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Follitropin, an important gonadotropin hormone, participates in vitellogenesis and spermatogenesis. Equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) can induce gonadotropin hormone activity in non-equid species and exhibits a long biological half-life. Here, we report the production, using silkworm larval and pupal systems, of biologically active recombinant hybrid-type follitropins based on the coding sequence of the eCG C-terminal peptide (CTP) between the mature β- and α-chains of eel. The three constructs, rJeFSH, rJeFSH·eCG, and rJeFSH·2xeCG were produced and verified to be N- or O-glycosylated and secreted mature peptides. Although rJeFSH·eCG contains more elaborate O-linked carbohydrate chains than rJeFSH, it elicited no significant in vitro oocyte maturation, which may be a result of insufficient terminal sialylation of its Nand O-linked carbohydrate chains. Then, a hybrid of rJeFSH·2xeCG extended with two eCG CTP. Furthermore, the receptor binding assay revealed potency of rJeFSH and rJeFSH·2xeCG to be a few folds greater than that of rJeFSH·eCG. The findings of this study will be useful for the development of more efficient GTHs in teleosts, including eels, when various modifications with two or more extended eCG CTP produced by silkworm are included.
Phthalocyanine (Pc) exhibits excellent thermal, chemical, and physical stability, as well as outstanding absorption and emission properties, which are useful for its application in the fields of color filters, chemosensors, and photosensitizers. However, unsubstituted Pc is insoluble in common organic solvents due to its inherent intermolecular aggregation behavior, and thus needs to be finely dispersed in the presence of dispersants before use. In this article, we present a new Pc derivative, prepared by attaching long aliphatic groups at peripheral positions of Pc, which shows high solubility in most nonpolar solvents, leading to good optical properties. For its synthesis, dodecanyl-zinc Pc (dodecanyl-Zn-Pc) was prepared via direct tetramerization, starting with 4-dodecanyl phthalonitrile as the intermediate. Various characterization techniques were employed to estimate the structural and optical features of dodecanyl-Zn-Pc, including $^1H$ nuclear magnetic resonance, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization, and ultraviolet-visual spectrophotometry and fluorimetry. In addition, the morphology of dodecanyl-Zn-Pc film was examined by polarized optical microscopy.
본 연구는 주제자극화를 활용한 집단미술치료가 소년원생의 자기표현과 공감능력에 미치는 영향을 알아보고자 하였다. 연구방법은 A소년원생 12명 중, 실험집단 6명, 무처치 통제집단 6명으로 선정하여 두 집단의 동질성 검정을 진행하고, 실험집단은 주 1회 80분씩 14회기에 걸쳐 집단미술치료를 실행하였다. 사전・사후검사로 자기표현척도와 공감능력척도를 사용하고 자료분석은 비모수 통계방법 Wilcoxon의 부호 순위 검정을 통해 사전・사후 평균의 차이를 비교하였다. 연구결과, 주제자극화를 활용한 집단미술치료는 자기표현과 공감능력의 향상에 긍정적인 영향을 주었음을 확인할 수 있었다. 본 연구는 긍정적 변화의 강화와 음성적 자기표현영역의 향상을 위한 프로그램의 개발 및 주제자극화의 규격화, 매체의 다양화를 제언하였다. The study was to investigate the effect of group art therapy using thematic stimulation pattern on the self-expression and empathy ability in juvenile reformatory. For the research method, out of 12 subjects at A reformatory, 6 experimental groups and 6 non-treatment control groups were selected to test the homogeneity between the two groups and the experimental group 80 minutes per week for 14 sessions. The self-expression scale and the empathy ability scale were used as pre- and post-tests, and data analysis was conducted to compare the difference between pre- and post-means through the non-parametric statistical method Wilcoxon’s sign ranking test. Research results, it was confirmed that was positively influenced on the improvement of self-expression and empathy. This study suggested the development of a program for reinforcement of positive change and improvement of the field of vocal self-expression, standardization of thematic stimulation pattern, and on diversification of material.
The clinical social work is a practice speciality of the social work profession. In spite of struggle to advance their status as professional social workers, at present, clinical social workers face many dilemmas in defining their professional base. This article reviews definition of clinical social work and numerous state-of-the-profession issues. Through an examination of a series of definitions of clinical social work, this article reveals the problematic nature of clinical social work, in relation to its concept, boundary and function. A historical review of the growth of the profession identifies internal and external influences in shaping the nature of clinical social work. In pursuit of professional development, clinical social work confronts with several dilemmas related with identity and professional status of the profession. Due to its knowledge base borrowed from psychology, clinical social work is frequently blamed for its irrelevant professional base. With an insufficient effort to share the common base of social work, clinical social work cannot share the value and missions of social work. In order to integrate clinical approaches to social work practice, two practice is are proposed; the clinical case management model and the broker case management model Several practical strategies for the new direction for future professional development are also suggested.