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The frictional behavior of stamping process is a function of interface parameters such as sheet and tool material, lubricant, surface roughness, contact pressure, sliding speed etc. Among these parameters the thing that can be controlled by a steel maker is the surface roughness of sheet. In this study, effects of surface roughness on the frictional behavior of steel sheet for automotive were investigated to find out the way to improve the frictional characteristics of steel sheet. The cold rolled steel sheets with various surface roughnesses were prepared for the test. The flat type friction test was conducted with different lubricant conditions. The surface roughness effect on frictional behavior depends on the viscosity of lubricant. The frictional characteristic of steel sheet was influenced by the amplitude of roughness as well as the shape of that.
The frictional behavior of bare steel sheet highly depends on surface roughness. It was investigated that the change of surface roughness of bare steel sheet due to deformation for each forming mode. The flat type friction test was done to check the effect of surface roughness change on frictional characteristics of bare steel sheet. As increasing the deformation, the Ra value was increased at stretching forming mode and drawing forming mode, however the change of Pc showed different trends. The Pc was decreased as increasing stretch deformation but increased at compression deformation. At drawing forming mode, the friction coefficient was increased as deformation was increased after initial big drop with drawing oil. As deformation was increased, the friction coefficient was decreased with drawing oil at stretching forming mode. The results show that the deformation changes the surface roughness and frictional characteristics of steel sheet but the effect depends on the forming mode.
Many parameters influence the frictional behavior of steel sheet during stamping. The contact pressure between a die and a sheet during stamping is one of them. Thus, this parameter is investigated for high strength steel (HSS) sheets, which are widely used for auto body panels due to their potential for weight reduction. Since HSS extend the limits of contact pressure for mild steel, the effect of this parameter on friction cannot be ignored. To investigate the influence of contact pressure on the frictional behavior of steel sheets, a flat type of friction test was conducted on three different steel sheets under various contact pressures. For bare steel sheets, the curve representing the relationship between contact pressure and friction coefficient exhibits a U shape. Coated steel sheets show a similar tendency except at low contact pressure. For these materials, when the contact pressure is very low, the friction coefficient slightly increases with pressure before it starts to decrease. The test results show that the effect of contact pressure on frictional behavior of steel sheet is not negligible even for contact pressures that are lower than the strength of HSS sheet.
Variation of contact pressure causes change of friction coefficient, which in turn changes stress distribution in the sheet being formed and final springback. In the present study, U-draw bending experiments were carried out under constant blank holding force(BHF) and different blank sizes, and finite element analysis was conducted with and without considering contact pressure effect on friction. When the BHF was sufficiently high, the degree of springback was different between constant blank holding pressure condition and that with varying blank holding pressure. Finite element analysis considering the influence of contact pressure effect on friction could explain the occurrence of springback.
A numerical investigation of the butting process for an AZ31B magnesium alloy tube at elevated temperatures was conducted to develop a double-butted magnesium alloy tube. As a result of the current study, it was found that the amount of doming of the tube end, prior ironing-extrusion to obtain high wall thickness reduction are important factors for the butting process of magnesium alloy tubes. There is also a limitation of the thickness profile of butted tube due to buckling of tube wall during the stripping stage.
The exhaust tail pipe is the only visible part of the exhaust system on a vehicle. The conventional way to make the tail pipe is welding after stamping. There are various problems that occur during the stamping of stainless steel sheets such as scratching and local fracture. Problems during welding can also occur due to poor weldability. Tube hydroforming can be a solution, which eliminates these problems. The current study deals with the development of tube hydroforming for a vehicle tail pipe using finite element analysis for a free-feeding method. The current study focuses on the development of a proper load path for the tail pipe hydroforming and how bending influences the subsequent processing steps. The FE analysis results were compared with experimental results. This study shows the importance of bending and the necessity of considering bending when performing a tube hydroforming analysis.
The hot stamping process is an innovative forming method that could prevent the cracking of high strength steel sheets. The formability test of boron steel sheet using forming limit diagrams at elevated temperature is very complicated and time consuming job. In this paper, an alternative test method to evaluate the formability of boron steel in hot stamping has proposed. It measured the FLD0 instead of whole strain combinations of FLD with the tensile test machine and specially designed test rig. Test results shows that the proposed test method can simulate the plain strain condition fracture and can make the FLD of boron steel sheet at elevated temperature with less effort.