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        • KCI등재

          치기공과 학셍들의 임상실습만족도에 관한 연구

          황경숙,Hwang, Kyung-Sook 대한치과기공학회 1997 대한치과기공학회지 Vol.19 No.1

          An aim of this study is to find out influenced factors of satisfaction degree on the clinical practice for the dental technology student and it can be provided the basic necessary data for the educational planning of the curriculum for the clinical practice. The target of study are selected form 7 junior health college students and colleges are located in around seoul form 14 junior health college throughout the nation. The questionnaries were distributed between 24th Feb to 30th July in 1997 to the 100 dental technicians who finished clinical practice and entered profession in 1997. All collected data were analysed by using SPSS/PC, Technical Statistic, One-Way ANOVA, Ttest, Person Correnlation Coefficient, Chrobach Alpha Coefficient and the result of the study is follow. 1) The satisfaction degree were classificated as 7 aspect and overall average score was 3.042. During that period satisfaction of personal relation aspect(M=3.737) shows highest level. Satsfiaction of clinical parctice(M=3.571) shows as second, Satisfiaction of environment(M=3.028), Satisfaction of guidance(M=2.915), satisfaction of subject are ordered of their scores. According to above study satisfaction's degree of subject show lowest level. 2) According to the result of verification of study. general character of student and satisfiaction degree has not much relation with sex, location of college, religion, period for enrolling college, teaching method of clinical practice. But the result show similar relation with following items. Satisfaction if subject and satisfaction of clinical practice(P=0.000), place of clinical practice and satisfaction of clinical practice(P=0.002), Academic record of college and satisfaction of clinical practice(P=0.000). 3) The relation of satisfaction(Subject, method of teaching, environment, period, rating, personal relation) of clinical practice and age of investigation's target Older student show higher satisfaction(P=0.040). Also method of teaching, environments, period, rating, personal relation has similarities with satisfaction. Therefore student who has higher satisfaction of clinical practice they also have higher rate for subject, environment, period, personal relation. 4) The result fo investigation, most interesting subject was crown & bridge and most difficult factor was too many simple-works to the student. One of ideal factor was discussing with counselor before they choose place for clinical practice. Third grade and first semester is most efficient time for clinical practice and 8 week is proper period for clinical practice. Clinical practice is absilutory mecessary and we find out most student rated positively. However we need more specific study about satisfcation of each subject. Because it shows lowest level and we need more pay attention for planning of clinical practice.

        • KCI등재

          치과기공소의 보철 기공물 제작 과정에 사용되는 재료 및 방법에 관한 실태조사 연구

          황경숙,Hwang, Kyung-Sook 대한치과기공학회 1994 대한치과기공학회지 Vol.16 No.1

          The purpose of this study is to investigate the extent to which dental laboratories use proper materials, procedures, devices, and equipments to fabricate crown & bridge, PFM(Porcelain Fused to Metal) crown & bridge, partial denture, complete denture, and other prosteses. 100 laboratories in Seoul were selected for this investigation. Questionnaires were constructed focusing on five topocs:crown & bridge, PFM crown & bridge, partial denture, complete denture, and other prostheses. The results from this survey were as follows : 1. Most dental laboratories used old, inexpensive, and familiar materials rather than newly developed ones. 2. Most of the dental technicians did not stick to the standard procedures of handling materials, but to their own experiences. 3. Newly developed equipments to fabricate dental prostheses were possessed by nearly 30% dental laboratories. 4. About 80% of dental laboratories were using the procedures they had learned in the school : die trimming for accurate crown margin and softening heat treatment after RPD gold casting. But less than 30% of laboratories were shown to follow the boxing procedure to produce master cast and laboratory remounting in the process of complete denture. The findings show that dental laboratory procedures to fabricate dental prostheses are incomplete and inaccurate in some instances. So, further studies are neededs to clarify the causes of some inaccurate procedures, the better and more equipments should be supplied to produce the more accurate dental posthesis, and more efforts at enancing the appropriate use of dental materials and procedures should be made.

        • KCI등재

          논문 : 종묘제례악(宗廟祭禮樂)과 종묘일무(宗廟佾舞)를 조화롭게 일치시키는 방법: 『시용무보(時用舞譜)』의 「보태평지무(保太平之舞)」를 중심으로

          황경숙 ( Kyung Sook Hwang ),김용 ( Yong Kim ) 한국무용기록학회 2001 무용역사기록학 Vol.1 No.-

          Jongmyojeryeak, the No. 1 of intangible cultural asset of Korea has all the 500-year history of Chosun Dynasty contained in it and is the cultural heritage of the highest value and cultural importance. The UNESCO conference held in Paris, France this year declared it as `the masterpiece of human words-of-mouth and intangible heritage,` placing it to the level of the world`s admiration. This study intended to reconsider and illuminate Jongmyoilmoo of Jongmyojeryeak, the No. 1 of intangible cultural asset of Korea, assuming this kind of work would shed another new and fresh interpretation of traditional culture. Unlike other Korean traditional dances, Jongmyoilmoo has its details recorded in 『Siyongmoobo』which is one of the most valuable historic documents concerning Korean traditional dances, thus enabling itself to be preserved and inherited correctly. It surely falls under the category of Korea`s cultural assets of a great historic and artistic value. An analysis was made on the composition systems of technical term and its arrangement found in「Botaepyunggimoo」in『Siyongmoobo』which consists of today`s irregular and regular long and short rhythms, in order to search for the ways to harmonize each performance of Jongmyojeryeak and Jongmyoilmoo, that is, to match the theories and the practices. The results of the study are as follows: 1. There should be `Haphyung(centering upon chest)` at Gochooksamsung following the first beat of beginning music. And `Hasu(let down)` with the right hand should be made in one note or two notes at the first dancing passage of the second beat. 2. `Jeomyoo` and `Hasu` with the left hand should both be made in two notes at the first dancing passage of development step. 3. `Yangsugeogyon(put both hands on shoulder)` must be made in four or three notes from the left side with both hands at the first dancing passage of conversion step. 4. `Bokpa(grasp belly)` to the front side with both hands should be made in two notes at the first dancing passage of conclusion step. 5. Every last technical term of each passage including `Hasu` of introduction step, `Hasu` of development step, `Yangsuhasu(let both hands down)` of conversion step, and `Haphyung` of conclusion step should be made in one note or two notes whether it`s an independent dancing passage or complex one. 6. Every technical term at the other middle dancing passage should have two core notes from which one + or - note will be made. 7. The most important and last step to harmonize dance and music as one is to decide the bar of three notes among the bars of three or four notes which can be an independent or a complex dancing passage in any piece.

        • 혜강 최한기의 교육사상 연구

          황경숙 ( Hwang Kyung-sook ) 인하대학교 교육연구소 2002 교육문화연구 Vol.8 No.-

          This paper is about HyeKang, Choi Han-Ki(1803-1877)'s educational thought. HyeKang, Choi Han-Ki is one of the greatest Silhak(實學) philosophers at the end of Chosen(朝鮮) Dynasty and his modern - oriented features of Silhak philosophy have taken a important position through the history of Korean thought. He lived in the time of disorder. The power government had gone to ruin in the inside of the country, and at the same time, there was lots of threat of the West European Countries and all of these built up the national tention. Under these condition, he developed Chi philosophy as a new thought system and consolidated the philosophical outline. As a thoughter, HyeKang is a bridge-builder between Silhak philosophy and modernization thought. At the base of his Chi philosophy, he emphasized the scientific Silhak and modern-oriented features. In this way, HyeKang's thought system is based on his own philosophical work which was different from traditional Silhak thoughters and this way of thought influenced on the his educational thought. Especially, his philosophical concern starts from human and it also heads for human; therefore, the meaning of human plays a important role in his thought system. According to his opinion, he believes that the human does develop and expend his/hers ability infinitely through accumulating postnatal experiences. This aspect of human understanding makes him positive about regarding human as a object of education. At any rate, it's clear that education would always be related with the growth of human. It doesn't matter how we define education. Base on his empirical understanding of human, HyeKang really emphasized the need and importance of education. He convicted that anybody could reach at the ideal stage of human being only if he/she worked hard to developing his postnatal effort; therefore, by examining the distinctive features which are found in the HyeKang's educational thought, I think that his educational thought helps to connect the historical self-identity of education in Korea.

        • KCI등재

          복원된 문화유산을 활용한 향유여건 조성방안 : 국립국악원의 공연사례연구를 중심으로

          황경숙(Hwang Kyung Sook),백재화(Back Jai Hwa) 국립국악원 2009 국악원논문집 Vol.19 No.-

          '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

          문화는 역사보다 시시각각 처하게 되는 현재적 시점에 탄력적으로 작용하는 현상이다. 역사만큼 거창한 틀을 지닌 문화는 현대의 발전상과 더불어 그 변모를 하루가 다르게 보여주고 있다. 다문화의 향유, 개성의 색채라는 표상 아래 우후죽순과 같은 수많은 현상들이 한낱 유행과도 같은 현상임에도 불구하고 문화인양 혼돈의 형태로 이 시각, 우리의 사회현상으로 존재양상을 보이고 있는 지금, 전통문화는 보존되어야 살아남고, 활용되어야 발전할 수 있으며, 국가적 정통성을 확보하는데 반드시 필요한 필수불가결한 포괄적 문화형태이다. 전통문화는 우리문화의 뿌리이며, 주체성의 원천인 것이다. 21세기 문화의 세기에 문화경쟁력은 우리의 전통문화와 전통예술에서 나온다고 할 수 있으며, 또 그래야만 한다고 힘을 실어 말하고 싶다. 전통문화예술은 다양한 문화예술의 근간이며 다변화된 세계에 자랑스럽게 내놓을 수 있는 우리 민족의 기본정신인 것이다. 문화의 세기 라는 말이 세간의 화두가 된 이래 문화로 향한 관심이 사회 전 분야에서 부각되고, 더불어 우리 전통문화의 중요성에 대한 인식도 그 어느 때보다 확산, 고조되었다. 우리 것, 가장 한국적인 것은 곧 전통에 바탕을 둔 문화요소를 의미하지만 이러한 문화적 조류의 배경에는 우리의 전통만이 세계 다른 지역의 문화와 구별되는 특수성으로 대우받을 수 있는 것을 가정할 수 있다. 이 가정 속의 의도는 곧 우리의, 우리만의 문화적 특수성을 간직한 전통문화가 대내적으로는 문화적 정체성을, 대외적으로는 문화적 우수성을 담보한다는 점이다. 본 연구는 문헌 및 선행연구 고찰을 중심으로 한다. 특히 전통문화의 복원과 재현을 중점적으로 행하는 국립국악원의 공연사례연구와 비교가 이루어졌으며, 현재 이루어지고 있는 전통문화의 복원을 통해 다각적이고 현실적인 문화수용 단계의 방안을 제시하는데 목적이 있기에 국립국악원의 사례연구를 통해 방안 제시가 주된 연구 방법이다. 국립국악원의 극장공연에서는 전통문화원형의 고수라는 기틀위에 프로시니엄 극장적 특성효과가 자아낼 수 있는 재미의 요소를 첨가하는 기본 틀로 작품의 특성화를 삼자는 제안이다. 전통문화의 재현과 전승이라는 양대 산맥의 화두를 세계적 문화시대에 맞춰 국제적인 위상과 후속세대로의 문화적 물림에서 가장 효율적인 방안으로 차별화되고 활성화된 접근방식을 택하자는 것이다. 또 다른 제안은, 조금 더 활성화된 방안으로, 서울시에 존재하는 가시적인 전통건축 유산물인 경복궁, 창경궁, 경희궁과 같은 상징적인 역사물의 궁 안에서 행해지는 국악원의 작품재현형태이다. 무대 위의 재현작업이 아닌, 그 옛날 궁에서 행해지던 지리적인 공통점에 재현의 주안을 두는 것을 말한다. 쉽게 말해 실사와 같은 재현작업에 총력을 기하는 공연은 궁궐 안에서 이루어져야 한다고 본다. Traditional culture is our roots of cultures and the source of subjecthood. In the 21 century, the culture periods, cultural competitive power comes from our traditional cultures and arts and also it should be. Traditional cultures and arts are the roots of various cultures and arts and our national fundamental spirits which can be introduced very proudly all of the world. Since culture century has a topic of conversation interests about cultures have increased all of the field in the society. In the mean time, perceptions related to importance of our traditional cultures have been spread and risen dramatically. As ours or the most Korean style mean cultures component based on tradition, our tradition only can treat distinctiveness and differ from other countries cultures. This could be explained that our distinctive traditional cultures guarantee cultural identity domestically and demonstrate superiority internationally. This study was conducted by examining sundry records and previous studies. Especially this study utilized case study of the National Classical Musician which performed restoration and reappearance of traditional cultures. The purpose of this study was to propose a plan for diverse and actual culture acceptance steps through restoration of traditional cultures. This study proposes hat fun factors should be added to effect proscenium stage characteristics on the foundation to stick to original tradition cultures when performances are held in the National Classical Musician. It could be the most effective way to enhance international position and transmit our traditional cultures to the next generations when recently the topic of condensations are reappearance and transmission of traditional cultures. Another proposal is the reappearance of the National Classical Musician performs art works in the historical palaces such as Kyngbok Place, Changgyeong Place, and Kyunghee Place in Seoul. This is not a meant that just reappearance works on the stage, but focusing on reappearance of geography common. In other words, actual art works to reappear must be performed within the Place. This works could effect positively on various benefits in many ways. Because the Place is located in Seoul, many domestic or foreign tourists are likely to visit to view the performances. Particularly it is expected that a lot of family units and students will visit the Place. This study wants to emphasize that the most perfect tradition culture reappearance is intangible cultural assets will be actually performed in the Place exists tangible historical treasures.

        • KCI우수등재

          입출력 요구 특성을 지원하기 위한 디스크 배열 구조의 성능 분석

          황경숙(Kyung Sook Hwang),박찬익(Chan-Ik Park) 한국정보과학회 1994 정보과학회논문지 Vol.21 No.12

          디스크 배열은 여러개의 디스크를 사용하여 I/O 성능을 향상시키기 위한 것으로, 본 논문에서는 I/O 요구 특성으로 평균 요구 크기, 평균 요구 도착률, 요청되어지는 평균 응답 시간이 주어질때에 이를 만족 시키는 디스크 배열 특성 변수를 결정하는 분석 모델을 제시한다. 결정된 디스크 배열 특성 변수는 최소 디스크 배열 구성 디스크 수, 디스크 배열 구조, 디크러스트링 수인데, 고려되는 디스크 배열 구조는 동기/비동기 디스크들이 조합된 혼합 구조로 동기화 디스크들로만 구성된 동기화 구조와 비동기 디스크들로만 구성된 비동기화 구조는 혼합 구조에 포함된다. 제시된 분석 모델은 시뮬레이션을 통해 검증되며, 검증결과 동기화 구조나 비동기화 구조보다 동기/비동기 디스크들이 조합된 구조가 더 작은 디스크 수로서 주어진 요구 특성을 만족함을 보이며, 요구 도착률이 낮을 때는 비동기화 구조보다 동기화 구조가, 요구 도착률이 높을 때는 동기화 구조보다 비동기화 구조가 더 작은 디스크 수로서 주어진 요구 특성을 만족함을 보인다. Disk array is an I/O system using multiple disks to improve the I/O performance. This paper considers general architectural models of disk array which include synchronized architectures consisting only of synchronized disks, asynchronized architectures consisting only of asynchronized disks, and hybrid architectures consisting of both types of disks. In order to design a disk array architecture which can meet a certain I/O workload, we have to analyze the performance of the disk array architecture. An I/O workload is given by an average request size, an average request rate, and the required mean response time. In this paper, we propose the analytic models of the synchronized, asynchronized, and hybrid systems for a given I/O characteristitics. The analytic models determine the minimum number of required disks, the degree of declustering, and the degree of synchronization for the underlying architecture models in order to satisfy a certain I/O characteristitics. Our analytic models are verified by the simulation. It is shown that the hybrid system requires the smallest number of disks for a certain I/O workload than synchronized system and asychronized system. We have shown that when the arrival rate is low, the synchronized system requires less number of disks than the asychronized system and when the arrival rate is high, the asynchronized system requires less number of disks than the sychronized system.

        • KCI등재

          시사만화를 통한 어느 고등학생의 사회문제 이해도 변화에 대한 연구

          황경숙 ( Kyung Sook Hwang ),박영신 ( Young Shin Park ) 한국사회과교육학회 2009 시민교육연구 Vol.41 No.4

          본 연구는 성적이 중위권에 속하는 고등학생 H군을 대상으로 시사만화 분석 학습을 실시하고 사회문제에 대한 학생의 이해능력과 비판적 해석능력이 변화하는 모습을 분석한 것이다. 의도했던 학습효과를 얻기 위하여 난이도가 적절한 시사만화를 선정하고 관련된 배경 지식과 시사만화의 기법 등에 대한 설명을 제공했으며, 학생이 분석 과정을 통해 사고력과 비판력을 단계적으로 훈련해 나갈 수 있도록 시사만화분석지를 활용하여 작업하도록 하였다. 연구 결과는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 시사만화 분석 작업은 H군의 사회문제에 대한 학습 동기를 유발시키고 흥미와 참여도를 높이는데 도움이 되었다. 둘째, 시사만화분석지를 활용하는 작업을 통하여 H군의 사회문제를 이해하고 비판적으로 분석하는 능력이 향상되는 것을 볼 수 있었다. 셋째, 시사만화분석지를 활용한 학습이 거듭될수록 H군은 시사만화 분석 작업에 자신감을 보이며 능동적이고 자기주도적인 학습 태도를 보였다. 이상의 연구를 통하여, 사회과 수업에서 시사만화를 수업자료로 적절히 활용하는 것이 중위권 학생의 사회문제를 이해해가는 전반적인 능력을 향상시키고, 나아가 자기주도적인 학습태도를 함양시키는데 도움이 되리라 예상할 수 있었다. 그러나 시사만화를 활용한 구체적인 수업모형을 만들어 실제 수업에 적용하는 것은 다음의 과제로 남겨두었다. Political cartoon placed in the daily newspaper can attract readers` attention with the vivid picture and conversational form of language. It can be understood easily with the complexity of picture and letter. These methods are known to be a highly effective way to enhance understanding and memorization. Political cartoons reflect the realities of the society of our times. They reveal the absurdities and contradictions in sharp satire and humor. The author presented the political cartoon to the 43 high school students, and then realized that political cartoon analysis would help middle level students to understand social problems. Hence, the author applied the political cartoon to one middle level student 7 times, and made a series of observations to catch the exchange of the student`s thinking to understand the social phenomenon. Because of the difficulties that political cartoon has, present study explains further about skilto one background knowledge. It intends to offer political cartoon analysis worksheet. Main findings of the study are as below: First, learning activities using political cartoons increased the student`s interest and participation. Second, political cartoon analysis improved the student`s ability to understand and criticize social phenomena. Third, lessons supported by political cartoon analysis had a positive influence on improving active learning attitude of students. Therefore, as a teaching-learning media, political cartoon have an affirmative possibility in promoting learner`s ability to understand social phenomenon in social studies.

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          골프의 기원설과 미싱 링크

          황경숙 ( Kyung Sook Hwang ),하남길 ( Nam Gil Ha ) 한국체육사학회 2011 체육사학회지 Vol.16 No.2

          본 연구는 네덜란드, 스코틀랜드, 중국 등이 자국 골프의 기원론을 주장하는 근거를 보다 깊이 고찰·정리한 다음 골프 기원론에 대한 정확한 설명의 방향을 잡을 수 있는 자료 확보를 위해 수행된 것이다. 세 국가의 골프 기원론을 고찰한 결과 현 골프의 기원은 안개 속에 가려져 있다는 결론을 얻었다. 근대적 골프는 스코틀랜드에서 조직화되어 세계화되었다. 그러나 목동의 게임과 15세기 골프의 연결고리가 되는 단서는 없었다. 네덜란드 콜벤이나 콜프의 존재는 명확하지만 그것이 스코틀랜드로 전해졌다는 근거 또한 없다. 차이니스 버전 골프 취완의 존재 근거는 명확하다. 그러나 그것 역시 유럽으로 전해진 근거가 없기 때문에 취완이 골프의 조상이라는 주장은 문제가 있다. 향후 골프 기원의 정설은 미싱 링크의 발굴 여부에 달려있다는 결론이다. This articles aims to find an accurate narrative for the prevailing theory behind the origin of golf, after considering, in depth, the said theory. After considering the theories behind the origins of golf from three different countries, it was difficult to come to a definitive conclusion. Modern golf became an organised sport in Scotland and subsequently became a global sport. However, there was no evidence to suggest that the "Shepherd`s game" had a link to 15th century Scottish golf. It is also certain that "Kloven" or "Kolf" did exit in the Netherlands, but there is no basis to say that this sport was exported to Scotland. The Chinese version of golf "Chuiwan"also clearly existed but there is no evidence to support the theory that "Chuiwan" found its way into Europe. Therefore, the definitive theory behind the origins of golf will depend on the discovery of the missing link. If the missing link is not found, then the idea that Golf had its genesis in Scotland, its modern home, will remain forever.

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          최한기의 기학적 대외인식

          황경숙 ( Kyung-sook Hwang ) 한국사회사학회 2009 사회와 역사 Vol.0 No.84

          본 논문의 연구목표는 혜강 최한기(1803-1877)의 대외인식을 살펴보는 것이다. 먼저, 그의 대외인식의 토대를 이루고 있는 사상적 배경으로써 기학의 내용은 무엇인가? 둘째, 이러한 인식의 방향이 어떻게 변용되어 기학적 대외관념을 형성하는데 영향을 주고 있는가? 셋째, 최한기의 대외인식의 기본관념이 당시의 위정자들이 보여준 대외인식과 대응양식과 비교해 볼 때 어떤 차이가 있으며, 그 한계는 무엇인가? 넷째, 최한기의 대외인식이 갖는 한국사회사상사에서의 위치를 밝혀보고자 하였다. 19세기 조선사회는 대·내외적인 여러 요인으로 인해 위기의식이 팽배하던 시기로 많은 지식인들이 각기 독자적인 방식으로 현실을 인식하는 논리를 표출하였다. 조선조 말이라는 특수한 역사적 상황을 감안할 때 당시의 지식인들이 가졌던 대외인식은 중요한 의미를 갖는다. 특히 당시의 대외인식의 주체는 국가가 아닌 지식인 내지 사상가 개인이었다. 최한기는 학문적 호기심의 발로로써 대외관념을 적극 형성해 나갔던 만큼 그의 대외인식에 관한 연구결과는 조선후기 실학자들의 학문경향과 사상을 이해하는 데도 도움이 될 것으로 기대된다. 연구결과, 최한기의 대외인식의 특징은 19세기 중엽 조선사회의 내재적인 논리로 작용하던 전통적인 우주관에서 탈피하여, 자연과학적 지식을 토대로 근대적이면서도 과학적인 우주관을 표방하면서 전개한 개방적 대외인식이다. 최한기는 기학적 지리인식의 체계를 토대로 중국 중심의 대외관념인 화이론(華夷論)을 극복하고, 그의 독창적 사유체계인 ‘기학’을 바탕으로 지체(地體)에 대한 새로운 견해를 밝히고 있다. 최한기는 이를 근거로 神氣의 운화에 의한 국가 간의 대동(大同)을 주장하여 근대적인 세계관을 구축한 것이다. 따라서 최한기의 개방적인 대외인식은 우리나라가 근대에 들어와서 표방한 대외관계의 일단을 고찰하는데 중요한 역사적 시사를 제공해준 사례라 볼 수 있다. The purpose of the present study is to explore Choi, Hanki’s innovative ideas on external world. First, it is essential to understand fundamental elements of Chihak operating as a philosophical basis of his own recognition of external society. Secondly, the paper inquires how his perception and thoughts were developed into the further enrichment of the Chihak study on external world recognition. Then, I turn to differences between Choi’s ideal views on outer society and how political elites of the time actually thought and responded. Concurrently, it is worth analyzing limitations from this apparent disparity. Lastly, the present study clarifies ideological status of Choi’s ideas on external world in the modern Korean social thoughts. Chosun dynasty in nineteenth century faced various social and political crisis due to factors originated from home and abroad. Hence, intellectuals and philosophers of those times exhibited their own understanding on how they perceive internal disorder of the society. Considering a peculiar nature of historical circumstances in late Chosun dynasty, intellectuals’ ideas on external world get importance. It is interesting to note that individual thinker - not the state - was the main subject of such views. Choi’s academic curiosity resulted in further development of external perception. He inspired generations of realists during late Chosun dynasty. Therefore, studying on his thoughts in this regard helps to comprehend scholarly trend during that time. From thorough appreciation of his ideas, I conclude that his perspective is rooted from the scientific knowledge and enlightened, open vision toward the world. Choi’s Chihak escaped from the confines of China-centered world view, the China-centered views on external world. He introduced a new thought on the earth based on his creative speculation of Chihak. He constructed a modern understanding insisting harmonious between nations by Unwhachi. His innovative perspective on external world provides an ample viewpoint change regarding external relations in modern times of Korean history.

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          특용차(소방차ㆍ구급차) 운전자들의 자동차고사와 속신문화

          황경숙(Hwang Kyung-Sook),이헌홍(Lee Heon-Hong) 부산대학교 한국민족문화연구소 2007 한국민족문화 Vol.30 No.-

          The culture of the car exorcism and the superstitious belief in modern society which are formed and handed down in the base of religious beliefs for supernatural being or power is the culture indicator which can classify the maintenance of tradition and the aspect of transfiguration in the modern urban folk culture as the newly interpreted and reorganized folk culture connected with material and human circumstances with the change of the times rather than it is the newly formed folk customs in the modem society. In this study, we are considering various aspects of the car exorcism and the superstitious belief which are formed and handed down between drivers of fire engines and ambulances. Based on that we are also clarifying the characteristic of the urban folk culture in this folk culture of cars. The purpose of the car exorcism in modern society is not that guarantee the car sanctity or present the guardian divinity. It is focused on the prayer for security of members and organs through preventing the car accident and driving with ease. The car exorcism seems to follow the religious ceremony in appearance but it is not only that the concept of the target spirit(spirit of car) is weak but also that the glory ceremony which is the essence of the religious ceremony, the ceremony of the calling spirit and the ceremony of the sending spirit are not fixed cleary. The procedure of the religious ceremony is reduced to just have the formal pattern and the point of the ceremony is on the incantational ceremony to contrive fortune using a sacrifice regarding evil god as the cause of accidents. This sacrificial aspect of the car exorcism is considered as a original limitation of urban folks related to modern products. According to the research omens which are handed down between drivers of fire engines and ambulances classified cases of estimations of a day's fortune based on specific experience which is experienced when they are driving and before driving and cases of estimations of persons transported a day and a day's fortune based on the type of the person who is transported first. Contrary to the case of the former, the case of the latter is presented to ambulance drivers restrictedly. Omens are constructed by experiences and association generally. Experiences and association which are clues of omens are controled by the traditional thought and the manner of living of the group. In this paper the formative background and the symbolic meaning of the urban folk customs which are newly formed in modern society are studied that it is focused on the omen culture shared by a fire company.

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