임경호,김월수,최현석,황인택,이진우,이유석,최경주,이연,송장훈,조영식,Lim, Kyeong-Ho,Kim, Wol-Soo,Choi, Hyun-Sug,Hwang, In-Taek,Lee, Jin-Woo,Lee, You-Seok,Choi, Kyeong-Ju,Lee, Youn,Song, Jang-Hoon,Cho, Young-Sik 한국유기농업학회 2011 韓國有機農業學會誌 Vol.19 No.4

        This study was conducted to evaluate nutrient production of both orchardgrass and several clovers as a green manure in a 'Niitaka' pear (Pyrus pyriforia) orchard. The experiment was conducted at diligent farmer in Boseong in Chonnam on March 26 of 2010, and the treatments included; 1) orchard grass (2.0kg/$1,000m^2$), 2) orchard grass (1.0kg/$1,000m^2$)+ladino clover (1.0 kg/$1,000m^2$), 3) orchard grass (1.0kg/$1,000m^2$)+red clover (1.0kg/$1,000m^2$), and 4) orchard grass (1.0kg/$1,000m^2$) +white clover (1.0kg/$1,000m^2$). Lengths of orchardgrass and clovers were greater in July than those of June and September. Seeding of orchardgrass without clovers in June and July increased dry weight of green manure crops compared with the seeding of orchardgrass with clovers, resulting in greater annual total dry weight. Various green manure treatments produced different amounts of total N and $P_2O_5$ from each raw materials and did not satisfy amounts of those nutrients for proper annual growth of ten- to twelve-year-old pear tree. Amounts of $K_2O$ producing from green manures, however, satisfied for proper growth of the pear trees.

      • KCI등재

        농업인의 혁신기술 수용 및 저항 요인과 농식품 ICT 융복합사업 확산의도와의 관계

        김덕현(Deok-Hyeon Kim),황인택(In-Taek Hwang),이승현(Seung–,Hyun Lee) 한국농촌지도학회 2015 농촌지도와 개발 Vol.22 No.1

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 9시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        This study explored the effects of adoption of innovation and resistant attitude on farmers’ perspectives and also was deigned for developing prompt spread of ICT and facilitating stronghold support center in the convergence agricultural field. To closely examine the variation for exploitation intent of stronghold support center in the ICT convergence agriculture, 110 farmers who had experienced introduction for ICT hybrid environmental control system were participated in the study using the questionnaire. The results revealed the several findings. Firstly, there was no significant differences between the self-efficacy such as confidence of application technology for farmers and adoption of innovative technique (p=.075). Secondly, suitability of using ICT hybrid environmental control system showed a significant difference in the adoption of innovation (p=2.750) while complexity of using ICT hybrid environmental control system indicated the negative effects on the adoption of innovation (p=3.591). Thirdly, introduction cost of ICT hybrid environmental control system showed the negative effects in the adoption of innovation (p=2.278), whereas adoption of innovation indicated a significant difference in the stronghold support center in the convergence agricultural field (p=5.500). Finally, resistance of ICT adoption of innovative technique revealed the negative effects on the stronghold support center in the ICT convergence agriculture. This study, therefore, demonstrated that educational assistance for acquiring ICT technique, suggestion of influences for productivity, and development for skills were needed to extend ICT convergence technology. Additionally, the study indicated the strategies related with promotion as well as ways of minimizing introduction cost.

      • KCI등재후보

        끈끈이주걱의 기내 엽배양에 있어서 배양조건에 따른 식물체 재분화

        김성진(Seong Jin Kim),조경철(Kyung Chul Cho),황인택(In Taek Hwang),김정근(Joung Keun Kim),김수옥(Soo Ok Kim),김광수(Kwang Soo Kim) 한국원예학회 2006 원예과학기술지 Vol.24 No.2

        본 연구는 D. spatulata sp. Tokaiensis의 기내증식체계를 확립하기 위해 배지의 농도, 배지내 활성탄 및 당의 농도가 엽절편 배양 시 식물체 재분화에 미치는 영향을 알아보고자 실시하였다. 엽절편의 생존율은 명배양보다 암배양에서 더 높게 나타났으며, 배지의 농도가 낮을수록 생존율이 높았다. 각 절편당 신초형성수, 신초길이, 신초중 및 근생장은 1/4MS배지의 농도에서 높은 경향이었으며, 광조건에 따른 차이는 유의성이 없었다. 활성탄 농도에 따른 생존율은 1/2MS와 1MS 배지에서보다 1/4MS배지에서 높게 나타났으나, 통계적 차이는 보이지 않았다. 절편체당 뿌리의 형성수는 대부분 배지농도에서 30g L⁻¹ 당을 첨가한 배지에서 높게 나타났다. 1/2MS, 1/4MS에서 당의 농도가 높을수록 신초와 뿌리의 형성수가 증가하는 경향을 보였다. 따라서 끈끈이주걱의 엽절편배양시 증식효율을 높이기 위해서는 1/4MS배지에 당 30g L⁻¹이 첨가된 배지에 배양하는 것이 좋은 것으로 나타났다. In order to establish in vitro propagation of sundew, Drosera spatulata sp. Tokaiensis, the effect of MS medium, sucrose, activated charcoal concentration on shoot proliferation and root formation were investigated using leaves at 6 months after seed germination. Survival rates of leaf explants were higher in dark condition than light condition and as low as lower MS medium strength. Shoot and root growth were better in quarter strength of MS medium than that of other MS media, but were not different significantly according to light condition. Survival rate accroding to activated charcoal concentration was higher in 1/4 MS medium than those of 1/2 MS and 1 MS media, but was not different significantly. In the whole treatments, the optimum sucrose concentration for shoot proliferation was over 30 g L⁻¹. Therefore, to increase the proliferation efficiency through leaf culture of sundew, it might be cultured in quarter strength of MS medium with 30 g L⁻¹ sucrose.

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