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The heartwood of Caesalpinia sappan L. (Leguminosae) has been used to activate blood flow, remove blood stasis, reduce swelling and relieve pain in Korean folk medicine. In this study, the antioxidant effects of this crude drug and its hepatoprotective activity on CCI₄-induced liver injury in rats were evaluated. The levels of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) reduced by CCI₄ treatment, were recovered by this crude drug. It is suggested that Caesalpinia sappan L. have antioxidant effect. The increased levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) by CCI₄ were also recovered by treatment with this crude drug. These results can be attributed to the agent's antioxidant and membarane-stabilizing actions.
The tetrazolium dye, 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-y1)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), is reduced by live but not dead cell, and this reaction is used as the end point in a rapid drug screening assay. It can also be used for accurate determinations of drug sensitivity but only if a quantative relationship is established between cell number and MTT-formazan production. Several conditions were examined to devise an in vitro assay method in primary cultured hepatocytes, such as optimum wavelength, optimal MTT concentration, optimal incubation time, and cell density.
Purpose: We evaluated factors predicting a positive repeat biopsy result in patients with an initial negative prostate biopsy result. Materials and Methods: This study included 124 patients in whom prostate cancer (PCa) was not detected in the initial transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy and who underwent repeat biopsy from January 2011 to December 2017. Patients without PCa in both initial and repeat prostate biopsies were designated as group 1 (n=82), and those in whom PCa was detected on a repeat prostate biopsy were designated as group 2 (n=42). Among group 2 patients, 6 had insignificant PCa according to the Epstein criteria and were combined with group 1 patients to make up group A (n=88). Patients with significant PCa were categorized as group B (n=36). We compared clinicopathologic characteristics between the groups. Results: Multivariate analysis showed that age (p=0.018) and detection of atypical small acinar proliferation (ASAP) or ≥3 cores of high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) (p=0.011) on the initial biopsy were predictive factors for a positive result on a repeat biopsy. When we compared group A and group B, age (p=0.004) and the De Ritis ratio (p=0.024) were significantly higher in group B in the multivariate analysis. Conclusions: Age and the detection of ASAP or ≥3 cores of HGPIN on the initial biopsy were associated with detection of PCa on a repeat biopsy. Age and the De Ritis ratio were found to be predictive factors for the detection of clinically significant PCa on a repeat biopsy.
This study was undertaken to elucidate antioxidant effects of Lycopus lucidus extract an experimental oxidative stress in rats. Lycopus lucidus extract showed a good cell proliferation dose dependently in MTT-formazan formation. There was a slight plateau in a higher than 75㎍/㎖. This means Lycopus lucidus extract will be good for hepatocytes proliferation. Lycopus lucidus extract recovered CCl₄-induced decreases in the activities of superoxide dismutase(SOD) and catalase(CAT) These results suggest Lycopus lucidus would be a safe antioxidative agent.
Oxidative stress is a common mechanism by which chemical toxicity can occur in the liver. The enzymes involved are in the case of redox cycling drugs reductase which are present at levels which produce high activities in the liver. Redox cycling of chemicals could be increased in the liver by the oxygen concentration still being high enough to produce reactive oxygen species in high amounts. But other mechanism besides redox cycling also have to be taken into account when considering oxidative stress and chemical hepatotoxicity.
In oriental medicine several valuabel prescriptions for hepatic diseases usually contained the Bupleuri Radix and Scutellariae Radix. The possible protective effect of these oriental herb on hepatotoxicity induced with benzo(a)pyrene(B(a)P) in vivo were examined. Water extracts of Bupleleuri Radix, Scutellariae Radix and the mixture of both Radix were separately administered by orally to rats with hepatic demage induced by B(a)P(0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) and their effects in the serum were biochemically investigated. B(a)P treated group had siginificantly increased AST, ALT, ALP and LDH activities of Radix, Scutellariae Radix significantly diminished these increased enzyme activities. Increased total lipid, triglyceride and total cholesterol contents of serum by B(a)P injection were decreased by administration of water extract of Bupleuri Radix, Scutellariae Radix and mixture. Favorable results of this experiments indicate that herb mixture can be considered as a good therapeutic agent for the treatment of hepatic injury.
The primary enzymatic steps in ethanol metabolism to acetaldeh-yde, acetate and CO_2+water have been known for many decades, but only a few clinical implications were recognized, such as the risk of malnutrition due to use of alcohol as a source of calories, and the use of disulfiram and other ALDH blockers in the treatment of alcoholism. This review dealt briefly with current research aspects on alcohol metabolism and alcohol-related organic damage.