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1-MCP 처리가 '신고' 배품종의 상온저장시의 품질에 미치는 영향을 알아보고자 실험을 실시하였다. 수확된 '신고' 배를 1-MCP 1 ppm의 농도로 수확당일, 수확후 1일, 수확후 2일에 각각 처리하고 이후에는 20±2℃의 실온에서 포장 저장하면서 품질관현 요인을 검정하였다. 초기 조사일의 과중에 대한 중간 조사일의 과중감소율에서는 5주차에 수확 1일후 1-MCP 처리구가 가장 감소율이 적었다. 당도에서는 처리간에 차이가 없었다. 경도와 부패과에서는 처리 5주차에서 1-MCP 처리구들이 무처리에 비해 뚜렷하게 경도와 부패과가 적게 발생하였다. 산도에서는 실험 5주차에 무처리가 다른 1-MCP 처리구보다 높았다. 결론적으로 수확직후의 1-MCP처리는 '신고' 배의 저장기간 연장에 효과적이었다. This study was carried out to find out the effects of 1-MCP treatment on the fruit quality of 'Niitaka' pear under room temperature storage conditions. With 1-MCP treatment one day after harvest, the lowest percentage of decrease in the fruit fresh weight was obtained at 5 weeks after the treatment. Soluble solids contents of MCP-treated fruit did not show significant differences among treatments. In comparison with the control, all of 1-MCP treatments showed a slow decrease in fruit firmness and low percentages in rotten fruit rate at 5 weeks after the treatment. At 5 weeks after the treatment, the fruit juice acidity of the control was higher than those from other 1-MCP treatments.
This study examines the temporal patterns and correlation amongtemporal variables during relay simultaneous interpretation ofspoken and sign language. To conduct this examination, the dataof the 2014 Sochi Paralympics live addresses inEnglish/Russian-Korean- Korean Sign language were used foranalysis. Speech time, the number of words and EVS (ear voicespan), TTS (tail to tail span), pause of source text and target texts(spoken and sign language) were compared for analysis. The resultof the analysis logically implies the following. First, in case of signlanguage interpretation, it needs more words to deliver the sameinformation compared to Korean. Second, due to the shortesEVS(ear voice span) of sign language, it can be shortened tobelow four seconds during relay interpretation. Third, pauses tendto become shorter as interpretation proceeds. On the contrary,speech proportion tends to rise. This may cause inconvenience tothe hearing-impaired deaf and viewers. Lastly, sign languageinterpretation is likely to be affected by spoken languageinterpreter who play, the role of a pivot rather than the speaker,and TTS(tail to tail span) can be the most important factor.
고통에 처한 그리스도인에게 하나님을 향한 분노는 종종 발견되는 현상이나, 분노를 표현하기 어렵다. 왜냐하면, 그리스도인에게 하나님을 향해 분노를 표출하는 것은 믿음이 없거나 영적으로 성숙하지 못한 것으로 보이기 때문이다. 그러나 하나님을 향한 분노가 미해결 될 때, 사람들은 영적・심리적・신체적으로 영향을 받는다. 하나님과의 인격적 관계를 중시하는 기독교 전통에서 분노는 하나님과의 진실한 소통을 어렵게 만든다. 본 논문은 Mark P. Cosgrove, Andrew D. Lester, Robert D. Jones과 David Powlison 간에 하나님을 향한 분노에 대한 이견을 다루고 있으며 이들의 입장을 기술, 비교하여 기독교 상담자들이 분노하는 내담자를 어떻게 돌보야 할지에 관심을 두고 연구되었다. 기술한 학자들의 의견을 토대로 기독교 상담자들이 중요하게 다루어야 할 주제로 ‘죄인으로서 인간’, ‘고난의 재구성’을 도출하였다. 상담자는 죄인인 내담자의 분노가 애통의 마음으로 표현될 수 있도록 도와야 하며, 내담자가 고난의 의미를 재구성 할 수 있도록 하나님보다 중요하게 생각하는 신념과 동기를 내려놓도록 돕는 것이 필요하다. 마지막으로 본 논의가 가진 한계를 기술하였고 구체적 적용을 위한 사례연구를 제안하였다. For Christians in suffering, anger toward God is often a phenomenon that is found, but it is difficult to express angry. That is because it appears to be faithless or spiritually immature. However, when anger toward God is unresolved, it affects a person physically, psychologically, and spiritually. In particular, a personal relationship with God is important in the Christian tradition. Unless the anger toward God is resolved, it is difficult to achieve true communication with God. But there is a disagreement in view of anger toward God in Christian Counseling. This paper deals with different opinions on anger toward God in Mark P. Cosgrove, Andrew D. Lester, Robert D. Jones, and David Powlison, and describes and compares their opinions to see how Christian counselors should care for angry clients. Based on the opinions of scholars, “human as a sinner” and “reframing of suffering” were derived as important topics that Christian counselors should consider. A Counselor should help the anger of a sinner client to be expressed with mourning. In addition, a counselor needs to help a client put down the beliefs and motivations that are more important than God in order to reframe the meaning of suffering. Lastly, it is described the limitations of this discussion and suggested case studies for specific application.
According to Bakhtin‘s dialogicality, linguistic expressions and speeches are comprised of various voices. When a certain speaker/writer uses speeches/writings of others to express one’s own thoughts or opinions, the process of “voicing” takes place. Similarly, newspapers and media companies may release translated speeches in the form of direct quotations as a means to voice their opinions. This study examines the translated discourses of Russia’s president Vladimir Putin from the Bakhtin’s dialogicality perspective to investigate how Korean media uses direct quotation as a means of voicing. Through the analysis, this paper also seeks to bring new insights to how Korean media views Russia. Trans-edited articles used in the study were retrieved with the keyword “Putin” from the KINDS database at www.kinds.or.kr. A total of 66 trans-edited articles with direct quotations from president Putin and six source texts, from which the direct quotations were cited, were analyzed upon the following categories: subject in the direct quotation; content of the direct quotation; and the predicate verb in the direct quotation. Although retrieved articles were of news analysis and straight news genres, in which the writer’s opinion is not reflected, this study found that newspaper and media companies frequently used direct quotations as a means of voicing to represent ideological preferences or to express negative opinions of certain subject matters.
This paper aims to categorize the errors of the Korean-Russian machine translation and establish pre-editing rules to improve the quality of machine translation. Result shows that types of errors include vocabulary and context error, typo, others, verbal error, (vocabulary/phrase) omission, (vocabulary/phrase) structural error and an error on a proper noun and number/time/date error in following order. Based on these, 10 pre-editing rules have been established and suggested. 1) The formal name must be used instead of an abbreviation for a particular organization. 2) numerical writing methods which use Korean units must be avoided. 3) address must be divided for each unit by using a comma. 4) in the case of date, correct information must be provided to identify the context such as year, month, date and etc. 5) the usage of polysemy or homonym must be avoided. 6) the meaning must be clarified. 7) the usage of dependent nouns which can cause confusion in identifying the context must be avoided 8) addition of unnecessary information(symbol) must be avoided 9) abbreviated subject must be clarified. 10) the sentence structure must be simplified. As a result of using these rules, it has been confirmed that the errors of machine translation have been significantly improved.
This study aims to identify how regulatives(terms of address) in Russian play are being translated into Korean, what kind of problems in translation strategies and find useful translation strategies. This study conducted qualitative discourse analysis on style in pragmatics aspect. The subject of analysis is nine Korean translation of the Cherry Orchard, which is the representative play of Anton Chehov. The analysis result showed that there are used a lot of useful translation strategies such as literal and substitution translation strategy of terms of address, choice of suitable honorifics at sentence level, addition of discourse marker, shift of speech level to hearer, use of innormative speech level to hearer, omitting end of sentence, use of indirect speech and so on to convey various stylistic effects of regulatives. But there are two problems. 1) Although relatives have not ‘addressing function’, in many of caserelatives translated in level of terms of address. 2) Because of using same translation strategies, there is no difference in style between regulatives and other terms of address, which is the cause of losing the function, purpose, nuance and color of russian regulatives.
The following study looked at the effects of Hyangsayukgunjatang and Hyangsayukgunjatang-ga-kyenegum, moryobun on gastric ulcers in rats. In the 1st experiment, ulcers were induced by method of shay's pylorus-ligated in rats. Subjects were administered 2 kinds of medicine, Hyangsayukgunjatang and Hyangsayukgunjatang-ga-kyenegum, moryobun, which were taken orally. The quantity of gastric juice secretion, total acidity of gastric juice, HCI secretion and serumgastrin content were measured and tissues of gastric mucosa epithelium were observed. 1. The quantity of gastric juice secretion in Hyangsayukgunjatang-treated and Hyangsayukgunjatang-ga-kyenegum, moryobun-treated groups showed significant decrease incomparision with the control group. 2. In relation to total acidity of gastric juice, only Hyangsayukgunjatang -treated groupshowed significant decrease in comparison with the control group. 3. HCI secretion of Hyangsayukgunjatang-treated and Hyangsayukgunjatang-ga-kyenegum, moryobun-treated groups showed significant decrease in comparision with the control group. 4. Content of serum gastrin, which were present in Hyangsayukgunjatang -treated and Hyangsayukgunjatang-ga-kyenegum, moryobun- treated groups showed significant decrease in comparision with the control group. 5. The degree of ulcer occurrence & parietal cell numbers and chief cell numbers of Hyangsayukgunjatang-treated and Hyangsayukgunjatang-ga-kyenegum, moryobun-treatedgroups, which were observed by macrographic & histologic method showed signicant decreasein comparison with the control group. Hyangsayukguniatang-treated group prooved to be increasingly effective. From above the experiment results it can be concluded that Hyangsayukgunjatang will be more clinical effective on curing gastric ulcers induced by method of Shay's pylorus-ligated rather than that of Hyangsayukgunjatang-ga-kyenegum, moryobun.
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine differences between the traditional lecture teaching learning method and action learning teaching learning method of nursing students’ leadership, problem solving competence, creativity, and critical thinking disposition. Methods: This study was carried out from February 24, 2014 to May 30, 2014 with 171 nursing students (an experimental group of 88 students and a control group of 83 students) assigned among 2nd year students attending nursing departments in U city. The Action learning teaching learning method applied to the experimental group by two experts. The Traditional lecture teaching learning method applied to the control group. In order to compare the differences, a pre and post questionnaire were used. The data gathered was analyzed using the SPSS 22. Results: Upon completion of education the nursing students’ leadership, problem solving competence and creativity significantly increased both in the experimental group and in the control group compared to the pre testing phase. The critical thinking disposition significantly increased after education in the experimental group, but there was no significant change in the critical thinking disposition of the control group. Conclusion: To improve nursing students’ leadership, problem solving competence, creativity, and critical thinking disposition the action learning teaching learning method appears to be more effective than the traditional lecture teaching learning method.