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A tree-length harvesting system using the HAM300, which is mounted on a farm tractor prototype machine, have been recently introduced in South Korea for thinning old (>30 years) forests. However, no research has previously been conducted on the characteristics of residual stand damage associated with cable yarding systems on thinning treatment stands in South Korea. Therefore, there were assessed on the degree and quantity of residual stand damage caused by felling and yarding process to broaden the knowledge of residual stand damage on semi-mechanized skyline thinning operations. This study investigated scar size, direction, area, shape type and their distribution on the residual stand damage caused by felling and yarding operations. Damage to residual trees was generated for 7.4% and 6.9% of residual trees in felling and yarding operations, respectively. Damaged direction of scars was located in front-side (38.9%) and up-side (34.7%) for felling operations while the highest scar damage was found on down-side (44.6%) for yarding operations. Scar heights of felling damage were higher than those of yarding damage. In yarding operation, the most of the scars was located within l0m from the center of the skyline corridor. These results should be useful information for forest managers and landowners to reduce residual stand damages and retain valuable timber volume from thinning treatments.
Cable yarding systems are often used to reduce hazardous fuels in dense overstocked forest stands on steep terrain (>35%) in the western United States. However, treatment costs tend to be high. The aim of this study was to broaden our knowledge by evaluating two different harvesting methods (whole-tree (WT) and tree-length (TL)) used for fuel reduction thinning treatment on mixed-conifer forest stand. Different harvesting methods greatly affected the productivity and cost of fuel reduction thinning, especially in felling and yarding operations. Total sawlog removal costs (stump-to-truck) were US$26.13/m3 in the WT-harvested unit and US$24.01/m3 in TL harvested unit. TL thinning resulted in higher felling time and lower production rate due to increased amounts of time for processing trees at the stump. In yarding operation, however, TL method had a higher production rate than WT method because TL method had higher number of pieces per yarding cycle. Processing production rates at a landing were relatively similar throughout treatments although trees in a TL thinning unit were already limbed and bucked at the stump. Loading productivity was consistent throughout treatments because loading occurred independently from other activities. For fuel reduction thinning treatments using a cable yarding system, TL thinning was more cost-effective than WT thinning if leaving tree tops and branches on site is acceptable from a fuels management perspective.
Background and Purpose : Most diagnostic method for lumbago were invasive and complex. So we need to simplify and objectify diagnostic method for lumbago. Some study with EAV which is one of Physiological Signal Measuring Instruments, report significantly result as objective diagnostic method for other clinical symptom. By using EAV, we have obtained some physiological signal data from meridian-acupoints of 31 lumbago cases. Objective and Methods : This study researched into the clinical statistics for 31 case who ware in lumbago, and they ware treated with oriental medical care at the Dong-shin university oriental hospital during 6 month from June 1 2001 to November 10 2001. The data were analyzed and interpreted to compare with traditional differentiation of symptom-complexes, then further evaluated as the Five Evolutive Phases to make them differentiated. The EAV valus of Five Evolutive Phases were identified with the sequence of wood(木), fire(火), earth(土)steel(金), water(水). Results and Conclusion : These values of physiological signal were identical with standard differentiation of symptom-complexes of lumbago which is the main cause of deficiency of Qi and blood of the kidney and bladder. Among Five Evolutive Phases, Earth and wood values were increased, steel, fire and water were decreased significantly. This data imply the possibility of somewhat generalization from measuring instruments.
MQ-Coder IP that is used in the JPEG2000 still image compression standard is called context based adaptive binary arithmetic coder. We designed such a MQ-Coder IP for the platform-based SOC design. IP design is performed and verified by proposed IP design process. And we also designed bus functional model for platform-based SOC chip that is implemented by integrating the ARM processor and 1-million gates FPGA.