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Objectives : Hypertension(HTN), diabetes mellitus(DM) and hyperlipidemia(HL) are the most common risk factors of cerebro-vascular attack(CVA). To prevent CVA, early diagnosis (awareness before CVA) of HTN, DM and HL is essential, and for the effective early diagnosis we need to analyze the data of CVA patients concerned with HTN, DM and HL. In this study, we studied characteristics of patients early diagnosed before CVA. Methods : We analyzed the data of 363 patients with acute ischemic stroke from Hanbang Stroke Registry supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology of Korea. Subjects' enrollment was done in the oriental medical hospitals of 3 universities located in the metropolitan region from October 2005 to October 2006. We analyzed all registered data about HTN. DM and HL, for example, how many patients were aware of their HTN, DM or HL before CVA, differences in characteristics of early diagnosed patients, effects of early diagnosis on CAV, etc. Results : Patients aware of their HTN. DM and HL before CVA have more past history and family history about HTN, DM or HL. Early diagnosis rate of HL is lower than HTN and DM, and early diagnosed HL patients were younger and deucated longer than patients who weren't aware of their HL before CVA. These results mean that publicity is the key to promoting early diagnosis rates of HTN, DM and HL. In DM and HL, early diagnosed patients had more SVO type cerebral infarction than patients who weren't aware of risk factors. We can thus see that early diagnosis even affects CVA types. Conclusion : This work helps us to understand the realities and importance of early diagnosis of HTN, DM and HL before CVA. There should be further research, which can contribute to much more improved early diagnosis rates of HTN, DM and HL.
본 논문은 디지털 망에 접속된 ISDN 전화기의 전송품질인 음량정격과 송화자 에코를 설정하는 방법을 기술한다. ISDN 전화기의 바람직한 음량정격 및 송화자 에코를 설계하기 위하여 주관평가를 위한 디지털 음성통신 모델 시스템을 개발하였고, 이 모델 시스템을 이용하여 최적의 코덱 입력레벨, 전체 음량정격의 범위, 그리고 송화자 에코 등을 결정하기 위하여 오피니언 테스트를 수행하였다. 실험결과 송화 음량정격은 6~8dB, 수화음량정격은 0~2dB, 측음마스킹정격은 8~12dB로 설정되었다. 또한, 에코프리의 전화통화를 위한 단말결합손실은 전체음량정격이 10dB 일때 적어도 40dB 이상이어야 한다는 결론을 얻었다. It is the purpose of this paper to describe the methods for establishing loudness ratings and talker echo out of transmission quality of ISDN telephone connected to fully digital network. In order to design the desirable loudness ratings and talker echo for ISDN telephone, the model system of digital speech communication for subjective tests is developed. Using this model system, opinion tests which decide the optimal CODEC input level, the range of overall loudness rating, sidetone masking rating and talker echo are performed. From the results of tests, we decided that the loudness ratings are 6 to 8dB for sending, 0 to 2dB for receiving, and 8 to 12dB for sidetone masking rating. And, the terminal coupling loss of TCLw of at least 40dB is necessary to provide echo-free telephone communications to telophone users when the overall loudness rating of ISDN telephone is normalized to 10dB.
본 논문은 저비트율을 갖는 고품질의 HDTV용 멀티채녈 오디오 코덱을 구현에 대해 기술한다. 이 코덱은 저주파수 효과 채널을 포함한 최대 3/2 스테레오 채널 구성, 최대 채널 구성보다 낮은 채널 구성과의 호환성, 기존 2채널 스테레오 시스템과의 호환성(MPEG-1 오디오), 그리고 다중 대화 채널 등을 제공하는 특징을 갖는다. 구현한 멀티채널 오디오 코덱의 인코더는 3개의 DSP(TI의 TMS320C40)로 구성되었고, 최대 48KHz 샘플링율과 16비트의 부호화를 갖는 5.1 채널의 아날로그 및 AES/EBU, IEC 958등의 포맷을 갖는 스테레오 2채널의 디지털 오디오를 이력으로 받아 지각 심리음향 모델을 사용하여 압축한후 384Kbps의 빛 스트림으로 전송하는 특징을 가지며, 디코더는 2개의 DSP로 구성되어 있고, 384Kbps로 입력되는 비트 스트림을 받아 최대 5.1 채널의 아날로그 및 2개의 2채널 스테레오의 디지털 오디오 신호로 출력시키는 특징을 갖는다. DSP를 이용한 다중처리는 DMA를 통한 통신포트를 이용한 DSP들간의 고속 데이터 전송에 의해 이루어진다. 끝으로, 멀티 채널 오디오 코덱의 구현을 통하여 나타난 실시간 처리는 위해 고려해야할 기술적 사항을 제안한다. This paper describes the implementation of a multi-channel audio codec for HETV. This codec has the features of the 3/2-stereo plus low frequency enhancement, downward compatibility with the smaller number of channels, backward compatibility with the existing 2/0-stereo system(MPEG-1 audio), and multilingual capability. The encoder of this codec consists of 6-channel analog audio input part with the sampling rate of 48 kHz, 4-channel digital audio input part and three TMS320C40 /DSPs. The encoder implements multi-channel audio compression using a human perceptual psychoacoustic model, and has the bit rate reduction to 384 kbit/s without impairment of subjective quality. The decoder consists of 6-channel analog audio output part, 4-channel digital audio output part, and two TMS320C40 DSPs for a decoding procedure. The decoder analyzes the bit stream received with bit rate of 384 kbit/s from the encoder and reproduces the multi-channel audio signals for analog and digital outputs. The multi-processing of this audio codec using multiple DSPs is ensured by high speed transfer of date between DSPs through coordinating communication port activities with DMA coprocessors. Finally, some technical considerations are suggested to realize the problem of real-time operation, which are found out through the implementation of this codec using the MPEG-2 layer II sudio coding algorithm and the use of the hardware architecture with commercial multiple DSPs.
방송과 통신의 융합에 이어 컴퓨팅이 융합되는 기술적 진화에 따라 방송과 인터넷이 연계된 스마트TV가 새로운 미디어 서비스로 부각되고 있다. 따라서, 본 논문에서는 TV와 인터넷의 결합을 기반으로 이용자 친화적인 멀티모달 휴먼 인터페이스에 의한 화면제어가 가능하고, N-스크린 기반으로 방송형, 통신형, 방송통신 융합형, 컴퓨터형 서비스를 제공하는 CPNT기반의 차세대 스마트TV(스마트TV 2.0)의 서비스 기술에 대해 제안하고, 관련 기술의 개념 및 세부 내용에 대해 기술한다. Smart TV is approaching as a new media service to integrate the broadcasting and the internet according to the technology evaluation of convergence to broadcasting, telecommunication, and computing. Therefore, This paper proposes the next generation smart TV(Smart TV 2.0) technology based on CPNT which supports those services such as the broadcasting, telecommunication, a convergence of broadcasting & communication, and computer service through multi-screen. Also, this paper describes the concept and details of the related technologies.
홍진우,최창민,박영민,신원준,정동원,박성욱,정우상,박정미,문상관,고창남,조기호,배형섭,김영석,Hong, Jin-Woo,Choi, Chang-Min,Park, Young-Min,Shin, Won-Jun,Jeong, Dong-Won,Park, Seong-Uk,Jung, Woo-Sang,Park, Jung-Mi,Moon, Sang-Kwan,Go, Chang-Na 대한한방내과학회 2006 大韓韓方內科學會誌 Vol.27 No.1
Objectives : Electrical acupoint stimulation(EAS) has been used to treat motor dysfunction of stroke patients with reportedly effective results. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of the EAS with different frequencies in treating motor dysfunction of ischemic stroke patients. Methods : The subject of this study were forty-two ischemic stroke patients with motor dysfunction in Kyunghee oriental medicine hospital who were hospitalized for one week to one month from onset. They were treated with 2Hz or 120Hz EAS for two weeks, and motor evoked potentials(MEP) were measured before and after EAS treatment. To compare the effect of 2Hz EAS with 120Hz, the number of patients who showed MEP responses after two weeks among those who had no previous response was checked. Also measured were latency, central motor conduction time(CMCT), amplitude of MEP before and after EAS treatment. Results : After two weeks of treatment, 4 out of 15 patients(27%) in the 2Hz EAS group and lout of 19 patients(5%) in the 120Hz group showed potential responses. Yet there was no significant difference between the two groups. When MEP data of the affected side between the 2Hz group and the 120Hz group was compared, the former showed more significant improvement than the latter in latency, CMCT and amplitude(P=0.040, 0.019,0.021). When the proportion of the affected side and unaffected side in MEP data was examined, the 2Hz group showed improvement on only latency and CMCT with significant differences(P=0.040, 0.014). Conclusions : These results show that EAS with low frequency is more helpful for motor recovery after ischemic stroke than that with high frequency. This suggests that low frequency EAS activates the central motor conduction system better than high frequency EAS.
Gefitinib (Iressa®, AstraZeneca) is an oral form of an anticancer drug called epidermal growth factor receptor- tyrosine kinase inhibitor. It is widely used for various solid cancers, including lung cancer. Cutaneous adverse reactions induced by gefitinib have recently been reported with an incidence ranging from 49% to 100%, and they include acneiform skin rash, hyperpigmentation, xerotic skin, pruritus, skin fissures, nail change and disorders of the mucous membranes, eyes and hair. To the best of our knowledge, no cases of leukocytoclastic vasculitis associated with gefitinib have ever been published in the Korean medical literature, and there have been only four such reported cases in other countries. Herein, we report on a case of leukocytoclastic vasulitis induced by gefitinib in a patient with lung cancer. (Korean J Dermatol 2011;49(1):50~52)
A progressive zosteriform macular pigmented lesion (PZMPL) is a chronic pigmentary dermatosis similar to progressive cribriform and zosteriform hyperpigmentation (PCZH), but characteristically accompanied by pruritus as a prodromal symptom and histologic findings, such as pigmentary incontinence. PZMPL was described by Simoes in 1980 and manifests a uniformly tanned macular pigmented lesion in a zosteriform distribution. PZMPL is usually preceded by multiple pruritic macular pigmentation in a part of the dermatome for a period of time. Despite the difficulty in differentiation among other pigmentary disorders with unilateral distribution, such as linear and whorled nevoid hypermelanosis, partial unilateral lentiginosis, and Becker`s melanosis, PZMPL can be diagnosed by clinical symptoms and signs, the pattern of lesions, and histologic features. A 6-year-old Korean girl presented with unilaterally located brown macules and patches on the left side of the chest, arm, and back. From childhood, the pigmented macules appeared and coalesced into patches on the left back. The arm and chest lesions extended along the Blaschko`s line in a zosteriform distribution. She had no history of previous skin diseases, injuries, or inflammation. The histologic findings revealed increased melanin pigment in the basal layer and focal pigmentary incontinence in the upper dermis. We report a rare case of PZMPL thought to be the same case reported by Simoes.