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Neungkwan is the government official who protect and manage royal tombs. At the beginning of the Joseon dynasty, there were two tomb officials at each royal tomb who didn’t possess the rank. From 1368, two tomb officials with ninth rank, the lowest, called Neung Chambong, worked at each royal tomb. Since 1707(King Sukjong 33th years), the great decrease of the number of the high level officials servants and great increase of the Chambon due to the reform of government organization from Jung 3rd grade to Jong 8th grade was the cause of the backlog of the officials from Jong 6th grade to Jong 9th grade. To resolve the backblog, the half of the number of Chambon had the opportunity of promotion from jong 5th degre to jong 8th degre. So, in 1485(Sungjong 16th years) as Neungkwan of Kyungkukdaejeon there were 20 posts of Neung Chambon and 40 posts of Chambon. In 1785(Jeongjo 9th years), at the Daejeontongpyun there were 80 posts of Neungkwan including 42 posts of Neung Chambon, 19 posts Ryung, 41 posts of Chambon, 6 posts of Jikjang, 3 posts of Bongsa, and 11 posts of Byulgeom. This means the expansion and promotion of Neungkwan system. Although Neungkwan was the low level government posts, after 1706 it occupied the important part of government officials from jong 5th degre to jong 9th degre. So, it was a pivot of the management of Eumgwan (civil servants) system at the sphere of the number of government officials. 능관(陵官)은 개국조의 선조와 역대 왕의 묘를 수호하고 관리하는 관인(官人, 官職)이다. 조선왕조는 능관으로 처음에는 능 모두에 관품이 없는 능직(陵直) 2명을 두었고. 1368년(세조 12)경부터 종9품직의 참봉(參奉) 2명을 두었다. 1707년(숙종 33)부터는 1485년(성종 16) 이후로부터 당시까지에 걸친 관제개정과 관련되어 정3품 ~ 종8품직이 많이 삭감되고 종9품직 - 특히 능관인 참봉의 수가 크게 증가되면서 종6 ~ 종9품관의 인사가 크게 적체되었다. 이러한 인사적체로 인한 관인의 인사행정을 원활히 하기 위헤 관제를 변통하면서 능관인 참봉 2명 중 1명을 령(令, 종5품), 직장(直長, 종7), 봉사(奉事, 종8), 별검(別檢, 종8)으로 승격하였다. 이리하여 능관은 1485년(성종 16, 경국대전(經國大典))에 20능 참봉 40직이다가 1746년(영조 22, 속대전)에는 40능 영 이하 80직(영 9, 직장 4, 별검 7, 참봉 60), 1785년(정조 9, 대전통편)에는 42능 영 이하 80직(영 19, 직장 9, 봉사 3, 별검 11, 참봉 38)으로 변천되면서 운영되었다. 능관은 종5품 ~ 종9품의 하급관이기는 하나 그 관직수와 관련되어 각각 1705년까지는 문관과 음관 종9품직, 1706년 이후는 종5 ~ 종9품관직의 대부분을 점하고 음관이 중심이 된 관직운영의 중심이 되었다.
The construction companies are still unstable even though the financial structures of the construction companies were stablized due to the prosperity of the real estate market in recent 2 to 3 years. Most construction companies have concentrated on the housing market and the major construction companies put their efforts on that market in the rate of 30 to 50 percent of their whole projects. At this moment the demand of housing construction is seriously decreasing and unlot-houses are increasing. However overseas large scale construction demands are increasing. Therefore, construction companies have to be competitive to win in the international construction market. In other words, the competitiveness in the global market depends on how many projects Korean construction companies get. Therefore, construction companies have to be well equipped with general construction management system along with engineering and risk management capacity. In this research, the trend of overseas construction market is firstly studied. This research further suggests how construction companies can be competitive through enhancing the engineering capability.
King Taejong's character was serene, courageous and affinity in mind. Also his scholarship, statesmanship and patronage system were excellent. This inclinations were surrogated by most important powers in his supporting men and Yukjo(六曹) system. Also army staff adjustment was important sovereign power enforcement. His reign period, 30 royal clansmen still lived especially Lee-haw, Lee-chunwoo, Lee-yangwoo etc. They were supporting men power through the Siwigun(侍衛使), Juljaesa(節制使). The close attendants were also potential supporting group for example Haryun and 30 peoples at his powerless period. Hwanghee and 40 officers-they mostly secrets group or inner circle-was men power in his reign period. Sungjungwon(承政院) was systematic basic office in official duties. Also Sungji(承旨) was powerful office and very affective in political realm. That was very important men's supply group in King Taejong's reign. Siwigun was also political power in his sovereign period. At same time, Juljaesa office, for example Jodaelim, Kwongu etc. were most important men power group. The enforcement power by king were overwhelmed through the Yukjo and Yukjojike system(六曹直哲制) and reenforced and stabilized after 5 years his reign period. That system were not only underestimated the Euijungbu(議政府)'s function but enforced by central political realm in his period. The military administration system & military command system were basic power point through the king's contxol ways. At same time military administration office like a Bungjo(兵曹) and Samgunbu(三軍府), Panseo(判書), Youngsa(領事) were almost appointed to close attendant and supporting men. I summarized this thesis at below. King Taejong has a excellent qualification, a meritorious retainer, and a powerful close attendants being a men power, central kingship. By contrast. he also surrogated a sovereign power through the Sungjungwon, Siwigun, Yukjo, etc. By these system he reestablished a cultural surroundings, enforced kingship, consequently step to king Sejongs splendor period.