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경남진주의 콩포장과 대학 캠퍼스에서 톱다리개미허리노린재의 집합페로몬을 사용하여 난기 생봉인 Ooencyrtus nerarae(Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae)의 발생소장을 조사하였다. 2003년과 2004년에 대학 캠퍼스에 설치된 트랩에 유살된 암컷의 수는 수컷 유살수의 317.5배와 103.4배이었고, 2004년 콩포장에서는 12.6배이었다. 콩포장에서 O. nezarae의 암컷은 8월 하순부터 유살되기 시작하여 9월 20일 전후에 가장 많이 유살되었다. 2003년과 2004년에 대학 캠퍼스에서는 8월 중하순부터 밀도가 증가하여 9월 상중순에 최성기를 나타내었다. 두 조사지역에서 모두 10월 이후에는 거의 발생하지 않았다. 톱다리개미허리노린재의 집합페로몬 세 성분, 즉 (E)-2-hexenyl (Z)-3-hexenoate(E2HZ3H)와 (E)-2-hexenyl (E)-2-hexenoate(E2HE2H) 및 myristyl isobutyrate(MI) 중에서 E2HZ3H 만이 O. nerarae에 대해 유인력을 나타내었다. E2HZ3H:E2HE2H:MI를 7:36:7로 배합한 것보다는 20:20:10이나 16.7:16.7:16.7으로 배합한 트랩에 더 많은 수가 유인되었는데, 이는 배합된 E2HZ3H의 량 때문인 것으로 추정된다. Seasonal occurrence of the egg parasitoid of bugs, Ooencyrtus nezarae (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), was monitored at soybean fields and university campus using traps baited with aggregation pheromone of bean bug, Riptortus clavatus, in Jinju, Gyeongnam province, Korea. The female O. nezarae captured at university campus in 2003 and 2004 was 317.5 and 103.4 times as many as males, respectively, and it was 12.6 times at soybean field in 2004. The female began to occur from late August, showing its peak around September 20 at soybean field in 2004. At university campus in 2003 and 2004, the female began to occur from mid or late August, and showed its peak early or mid September. At the two monitoring sites the catches of female sharply declined after October The E2HZ3H only showed attractiveness to O. nezarae, among three components of the aggregation pheromone of bean bug, (E)-2-hexenyl (Z)-3-hexenoate (E2HZ3H), (E)-2-hexenyl (E)-2-hexenoate (E2HE2H), and myristyl isobutyrate (MI). A mixture in a ratio of 20:20:10 or 16.7:16.7:16.7 of E2HZ3H:E2HE2H:MI attracted significantly more females than the mixture of 7:36:7 ratio did. This higher attractiveness of the former two blends may be attributed to the higher amounts of E2HZ3H in the blends.
The damaged area by and the distribution of Japanese gall forming thrips, Ponticulothrips diospyrosi Haga et Okajima (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) in Korea were surveyed based on the answers of persimmon growers to questionnaire. Seasonal occurrence of each developmental stage was estimated by monitoring the individuals in damaged leaves, and effect of trap site and side of sticky board were studied by yellow sticky traps at three sweet persimmon orchards in Gimhae and Jinju (orchards A and B), Gyeongnam province, Korea in 2005. P. diospyrosi gave damage to astringent per-simmon as well as sweet one. The damaged area of persimmon orchard has sharply increased since 2000, reaching 446 ㏊ nationwide, Gyeongnam province was most severely damaged, followed by Gyeongbuk and Jeonnam provinces. Most of the farmers answered that they sprayed insecticides and removed the damaged leaves to control P. diospyrosi. The overwintered adults were observed in the damaged-rolled leaves from mid May and the 1st generation adults from early-mid June. No thrips were observed in the damaged leaves after mid July. Yellow sticky trap data showed that peak adults catch of the overwintered generation was mid May, and that of the 1st generation was mid-late June in Gimhae and late June in Jinju. Sticky traps set at orchard-pine forest border caught significantly more number of the 1st generation adults than those at the orchard center, even though timing of peak catches was not different between the two sites. There was a tendency of more catches on the side of sticky trap facing pine forest than the other side facing orchard center, even though the catches on both sides showed no statistical difference.
The bean bug, Riptortus pedestris (=clavatus) Fabricius (Hemiptera: Alydidae) is a serious pest of soybean in many countries. It enters a reproductive diapause in the winter by short day length (<13.5 h.) in Korea and Japan. The combined effects of temperatures (25℃ and 8℃) and day lengths (10L:14D and 14L:10D) upon the termination of the male"s diapause were studied. The combinations are ① HTLD = 25℃, 14L:10D treatment for 1, 2, 3 weeks and 30 days, ② HTSD = 25℃, 10L:14D treatment for 1, 2, and 3 weeks, ③ LTLD→HTLD = 8℃, 14L:10D treatment for 1, 2, and 3 weeks followed by HTLD treatment, ④ LTSD→HTLD = 8℃, 10L:14D treatment for 1, 2, and 3 weeks followed by HTLD. The amount of aggregation pheromone components secreted was adopted as the criteria for diapause termination in males. Males did not secrete aggregation pheromone under HTSD conditions. However, the males treated with HTLD for more than 21 days secreted significantly higher amounts of aggregation components, (E)-2-hexenyl (Z)-3-hexenoate and (E)-2-hexenyl (E)-2-hexenoate, compared to the control or HTSD treatments. The three components of the aggregation pheromone were secreted by the 14%, 29%, and 100% males treated with HTLD for 7 days, respectively. However more than 83% of the HTLD-treated males secreted all three components by the 30th day under the treatment. In comparison, the pheromone amounts secreted by the males treated with LTLD→HTLD or LTSD→HTLD were equal or less than those secreted by males with continuous HTLD treatment.
톱다리개미허리노린계의 집합페로몬을 이용하여 적절한 기주가 없는 경상대학교 캠퍼스(경남 진주시)와 기주인 콩이 재배되고 있는 포장에서 가로줄노린재의 발생양상을 비교하였다. 콩포장에서는 개화기 이전(6월 28일)부터 꾸준히 유인되었으며, 10월 11일 이후에 유인수가 급증하였다. 그러나 대학 캠퍼스에서는 3월 21일부터 10월 5일까지 전혀 유인되지 않다가 10월 11일 이후부터 유인수가 급증하였다. 가로줄노린재의 암수가 비슷한 시기에 비슷한 밀도로 콩 포장에서 유인된다는 것은 이 해충이 기주인 콩을 찾아 적극적으로 이동한 결과로 생각된다. 콩 포장과 대학 캠퍼스에서 10월 이후에 유인되는 성충은 월동처를 찾아 이동하는 성충으로 판단되었다. 콩 포장과 대학 캠퍼스에서 총 유인된 암수의 수는 차이가 없었다. 가로줄노린재는 콩 포장에서 6월부터 11월 하순까지 트랩에 유인되었기 때문에, 톱다리개미허리노린재의 집합페로몬은 가로줄노린재의 비휴면성충과 휴면성충 모두에 유인력이 있다고 생각된다. 톱다리개미허리노린재 집합페로몬의 세 성분인 (E)-2-hexenyl (Z)-3-hexenoate, (E)-2-hexenyl (E)-2-hexenoate, 및 myristyl isobutyrate를 16.7+16.7+16.7 mg 또는 7+36+7 mg으로 배합했을 때, 가로줄노린재의 유인수는 무처리나 생충트랩보다 많았고, 두 배합성분 간에는 차이가 없었다. Seasonal occurrence of the stink bug Piezodorus hybneri (Gmelin) (Heteroptera: Penta-tomidae) was monitored at a soybean field and the campus of Gyeongsang National University, Gyeongnam. Korea, in which host plants are less available for the bug with aggregation pheromone traps of Riptortus clavatus Thunberg (Heteroptera: Alydidae) in 2004. At soybean field, P. hybneri began to be attracted to traps from June 28, earlier than flowering stage of soybean plants. Number of P. hybneri attracted increased sharply after October 11. At the campus the bugs were not attracted to traps from March 21 to October 5, but began to be attracted since October 11. Difference in the occurrences in the two sites may suggest that the stink bug immigrates actively into soybean field to find host plant. P. hybneri that had been attracted to traps since October 11 was assumed to be diapausing adults emigrating to hibernation sites. There was no difference between sexes in trap catches. The fact that P. hybneri was attracted from June to late November may suggest that the aggregation pheromone of R. clavatus was attractive to both non-diapausing and diapausing adults of P. hybneri. The aggregation pheromone traps, when baited with 16.7+16.7+16.7 mg or 7+36+7 mg of (E)-2-hexenyl (Z)-3-hexenoate, (E)-2-hexenyl (E)-2-hexenoate, and myristyl isobutyrate, attracted significantly higher number of both sexes of P. hybneri adults than the live male traps baited with ten R. clavatus males and hexane control.