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Edna St. Vincent Millay is a woman poet who wants to immortalize beauty and love through her poems in a similar style to the English Renaissance poets. This paper aims to show that she has the strong 'will to live', the so-called, 'eros'. Through rereading her poems from this perspective, we can see that she is a poet with strong 'will to survive'. There is an impressive amount of evidence to support this: firstly, her poems deal with praise of beauty for things around her: landscape, insects, ordinary things and even knowledge like mathematics; secondly, we can look at her love for man, mother and friends including nature; thirdly, she shows her desire for rebirth even in the poems about death. We can also focus on the image of the pioneer and her expansion into nature and the universe which draws comparisons to Walt Whitman. And her need to defend her space from the invader shows her innate survival instinct. However, above all, her strong 'will to live' seems to be the genesis of her own mother's sacrifice and love. Another reason we can say that she has the strong 'will to live' is that she expands upon woman's identity and makes it more than just woman's love for man. She portrays the woman who liberates herself from all conventional restrictions. Moreover, she put forward that woman could be just as free as men, which was evidenced in those women speakers in Millay's poems have active sexual desires much like male speakers did in Shakespeare and Donne's love poems. A final reason we can call her a woman poet with strong 'will to live' is that she is an active participant in political demonstrations and a fighter for human rights.
Yeats's dramatic and narrative poems adopted the Irish myth as their subject matter, which is partly because myth contains the Irish people's origin and their living soul. Also, Yeats believed that the stories in the myth might help Irish people with their search for identity and political independence which began to flame in their minds since the Irish Great Famine: he thought that especially the Celt myth could contribute to the Irish unification. But more importantly, I believe the modernism's concept of history has influenced Yeats's frequent use of myth. In his works such as “The Wanderings Of Oisin”, “The Old Age Of Queen Maeve”, “Baile and Aillinn”, and “The Two Kings”, Yeats tried to revise the past stories (the myth) to reflect the present stories based on his own experiences, especially his unrequited love for Maud Gonne. "The Wanderings Of Oisin" reflects his wish to get Maud's love for him, the ache of separation from her, and his aging body through the mythical characters such as Oisin, Patrick and Niamh. “The Old Age Of Queen Maeve” is a short dramatic poem in which Queen Maeve helps Angus marry his lover Caer. Here, queen Maeve is identified with Yeats's lover, Maud Gonne, while Angus with Yeats. “Baile and Aillinn”, the ancient love story, is also adapted to reflect Yeats's unrequited love for Gonne. And "The Two Kings" is a kind of a biographical narrative: it deals with the conflict of Edain between Midhir as the king of the super-natural world and Eochaid as the king of this world, juxtaposing Gonne's conflict between her ex-husband, Macbride and the present would-be lover, Yeats. In sum, Yeats tried to juxtapose his own love story with the mythical love stories. And this mythic method is thought to be one of the modernism techniques by which E.H. Car's sense of history, expressed in his famous sentence that "history is a dialogue between the past and the present," is underpinned.
아일랜드와 우리 대한민국은 거의 같은 시기인 20세기 초반에 독립운동이 있었고 또한 20세기 중반이라는 거의 같은 시기에 공화국의 형태로 재탄생했지만, 아직까지 국토의 완전한 회복이 이루어지지 못하고 서로 다른 국가나 체제로 분리되어 있으면서 통합된 한 국가가 되려는 꿈을 버리지 못하고 있다. 아일랜드의 통합은 종교, 인종, 정치 문화적 색채의 차이점 때문에 우리의 통합보다 더 어려울 수도 있겠지만, 다른 한편으로는 800년 이상의 혼종화 현상과 이민 그리고 유럽연합으로의 정체성을 확장시킨 점 때문에 다양성을 수용함에 잘 훈련됨으로써 지역화와 세계화의 조화 속에서 그 갈등이 더 쉽게 풀릴 수도 있다고 생각한다. 대한민국의 경우는 단일 민족, 단일 문화 때문에 더 쉽게 통합될 가능성이 있으나 아일랜드의 경우와 달리 자유와 전제라는 극단적인 이질적 정치체제와 지역적 색채화만을 수용하려는 민족주의가 정치적 봉건화를 지탱시켜 세계화로부터 고립될 수 있는 위험성을 안고 있다. 또 다른 위험요소로는 통합의 과정에서 이루어지는 필수적인 사항으로 탈식민화을 위한 저항과 곧 이어 헤게모니 싸움으로의 내전이 수반될 수 있다. 이 논문을 쓴 동기와 목적은 요사이 회자되나 그 정의가 정립되지 않은 ‘통일'이라는 용어 등을 미래에 바람직하게 정의내릴 필요성을 느꼈기 때문이고 이것을 위해 거의 같은 상황 속에서 바람직하게 발전해가는 아일랜드를 연구해 우리의 문제점을 해결해 보려함에 있다. 아일랜드의 현대 역사는 영국과의 탈 식민전쟁, 그리고 내란으로 이루어지는 시기에 있어 다수인 게일 카톨릭이 과거 지배층인 소수 앵글로 아이리시를 패배시키는 과정, 그 과정에서 수반된 정치와 문화적 측면에서의 민족주의 강화, 그 후에 유럽연합의 일원으로 지역화와 세계화의 조화등으로 정의내릴 수 있겠다. 특히 이 논문에서는 앵글로 아이리시 계급에 속한 예이츠와 회복되지 못한 땅, 북아일랜드의 소수파였던 히니라는 두 시인이 탈식민과 내전에 어떻게 반응했으며 그들이 어떤 식으로 해결을 원했는가를 알아보기 위해 그들의 시를 다시 읽어보고, 한 국가 안에 존재하는 서로 다른 계급의 두 시인이 통합 아일랜드에 대해 지녔던 의견의 차이와 공통점을 찾아내어 우리의 가장 바람직한 통일론을 모색하려 했다. 그런데 두 시인의 가장 큰 공통점은, 종교와 인종면에서 지배, 피지배의 차이가 있을지라도 그 둘 모두 정치, 종교, 인종에 있어 자신들이 속한 공동체의 편견을 극복하고 문화적 공동기반을 다지려 했고 또 시인과 예술의 자유를 추구한 점일 것이다. 한편 그 둘 사이의 차이점은 그 방법론에 있었다. 예를 들면, 그 둘 다 종교와 인종의 편견을 뛰어넘으려는 의도로 조상의 뿌리를 켈트에서 찾을 지라도 아일랜드 자치국의 성립과 더불어 기울어가는 앵글로 아이리시에 속한 예이츠는 처음에는 카톨릭 민족주의 색채를 수용하지만 후기에는 기우는 신교 앵글로-아이리시의 문화를 옹호하려는 균형감각을 고취시키려 했다. 한편 히니는 처음에는 억압받는 북아일랜드의 소수파로서 영국에 저항하는 민족주의 색채로 출발할 지라도 민족주의의 과격성과 카톨릭 공동체가 갖는 편견과 폭력을 배격하고 양심공화국으로의 통합아일랜드를 역설한다. 결론적으로 두 시인은 정치와 종교, 인종의 차이가 강화시킨 배타성보다는 문화적 유대감을 강화시키려는 화해와 상생의 의도를 갖고 있다. 이 둘 모두 지배 문화인 영국을 완전히 배제하지 않으면서 자신들의 정체성을 미국, 유럽으로 확장시켜 그 국수성을 지양해 갔음도 알 수 있었다. 즉, 이 두 시인에게서 민족주의는 문화적 정체성을 확립하는 일에 역점을 둔 것으로 그 과정에서 호전성과 배타성보다는 화해를 통해 식민화에서 파생된 이질성과 혼종을 받아들였기 때문에 지역성과 세계화를 조화시킬 수 있었다. 마지막 결론은 우리의 통합에도 국수적 민족주의와 맞물려 있는 정치적 봉건성으로의 퇴보보다는 지역과 세계화의 기류 속에서 문화의 정체성을 추구함이 선행되어져야 할 것이다. When it comes to the dream of unification or reintegration, the Korean Peninsula and the Irish Island have been facing similar political circumstances. Although these two countries obtained political independence more than 50 years ago in the form of republican governments, they still wish that their divided territories will be reunited. More often than not, the Republic of Ireland will finish reunification rather easily in some respects: although Northern Ireland has many entangled problems involving different ethnics and religions, the Irish have long been trained by this very cultural hybidity through the colonized history. By contrast, I wonder how the democratic system of South Korea can be harmonized with the despotic system of North Korea, despite little barrier of ethnicity or religion between the two. Moreover, considering the Irish case, the process of impetuous reunification could bring forth another civil war on the Korean peninsula. The Irish independence has been accompanied by the following: the war for deanglocization, the civil war as the momentum of the change in the political hegemony, the decline of the Anglo-Irish as the established class, the enhancement of Gaelic nationalism, and the expansion of the political identity as a member of EU. I think, in solving the problem of the Korean reunification to come, it would be very helpful to investigate how the two representative poets of Ireland, W.B. Yeats and Seamus Heaney, belonging to different classes, reacted to the war of deanglocization and internal turmoil. For this purpose, I will review what they have in common, or how they are different, in the attitude towards the united Ireland. Yeats and Heaney has something in common: they all began their poetic career in a lyrical mode, gradually developing into epic. They all thought themselves as bard trapped into the pit of the political burden. However, first of all, both of them tried to make Ireland a cultural common ground. Meanwhile, they showed some difference especially in the ways of defining the Irishness. However, despite being different in the class and culture identity to which they belonged, they never lost the mind of reconciliation and balancing: they wanted to take themselves off the prejudices, privileges and hatred then existing as the different forms of religion and ethnicity. Moreover, they wanted to decolonize their land in a positive and acceptable way: they wanted to appropriate the colonizer's culture to themselves. I would be happy if we can get a hint from this in connection with our future reunification. My last conclusion is that our reunification to come must not mean retreating to the dynastic despotism or jingoism; it must be achieved in the stream of the globalism and be preceded by some pursuit of the cultural common ground.
Through reading English Renaissance poetry from a view of death, we can see that the people of the era stood faced with a sense of fear and anger towards death, -like a warrior who resists the tyrant death, saying "I'll feed on death that feeds on man." Meanwhile Renaissance people associated death with sin, which reflects the idea that the paradise is allowed only to the people who do good deeds and repent and that the world after death is related to this world. Moreover Renaissance people think death as sleep can lead to peace. The writer infers from the above phenomena that Renaissance people's strong will to live and search for immortality were caused by their short span of life, which also accounts for why they chose a 'carpe-diem‘ way of life: while although Renaissance wanted to liberate people from God, it was a transitional period in which God still overdominated. Sir Walter Raleigh refers to death as the last scene of his comedy-like life ; Shakespeare describes death as a kind of sleep sometimes in the mood of anger; Donne as a sin and a gate toward heaven; and, Christopher Marlowe as something replaced for beauty, wealth and power of this world. What the Renaissance poets had in common is that their short life span and belief in the spiritual revival led to a contrastive way of life, -to wit, to enjoy this world or oppress their desires through penitence and prayer. Another common thing English Renaissance poetries show is that the personas are, on the whole, overreachers who desire their desires; ultimately they could achieve their dream of searching for immortality through procreation of descendants and poetries.
『삼월의 보름달』은 ‘존재의 합일'이란 예이츠의 사고가 풍요 제식, 인신희생 더 나아가 신세계 도래에 대한 제의적 소재와 더불어 표현된 상징극이다. 나아가이 극은 음악과 춤, 시적이며 반복적인 언어, 코러스 등장, 원시적 제의적 무대, 보름달 및 다른 상징, 열정과 신비한 분위기 등이 어우러진 제의적 상징극이다. Yeats's Full Moon in March is a masterpiece of ritual and symbolic drama. It deals with the rite of affluence, a human sacrifice, and the upcoming new world as its subject, and also with the symbols indicating ‘unity of being' through the technique of song, dancing, the repetitive and lyric diction, the use of chorus and the primitive and ritual stage inspiring the esoteric and passionate atmosphere.
While T.S. Eliot quoted the vegetarian and the holy grail myths in his intention of Christian redemption and survival, James Joyce used the Odyssey myth, whose main motives are wandering and returning to express his cyclical view of life, and W.B. Yeats also used the Celtic myth for the purpose of revealing the Irish identity and his love for Maud Gonne. Generally speaking, two of the reasons the modernism writers quoted the myths are that they respected E.H. Carr's thought that "history is a dialogue between the past and the present" and that they wanted to impose an order on the chaotic modern world through some myth, the whole collection of human unconsciousness. Moreover, they have come to some questions of the modern civilization which has brought about two world wars and the destruction of eco-system; the purple dream of Renaissance people has been changed into the black dregs and trash. The modern civilization has been based upon the pride of humans who resisted God's will, making themselves God. However, the humans are revealed as incomplete ones because they and their energetic dreams are condemned to death and are fated to recognize that human beings are like dirts in the enormous sized universe although they strive to overcome the God's will. And the modern people's soul and body have been separated by human being's pride of being God and the mechanic fragmentation of the modern society. Comparatively speaking, myth contains the harmonized spirit among man, nature and God. Therefore the modern writers want to heal their disrupted soul by the mythical sensitivity, by which I mean the harmonized spirit among man, nature and God. T.S. Eliot, J. Joyce and W.B. Yeats all seem to recognize the importance of the mythical sensitivity. However, despite this awakening, they show their mythical sensitivities have the city color and taste. As the consequence, Eliot listed the myth only in the mozaic way, James Joyce's Ulysses was also a collection of stuff, as James Joyce's brother said, and Yeats used the Celtic myth as a romantic fiction to express his love for Maud Gonne, although it has stimulated the Irish Independence.
Paradise Lost, one leading work of the puritan as well as of the patriotic literature, seems to be based on the so-called dualism, in which God and man, evil and good, or man and woman form one pair of two opposites. The western dualism which sees all phenomena and beings as standing against each other tends to enforce the hierarchical order. Besides, the dualism seems to lead to a materialistic and inhumane world, and all the more so in the power-dominated world. While in Milton' poems we can easily find the classical tradition and his lofty spirit of neglecting the material world, Paradise Lost contains the radical sense of the hierarchical order. And what Eliot labelled Milton, "the dissociation of sensibility", also can be thought to be related to such a dualism. Therefore Paradis Lost which reflects the western dualism may not be classified as a canon to third-world readers who have fallen a victim.