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본 연구는 현행 지방교육자치제에 대한 선행연구에 나타난 정책적 시사점을 기초로 하여 교육자치에 대한 이론적 고찰, 발전과정분석, 국제비교연구 등을 종합하여 우리나라 실정에 맞는 지방교육자치제의 개선방안을 제시하는데 연구의 목적이 있다. 문헌 분석을 통하여 현행 지방교육자치제도의 문제점을 파악하고, 그 개선방안 및 정책적 제언을 제시하였지만 지방교육자치제에 영향을 미치는 다양한 변수를 전부 고려한 분석을 하지 못한 점과 계량 분석이 아닌 질적 당위론적 입장에서의 분석이라는 점 등이 본 논문의 한계로 지적될 수 있다. 현행 지방교육자치제도에서의 주요 쟁점들을 보면 교육자치의 기본구조로부터 교육위원회의 성격과 위상에서 비롯된 일반지방자치와의 부조화, 교육위원과 교육감의 자격 및 선출방식, 교육행정 계층간 권한의 기능배분, 지방교육재정의 과도한 국고 의존과 지방자치단체의 미미한 지원 그리고 운영의 비효율성 등인 것으로 분석되었다. Since the educational autonomy system was newly put in force across the country in 1991, "the Local Education Autonomy Act" has been revised 17 times. However, the current system still has numerous challenges in achieving its fundamental and essential autonomy, and an in-depth study is urgently required to improve the system. The purpose of this study is to present a plan for improving the educational autonomy system that fits our nation's educational system, a plan which integrates theoretical examinations of educational autonomy, analyses of development process, and comparative studies of the international community, based on policy proposals illustrated in previous studies of the current educational autonomy system. This study clearly shows the challenges of the current educational autonomy system through literature analysis, and presents policy suggestions and reformation plans for them. Yet, it may be pointed out that there are limitations to this research in that it could not conduct an analysis that considered all the diverse variables that affect the educational autonomy system, and that its analysis was done from the perspective of qualitative justification rather than quantitative analysis. The main points of contention in the educational autonomy system were analyzed to be those ranging from the structure of educational autonomy, a lack of collaboration between the board of education and the local government, the qualifications of board members and superintendents and the election procedure, functional share of authority among educational administrators, local educational administration's excessive reliance on state subsides, insignificant support from local autonomous bodies, and inefficient management. The conclusions reached on the basis of the study results are as follows: First, the educational autonomy that has been implemented only locally to the greater metropolitan areas should be extended to the basic units. The educational autonomy at the basic units should be put into operation from cities and counties under provinces, and the autonomous wards in broader city areas should be excluded in consideration of the size of their jurisdiction areas and the special characteristics of metropolitan city administration. Second, for the basic unit educational autonomy, an educational commissioner should be appointed to head an executive organization which will be solely responsible for dealing with the educational affairs of special local autonomous bodies within the sphere of provincial jurisdiction. This establishment of the board of education should be independent and free from the intervention of the local government. The boards of education of broader unit cities and provinces that are currently commissioned to be deliberation and decision-making bodies should be converted into a representative and executive organization. The local assembly should be given the authority to impose responsibility and obligation of deliberation and decision-making on educational affairs and school budget. Third, the basic unit of board of education should consist of more than five members and less than nine members. The board members should be directly elected by local residents in order to realize the principle of layman control. The standard of qualification for basic unit educational board members should be that candidates have eligibility for election to the local assembly and be without political party membership. The qualifications for educational experts should be identical to the current ones or at least maintained in a similar manner. The metropolitan area unit board of education should be composed of seven to fifteen members as is currently the case, and board members should be directly elected by the basic unit board of education, the members of which are directly voted by local residents. The standard of qualifications for board members should require education-related experience of more than ten years among those with the eligibility for election to the local assembly and with no political party membership, and also take into account that professionalism of an executive organization member is required of educational board members. Fourth, in order for the educational autonomy system to be substantially accomplished, a significant portion of the function, operation, and authority that the central government has until now been managing should be delegated to provincial and local educational boards. In addition, local educational boards should resolutely commission those management jobs in their hands to schools. Fifth, the role of local governments in carrying the burden of educational expenses and managing educational finance should be reconsidered. Assistance for educational expenses from the local governments should be expanded, considering the limitations of the financial capability of the central government and the expansion of the educational autonomy system to the basic units. In order to acquire stable local educational financing, for the short term, measures such as an upward adjustment in the issuance of local educational financial grants should be worked out. On top of this, the local autonomous organizations' obligation in sharing educational expenses should be strengthened through an increase in local tax revenues. For the long term, a comprehensive measure should be provided to enhance the self-reliance of the local educational finance including a revision of the taxation system currently focused mainly on national taxes.
Liposomes have been used as drug carriers for the delivery of peptide, anticancer agent, hormones, and etc. Another possibiltity of liposome as an effective carrier for the oral administration of drugs which are unstable in gastrointestinal tract has been extensively studied in recent years, in the viewpoint of protection of liposome against pH, bile salts and pancreatic lipase in physiological circumstances. Pullulan, a hydrophilic polysaccharide and a coating agent for foods and drugs, was employed in this experiment to coat the DMPC liposomes (MLVs) by adsorption technique. Physical properties of pullulan-coated liposomes were investigated with TEM and particle size analyzer. Turbidity changes were measured and expressed as a relative turbidity (A_t/A_0), in order to compare the stability of uncoated or pullulan-coated liposomes against both pH shock and bile salts attack. The stability of liposomes was independent of pH, since turbidities of liposomes were unchanged for 8 hours in various pH buffer solutions from pH 1.2 to 7.4. On the other hand, from the observations in pH 5.6 or 6.8 buffer solution, pullulan-coated liposomes showed comparative stability against sodium choleate upto 0.15% concentration, although neither uncoated nor pullulan-coated liposomes revealed enough stability against the bile salt at 0.15% or higher concentration. Therefore, it is possible to conclude that pullulan-coated liposmes might be useful as a drug carrier for oral delivery, because of the enhanced stability in gastrointestinal environment. It is still necessary, however, to find out better selections for polymers and coating methods for the purpose of further stabilization of liposomes.
Today, the cosmetics market is saturated with the technology up-leveling of cosmetics brands and the reduction of product functional differences. In particular, in recent years, the sales of limited products made by collaboration with pansy characters in modern society, where more consumers display and consume hobbies through active SNS activities, along with the growing desire to differentiate themselves from individuals with high individuality and others, can be seen as a trend. In this study, we will conduct an online survey of female college students in their 20s who are most familiar with and use road shop brand products to compare the consumption patterns of existing products and pansy character collaboration limited products. The findings obtained from this study are summarized below. First, Fancy character collaboration limited products stimulate the emotional value of consumers compared to regular cosmetics. Second, the difference in motivation factors for purchasing general cosmetics and pansy character collaboration limited products is influenced by emotional value. Third, when emotional value is stimulated, the purchase rate is higher than when it is not. Considering the future development of the character industry, the competitiveness of character-related products is expected to increase. Especially at a time when the global economy is on the decline due to the recent COVID-19 epidemic, we hope it will be useful data to identify the value criteria and propensity of consumers' consumption and to create marketing with the lowest cost maximum effect. 오늘날 화장품 시장은 화장품 브랜드의 기술 상향평준화 및 제품 기능 차이의 감소로 인해 포화상태가 되어 있다. 특히 최근 들어 개성지향이 높은 개인이나 남들과는 차별화된 욕구가 강한 소비자가 많아짐과 더불어, 활발한 SNS 활동으로 취미 생활을 전시하고 소비하는 현대 사회에서 팬시 캐릭터와의 콜라보레이션(Collaboration)으로 만들어지는 리미티드 상품의 판매는 하나의 트렌드라고도 볼 수 있다. 이에 본 연구에서는 로드샵 브랜드 제품을 가장 많이 접하고 사용하는 20대 여대생을 대상으로 온라인 설문조사를 실시하여 기존 제품과 팬시 캐릭터 콜라보레이션 리미티드 상품의 소비 형태를 비교 분석해보고자 한다. 본 연구를 통해 얻어진 연구결과를 요약하면 다음과 같다. 첫째, 팬시 캐릭터 콜라보레이션 리미티드 상품은 일반 화장품에 비해 소비자의 감정적 가치를 자극시킨다. 둘째, 일반 화장품과 팬시 캐릭터 콜라보레이션 리미티드 상품의 구매 동기 요인 차이는 감정적 가치에 영향을 받는다. 셋째, 감정적 가치가 자극될 때는 그렇지 않을 때보다 높은 구매율을 보인다. 이후의 캐릭터 산업의 발전을 고려하였을 때 캐릭터 관련 상품의 경쟁력은 더 커질 것으로 본다. 특히 최근 COVID-19 전염병으로 인해 세계 경제가 하락세를 타고 있는 요즘, 소비자들의 소비의 가치 기준과 성향을 파악하여 최저 비용 최대 효과의 마케팅을 창출할 수 있도록 유용한 자료가 되기를 기대한다.
Applications of liposomes as a drug carrier for the oral delivery of poorly-absorbable macromolecular drugs have been limited, because of their instability in gastrointestinal environments including pH, bile salts, and digestive enzymes. Two polysaccharides, dextran(DX) and pullulan(PL), were introduced to the preformed liposomes in order to enhance the stability. Palmitoyl derivatives of polysaccharides, palmitoyldextran(PalDX) and palmitoylpullulan(PalPL), were synthesizd and introduced to the liposomes during preparation for the same purpose of stability. The effects of these polysaccharides coating were evaluated basically by physical properties of particle size distribution and optical microscopy, then compared with uncoated liposomes by the observations of both in vitro stability and in vovo absorption characteristics. The geometric mean diameters of polysaccharide-coated liposomes were greater than that of uncoated liposome, showing the outermost polysaccharide-coated layer under the optical microscopy. In vitro stabilities of uncoated or polysaccharides-coated liposomes were measured by turbidity changes in various pH buffer solutions containing sodium choleate as bile salts. While uncoated liposome was very sensitive to bile salts, polysaccharides-coated liposomes were stable in relatively higher concentrations of sodium choleate, giving the results of better stability of PalDX- and PalPL-coated liposomes than that of DX- and PL-coated liposomes. After liposomal encapsulation of acyclovir(ACV), an antiviral agent as a model drug, it has been administered orally to rats as dose of ACV 40 mg/kg. Plasma concentrations of ACV were assayed by HPLC and analyzed by model-independent pharmacokinetics. Pharmacokinetic parameters of Cmax, tmax, and [AUC] have been compared.
One day, because resources are not source of all resources are consumed in the future, we must find new resources or substitutes.In addition, continuing resource consumption is There is also the problem of environmental pollution.Progressing research continues to find a substitute, but still completely substitute that can replace an existing resources should not exist, and substitutes the present situation it is difficult as a complete solution for a limited duration.For this reason, to start the limited resources started recycling for human beings. Therefore, this study analyzed the status of paper recycling based on the laws and recycling systems of Korea and Japan, analyzed what differences affect the quality differences in the recycling systems of the two countries, and conducted a study to find out the development direction of Korea's paper recycling system. First, Korea's tributary recycling system was analyzed based on the separate discharge application of my hand made by the Ministry of Environment and the Korea Environment Corporation, the packing material and structure evaluation system of the Korea Packaging Recycling Business Credit Union, and the Resource Conservation and Recycling Promotion Act. Next, the paper recycling system in Japan was analyzed based on the container packaging recycling method and the highland recycling certification system. In this study, it is meaningful to compare and analyze how laws related to paper recycling are stipulated and implemented by country, and to find out what differences in the recycling system affect the quality difference on recycled paper. However, since the separate collection of notices for recycling cannot be achieved through individual efforts, it is expected that the national level will supplement the loopholes in the system and increase the ratio of recycled paper. 자원은 무한히 존재하지 않기 때문에, 언젠가의 미래에 모든 자원이 소모되면 인류는 새로운 자원이나 대체재를 찾아 나서야 한다. 더불어 계속되는 자원 소모는 환경오염의 문제도 있다. 대체재를 찾는 연구는 계속해서 진행되고 있지만 아직 기존 자원들을 완벽히 대체할 수 있는 대체재는 존재하지 않다고 봐야 하며, 대체재가 현 상황의 완전한 해결책이라고 보기에는 어렵다는 한계점이 있다. 이러한 이유로 한정되어있는 자원을 아껴 쓰기 위해 인류는 재활용을 시작하였다. 이에 본 연구에서는 한국과 일본의 재활용 관련 법률과 재활용 체계를 바탕으로 종이류 재활용 현황을 분석하고, 두 나라의 재활용 체계에 어떤 차이점이 재생지에 품질 차이에 영향을 미치는지 알아보고자 한다. 궁극적으로 우리나라의 종이류 재활용 체계의 발전 방향을 알아보고자 연구를 진행하였다. 먼저 환경부와 한국환경공단에서 제작한 내 손안의 분리배출 어플리케이션과 한국 포장재 재활용 사업공제조합의 포장재 재질·구조 평가제도, 한국 순환자원유통 지원센터의 자원의 절약과 재활용촉진에 관한 법률을 토대로 대한민국의 지류 재활용 체계에 대해 분석하였다. 다음으로 용기포장 리사이클법과 고지 재활용 인증 제도를 토대로 일본의 종이류 재활용 체계에 대해 분석하였다. 본 연구에서는 국가별로 종이류 재활용 관련 법률이 어떻게 규정되고 시행되고 있는지 비교 분석하고 재활용 체계의 어떤 차이점이 재생지에 품질 차이에 영향을 미치는지를 알아보는 데에 의의가 있다. 다만 재활용을 위한 고지의 분별 회수는 개인의 노력으로 이룰 수 없는 부분이기 때문에 국가 차원에서 제도의 허점을 보완해주기를, 그리고 더욱 재생지의 사용 비율이 늘어나기를 기대한다.
As we enter 2021, environmental issues around the world are once again on the rise. The cosmetics industry is releasing a sustainable package design to keep pace with the change that seeks to solve the cosmetic plastic container problem as the importance of eco-friendly packaging increases, but there is a limitation in that it is difficult to become a complete solution. Therefore, this study conducted a single case study focusing on the research output to compare and analyze the difference in the recycling status of cosmetic packages by country based on domestic and foreign laws and regulations. Based on domestic and foreign laws and regulations, we first analyzed the operation and management of the domestic resource circulation system based on the Waste Management Act enforcement regulations, EPR, and packaging material structure evaluation system. We analyzed the status of packaging waste in four foreign countries based on the countries announced in the health industry briefs announced by KHIDI. In this study, it is meaningful to compare and analyze how the laws and regulations related to packaging waste are regulated and implemented in each country for the common problem of environmental pollution. However, it is also clear that each country needs to work together, given the current situation that cannot be solved in a short period of time. It is expected that this thesis will not only compare and analyze laws and regulations related to packaging waste, but also serve as data that can further strengthen the effectiveness of each country's policies. 2021년에 접어들며 전 세계적으로 환경 문제가 다시 한 번 대두되었다. 화장품 업계는 친환경 패키지의 중요성이 높아지며 화장품 플라스틱 용기 문제를 해결하고자 하는 변화에 발맞추어 지속 가능한 패키지 디자인을 출시하고 있지만, 완전한 해결책이 되기에는 어렵다는 한계점이 있다. 이에 본 연구는 국내외의 법률 및 규정을 바탕으로 국가별 화장품 패키지 재활용 현황 차이를 비교 분석하기 위해 연구 산출물에 초점을 두고 연구를 진행하였다. 국내외의 법률 및 규정을 바탕으로 먼저 폐기물 관리법 시행 규칙, 생산자 책임 재활용 제도(EPR: Extended Producer Responsibility), 포장재 재질 구조 평가 제도를 토대로 국내 자원순환제도 운영 및 관리 현황에 대해 분석하였다. 한국보건산업진흥원(KHIDI)에서 발표한 보건산업 브리프에서 발표된 국가를 기준으로 국외 4개국의 포장 폐기물 현황을 분석하였다. 수집된 자료를 통해 국가별 화장품 패키지 재활용 현황 차이에 대해 분석을 진행하였다. 본 연구에서는 환경오염이라는 공통 문제에 대해 국가별로 포장 폐기물 관련 법률 및 규정이 어떻게 규정되고 시행되고 있는지 비교 분석하는 데에 의의가 있다. 다만 단기간에 해결되지 않는 문제를 직면하고 있는 현 상황을 고려하였을 때, 각국에서 힘을 합쳐야하는 점 역시 명확하다. 본 논문은 단순 포장 폐기물 관련 법률 및 규정을 비교 분석하는 데에 그치지 않고 더 나아가 각국 정책의 실효성을 강화할 수 있는 자료가 되기를 기대한다.
Tracheal invasion is an uncommon complication of thyroid cancer, but it can cause respiratory failure. A rigid bronchoscope may be used to help relieve airway obstruction, but general anesthesia is usually required. Tracheal balloon dilatation and stent insertion can be performed without general anesthesia, but complete airway obstruction during balloon inflation may be dangerous in some patients. Additionally, placement of the stent adjacent to the vocal cords can be technically challenging. An 86-year-old female patient with tracheal invasion resulting from thyroid cancer was admitted to our hospital because of worsening dyspnea. Due to the patient’s refusal of general anesthesia and the interventional radiologist’s difficulty in completing endotracheal stenting, we performed endotracheal tube balloon dilatation and argon plasma coagulation. We have successfully treated tracheal obstruction in the patient with thyroid cancer by using endotracheal tube balloon inflation and a flexible bronchoscope without general anesthesia or airway obstruction during balloon inflation.
화장은 현대 여성들의 생활에 있어서 빠질 수 없는 필수 요소가 되었다. 화장은 여성에게 있어 자신을 표현하는 수단이며 결점을 감춰주는 역할을 하고 있다. 자기표현 욕구가 강한 20대와 30대를 중심으로 색조 화장품의 수요가 증가하고 있다. 이에 본 연구에서는 색조 화장품의 구매가 가장 활발한 밀레니얼 세대의 중심이 되는 20대 여성을 대상으로 구매 성향을 조사하였다. 본 연구를 통해 얻어진 연구결과를 요약하면 아래와 같다. 첫째, 사용편리성, 보관 및 저장성, 기능 및 안전성 중 사용편리성이 화장품 구매하는 데 가장 큰 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다. 둘째, 베이스 메이크업 제품을 펌프용기, 튜브용기, 펜슬용기 등 용기의 형태 별로 분류하였을 때 사용편리성 항목에서 메이크업 베이스는 튜브용기, 파운데이션과 파우더는 팩트용기, 컨실러는 반복꺼냄용기, 쿠션은 스펀지 타입이 구매 시 만족도를 높이는 요인임을 확인할 수 있었다. 본 연구를 통해서 색조 화장품의 용기디자인 개발에 있어 편리성이 가장 고려가 되어야 하는 기능임을 알 수 있었다. 본 연구는 향후 화장품을 개발하는데 도움이 되고자 한다. Make-up has become an integral part of modern women's lives. To women, makeup is a means of expressing themselves and hiding flaws. Demand for tinted cosmetics is on the rise, with those in their 20s and 30s having a strong desire to express themselves. In this study, women in their 20s were found to be the center of the Millennial Generation, where the purchase of tinted cosmetics was the most active. In summary, the results of the study are as follows. First, it was found that ease of use, storage and storage of use, function and safety had the greatest impact on the purchase of cosmetics. Second, when base makeup products were classified by form of containers such as pump containers, tube containers, and pencil containers, the makeup base could be identified in the use convenience items as tube containers, foundation and powder, concealer repeated off containers, and cushion sponge types were factors that enhance satisfaction during purchase. Through this study, convenience in the development of container design of tinted cosmetics was the most important function to be considered. This study is intended to help develop cosmetics in the future.
본 연구는 교원의 전문성의 신장시키고 떨어진 사기를 진작시킨다는 목적에서 시행되고 있는 교육공무원 성과상여금제에 대하여 현장 교사들의 전반적인 실태를 확인하고 나아가 교육공무원에 대한 성과상여금제가 지니고 있는 문제점과 그 개선방안을 모색하는데 그 기본 목적이 있다. 아울러, 이러한 연구의 목적을 달성하기 위하여 교육공무원 성과상여금제의 이론적 배경과 그 시행 실태를 고찰·분석하여 교육공무원 성과상여금제의 개선에 기여하기 위하여 초·중등교사간, 남·여교사간, 직급간, 교육경력간, 학교수준간에 차이가 있는가를 밝힌다. This paper has the basic purpose of examining comprehensively the real situation of the incentive payment system for public educational personnel which was introduced with a view to intensify professionalism of teachers in the front and enhance their degenerated morale and, by thus, finding out the measures for its improvement. From the outcomes of the study on and analysis into the incentive system for public educational personnel, it may be concluded and suggested as follows: First, the system should be operated not just to make assessment for assessment's sake but in the manner to provide incentives to excellent teachers and, at the same time, to encourage others to develop their specialty, as was intended initially. Second, the system should be able to form the sense of community among teachers and establish objective criterion for rating in order to recover and maintain trust between the assessors and the assessed. Third, it is proposed to assess teachers not in such one-way and uniform pattern as has been done till presently by principals of each school but to develop and utilize various techniques to ensure multi-faceted assessment in consideration of time, method and frequency of assessment.
Microencapsulation of acyclovir, an effective antiviral agent which acts as a specific inhibitor of herpes DNA polymerase, by carbopol-gelatin complex coacervation has been carried out to develop an oral controlled release preparation, which could improve the absorption characteristics in GI tract. After dissolving carbopol and gelatin separately in distilled water at 40℃, gelatin solution was mixed with carbopol solution while stirring at the same temperature. The pH of the mixture was lowered gradually by dropwise addition of 10% HCl with continuous stirring, and then, at pH 3.5, positively charged gelatin molecules were attracted to negatively charged carbopol. These coacervation processes were observed by optical microscopy during preparation. Plasma concentrations of acyclovir in rats after an oral administration of microcapsule suspension were assayed by HPLC, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated based on the model-independent analyses. Two standard formulations, oral solution and intravenous bolus injection, were used as references to compare the bioavailability. It has been revealed that C_(max), t_(max), and MRT of microcapsule suspension were greater than those of oral solution, which results in about two-fold increases in bioavailability. Therefore, in conclusion, the carbopol-gelatin microcapsule of acyclovir might be evaluated as an effective oral controlled release preparation which could increase the bioavailability of acyclovir.