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While the majority of research on international joint ventures(IJVs) focused on the foreign parent’s perspective, this study examined the relationships between IJV control system and local parent goal achievement. Using a sample of 194 IJVs in China, we identified three types of parent control: strategic control, specific control, and social control, exercised by both foreign and local parent firms. Our findings showed that Chinese parent controls were positively associated with their own goal achievement, while the relationships between foreign parent control and Chinese parent goal achievement were mixed. In this study, parent control is divided into three types exercised by both foreign and local parent firms. And their relationships with local parent goal achievement are examined using a sample of IJVs in China. The findings of this study help depict the control system in IJVs and advance the understanding of the control-performance relationship. According to our study results, Chinese parent firms tend to benefit from their own control over IJVs, their perceptions of the performance implications of foreign parent control are relatively mixed. Consistent with transaction cost economics, our study confirms the importance of parent control. The positive relationships between Chinese parent control and goal achievement suggest that the exercise of strategic control, specific control and social control may have an impact on parent satisfaction. Parent firms may not only make IJV management to pursue parent firms’ requirements, but also benefit directly from involving into IJV activities. While strategic control directs IJV strategies towards a parent firm’ likeness, specific control enables the parent to protect its strategic assets and access complementary resources, and social control may change IJV culture in favor of the parent. This study may provide important implications for IJV practice in China. On the one hand, the results support the importance of control to local parent firms. To achieve their own objectives, Chinese parent need to exercise strategic control, specific control, and social control. On the other hand, this study helps MNEs better understand their Chinese partners. An important implication is that greater foreign control does not necessarily lead to lower local parent satisfaction. They would prefer a moderate level of foreign parent specific control, given foreign parents’ need for knowledge protection. They may even welcome foreign parent social control. It is critical that MNE managers are aware of the implications of different control types as they try to impose control over the IJV. Local parent satisfaction concerns not only the local partner but also the MNE partner. Unsatisfied local partners may create conflicts, withhold contribution, and eventually break up the partnership. Without achieving a minimum level of local parent satisfaction, the IJV would not be a success. Several limitations of this study should be acknowledged. First, this study used cross-sectional data. Thus the direction of relationships cannot be clearly defined. The research results should be interpreted carefully. Second, the study sample was composed of relatively big IJVs with an average age of 10, which might be subject to selection biases. It is likely that the findings are more applicable to long-standing partnerships instead of relatively new ones. Third, for practical reasons, we were not able to collect data from multiple informants for all cases.
The PM10 concentration and chemical composition in an western area of Busan were surveyed between March, 2001 and February, 2002. The mean concentration was 98.2 ㎍/㎥ with a range of 18.1 to 330.6 ㎍/㎥. The magnitude of metallic elements in PM10 is as follows in decreasing order: K>Ca>Na>Al>Fe. The mean values of crustal enrichment factors for four elements (Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn) were all higher than 10, which presumably resulted from the effect of anthropogenic origin. Moreover, the wintertime values were higher than springtime and summertime values, possibly due to emissions westerly transported from industries around this area. The contribution of soil particle to airborne particle in the study area was estimated to be 9.5%.
본 연구는 기업이 연구개발 (R&D) 활동에 있어서 외부 업체에게 아웃소싱을 하는 경우에 연구개발 아웃소싱 결정에 영향을 미치는 요인과 R&D 성과에 어떠한 영향을 끼치는지에 대한 연구이다. 본 연구에서는 R&D 아웃소싱의 결정요인을 크게 거래특성요인, 조직특성요인, 의존위험요인으로 나누었다. 거래특성요인은 거래비용이론에 근거하여 R&D 비용절감, 자산의 특수성, 불확실성을 변수로 두었고 조직특성요인은 자원준거이론에 의하여 외부기술에 대한 개방성, 기술개발 역량, 아웃소싱 경험으로 보았고 의존위험요인은 자원의존이론을 기반으로 기술적 위험, 비용증가위험, 관리적 위험으로 분류하였다. 추가적으로 R&D 아웃소싱이 실제로 기업의 R&D 성과에 어떠한 영향을 끼치는지에 대해서도 분석하였다. 연구결과, R&D 아웃소싱의 정도가 높은 기업은 R&D 비용을 절감하고자 하는 의도가 있는 기업, 자산의 특수성이 약한 기업, 외부 자원에 대한 개방성이 있는 기업, 기술역량이 부족한 기업, 아웃소싱 경험이 있는 기업, 기술적 위험을 회피하지 않는 기업으로 결과가 나왔다. R&D 아웃소싱 정도가 기업의 R&D 성과에 영향을 끼칠 것으로 예상한 가설은 유의한 상관관계가 없는 것으로 분석 되었다. 본 연구를 통하여서 기업들이 진행하고 있는 R&D 아웃소싱의 실태를 파악하고 기업의 R&D 업무 담당자로 하여금 효과적인 R&D 업무를 수행할 수 있는 지침서가 될 수 있을 것이라고 예상한다. This research focuses on what factors determine firm's decisions on R&D outsourcing and how R&D outsourcing affect R&D performance. In recent years many firms outsource R&D activities instead of internalizing it. Thus, further investigation is necessary to find out this recent trend. Based on several theoretical background the study developed three determining factors of R&D outsourcing which are transactional level, firm level, and risk level. Transactional level composes of independent variables such as R&D cost saving, asset specificity and uncertainty which mainly comes from Transaction Cost Economics theory. Firm level composes of openness to technology from outer source, R&D capability, and outsourcing experience. Risk level composes of technological risk, cost-related risk and managerial risk. The result shows that R&D outsourcing is significantly related to cost saving aspect, low asset specific firms, firms without solid technological background, firms which are open to external technology, firms with other types of outsourcing experience, and firms which take technological risks. However, proposed relationship between degree of R&D outsourcing and R&D performance found out to be insignificant. This research is contribute to the field of outsourcing study since it will give guidance to managers who need to make strategic decisions on R&D outsourcing activities.