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This paper aims to investigate the syntax of causative verb clausal complements of make, have, let, and help in English within the minimalist framework outlined in Chomsky (1999, 2000, 2001), by emphasizing their constituency and categorial status. Generally, those syntactic causative verbs select bare infinitives as their complements, even though help also exceptionally takes another type of complements : to-infinitives. I put forward the proposals: i ) such causative verb clausal complements are single constituents, by examining a variety of constituency tests : coordination, reflexives, and expletives, and ii ) their categories are TPs whose head T is defective, lacking ∮ -complete.
This paper aims to explore syntactic and semantic-pragmatic factors that influence the realization of the complementizer that and the alternation between that and zero complementizers. It shows that that is required in such complement clauses as the subject clauses, the coordinated clauses, the displaced clauses, or the clauses with non-case distinct subject selected by a ditransitive verb. That is also said to be present usually when the complement clause conveys a proposition asserted by the matrix subject or when its subject is the topic of utterance. The claim is then made that the alternation between that and zero complementizers is not a stylistic variant, now that that-clause is related to a prior discourse in some sense, while that-less clause is chosen when the truth of the complement clause is asserted. It is also shown that the syntactic and semantic integration of the matrix clause and the complement clause into one is more extensive in the lack of that
This paper investigates the birth and growth of the traditional eight syntactic categories in the history linguistics. It then examines how such syntactic categories have been treated in generative grammar. The traditional system appears to be established as follows: Aristotle added syndesmos (conjunction) to Plato's onoma (noun)-rhema (verb) system; the Stoics recognized mesotes (adverb) as a new category and subdivided syndesmos into syndesmos (conjunction) and arthron (article), later replaced with interjections by Latin grammarians, and onoma into onoma (common noun) and prosegoria (proper noun); Alexandrian grammarians established the traditional system by reuniting two kinds of nouns into one and adopting more categories such as prothesis (preposition), antonymia (pronoun), and metoche (participles), later recognized as adjectives. In generative grammar, major categories are considered to be composites of features [±N] and [±V] and this view makes it possible to capture the similarities across categories. It is shown that some traditional subordinate conjunctions are reanalyzed as prepositions and complementizers, and Inflection/Tense, the light verb v, and Determiner are treated as new syntactic categories and claimed to assume important roles in minimalist syntactic operations
To improve the mechanical and chemical properties of unfired A12O3-C refractories, which is widely used in metal line of steel-making ladle, MgO was added as a matrix powders and the degree of spinel formation was studied, Because the spinel was formed at the contact areas between A12O3 and MgO particles and the volume of in-situ formed spinel increased more abnormally at the side of A12O3 particles than MgO, A12O3 aggregates was more recommendable than MgO aggregates. So to compare the degree of spinel formation in the A12O3-MgO-C(AMC) refractories, two kinds of A12O3 aggregates was added in different content ratio and their effects on physical properties such as permanent volume expansion were examined. For A12O3 aggregates, low purity fused A12O3 (BFA) was more preferable than the high purity fused A12O3 (WFA) due to high density and the high degree of spinel formation. And corrosion resistance was increased with the amount of MgO added, and the finer the MgO powder, the better the residual expansion and minute structure formation was observed. But in case of a sudden increasement of spinel phase air gap would be appeared around aggregates and resulting crack showed deteriorative effect in anti-corrosion, so the appropriate quantity of MgO and it's grain size could be controlled for optimal residual expansion due to spinel formation and advancement of corrosion resistance by structural stability.
In an effort to pave the way to understanding the syntax of the Participial Perception Verb Complements(PPVCs) in English, this paper examines various syntactic phenomena of PPVSs in light of generative grammar. By making three proposals on syntactic grounds, the parer resolves problems and answers questions surrounding the constituency, category and internal structure of PPVCs and case checking of the overt subject DP in the position right behind the perception verb. The advanced proposals are as follows: (a) PPVCs are single constituents with both nominal and clausal properties; (b) PPVCs are categorically TPs dominated by DPs in Davies and Dubinsky`s (1999) sense; (c) along the minimalist lines suggested in Chomsky (2000, 2001), the overt subject DP of PPVCs has its [-interpretable] case feature checked against the matrix perception verb as in the typical ECM construction.
Zirconia gel fibers could be made by drawing from polyester sol containing zirconyl oxychloride during the reaction between ethylen glycol and citric acid. In this case, the critical mole ratio of zirconyl oxychloride to citric acid was about 4 and by adding CaCl2 and calcining the gel fiber in the air, cubic stabilized zirconia fibers having much micropores at surface could be obtained.
영어 인지동사 비정형보충어의 통사구조황 규 홍영어의 인지동사는 비정형원형부정사와 현재분사형태의 보충어를 취한다. 본 논문에서는 두 가지 유형 중에서 원형부정사 형태의 보충어를 중심으로 그 통사현상과 구조에 대해서 살펴보고자 한다. 먼저 성분성과 관련하여 대용형에 의한 원형부정사의 대치, 등위접속사에 의한 등위접속, 결속현상, 허사와 주어지향 관용어구의 출현, 명사구 앞에 나타나는 not과 뒤에 나타나는 alone등의 통사적 현상을 근거로 원형부정사 보충어가 성분임을 주장한다. 그리고 Akmajian(1977)이 원형부정사의 성분성을 부정하기 위해 제시한 증거들을 자세히 살펴보고 이들은 단지 원형부정사구문이 명사구 성격을 가지지 않는다는 것을 밝힘으로써 그 증거의 타당성을 약화시킨다.원형부정사구문의 범주에 대해서는 지금 까지 제시된 기존분석(VP 분석, CP 분석, AspP 분석)등을 재검토하여 문제점을 살펴본다. 그 대안으로 TP분석을 제안하고 정당화시키고, T의 본질은 ECM구문의 T와 마찬가지로 결함이 있는 시제와 일치자질을 가지며 따라서 Chomsky(2001)에 따라 EPP 자질이 없는 것으로 간주한다. 끝으로 상위절에 위치한 인지동사가 EPP 자질을 충족시키기 위해 비해석성 격자질에 의해 활성화된 보충어절의 주어가 자신의 지정어 자리로 인상될 때 원형부정사구문의 주어의 격 자질을 점검함을 보여준다. 또한 이때 관련된 모든 비해석성자질(인지동사의 일치자질, 격자질, EPP자질)도 동시에 점검되어 삭제됨을 보여준다.
As increasing the porcelain as a home ware, the amount of waste porcelain is increased in factory or at home every year. It is very important to recycle the waste porcelain from environmental and economic point if views. Recycling of porcelain body to batch composition can be reduced the manufacturing cost of porcelain by production of raw materials and dropping of sintering temperature about 150~200℃. In this study, we prepared porcelain ceramics by mixing recycled waste ceramic raw materials and normal ceramic raw materials. The waste ceramic raw materials were recycled by crushing and ball milling waste porcelain bodies. The recycled ceramic raw materials after milling have a mean particle size about 22-40 ㎛ with irregular shape and narrow particle size distribution. Shrinkage and sintered density of compacts from recycled ceramic batch composition increased with increasing sintering temperatures, however the sintered density was independent on the amount of the recycled ceramic raw materials. The batch composition containing 30% of recycled ceramic raw materials showed the highest sintered density. Sintered density was decreased over the temperature of 1200℃ due to the creation of cracks on surface and in bulk. It may be concluded that sintering temperature can be reduced in the processing of porcelain body by adding of recycled ceramic raw matehals to normal batch composition.