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In this paper, a simple macro model of n-channel MOSFET with dual workfunction gate (DWFG) structure is proposed. The DWFG MOSFET has higher transconductance and lower drain conductance than conventional MOSFET. Thus analog circuit design using the DWFG MOSFET can improve circuit characteristics. Currently, device models of the DWFG MOSFET are insufficient, so simple series connected two MOSFET model is proposed. In addition, a two stage operational amplifier using the proposed DWFG MOSFET macro model is designed to verify the model.
The purpose of this study was to confirm correlation between elementary school students` VARK Learning styles test and Scientific Communication Skills through VARK questionnaire (version 7.3) for Youngers and Scientific Communication Skills Test. The subjects were 99 in 6th grade students of an elementary school located in Gyeonggi-do, Korea. The results of this study were as follows: 64% of the students had multiple learning styles, but only 36% of the students preferred a single mode of information presentation. Among students had a single mode preference, the aural (“A”) was the highest unimodal preference. Among “V(visual)” mode, “A” mode, “R(read/write)” mode, and “K(kinesthetic)” mode, “A” mode was the commonest learning mode which students had. In Scientific Communication Skills Test, students` overall average was 26.19p [scientific explanation type (11.85p), scientific insistence type (14.34p)]. Girls` scores were higher than boys in scientific explanation type, but not in scientific insistence type. The scores by communication forms were Text (5.67p), Number (6.87p), Table (6.15p), and Picture (7.49p). Girls` scores were higher than boys in Text and Picture forms but not in Number and Table forms. In result of correlation analysis (Spearman`s rho) between VARK Learning Styles and the types & forms of Scientific Communication Skills, there were common correlation in “Read/write (R) learning style- Scientific insistence type”, “Read/write (R) learning style-Grounds of Scientific insistence”, “Read/write (R) learning style- Description of Scientific explanation”, and “R learning style-Text form”.
The purpose of this study was analyzing about scientific terms, producers, consumers, & decomposers, in the ecosystem chapter of elementary science textbook for confirming problems and finding solutions about the presentation forms and contents of them. The applied analysis framework consist of Form and Content, two aspects. The Form aspect has four categories (paragraph, subheading, term, font) and the Content aspect has tree categories (roleexplanation, example, scavenger). The results were as follows: In the results of the forms aspect analysis, the forms of presented term and font in Korean science textbook become more obvious in changes of curriculums. Foreign science textbooks have subheadings and paragraphs for each term, and they have more obvious presentation of term and more information than Korean science textbook. In the results of the contents aspect analysis, all science textbooks have the explanations of `energy roles in ecosystems` as the intension and the examples of organisms as the extension. In local science textbook analysis results, science textbook has gradually improved to present the intension of all terms and have more diverse examples. All foreign science textbooks have the contents about scavengers, but they have different viewpoints on scavengers. Korean science textbook, on the other hand, have no contents about scavenger. For this reason, the difficulty may lies in the classification of the scavengers like earthworm by presented explanations and examples in a current science textbook. Therefore there are needs of the developments of the effective presentation forms and the contents about scavengers.
The purpose of this study was getting the information for successful application to the national curriculum and students` core competencies enhancement, through investigation about competencies discussed in 2015 revised national curriculum development process and analysis about perception of 150 elementary school teachers in study. The results were as follows : Communication skill is considered to be the most important. Thinking ability what has been important traditionally is the middle of the rankings. Elementary school teachers think that a competency is specific to a subject. From this point of view, Creative/Scientific Problem-Solving Ability is the most important in science. They think that the enhancing of the ability of inquiry performance is highlighted in current science class. On elementary school teachers` awareness, inquiry model is the most effective in enhancing of scientific thinking and the ability of inquiry performance. And STS instruction model is in the other. PBL learning model and experimental inquiry model is the most effective in enhancing a competency has the highest feasibility like scientific thinking or the ability of inquiry performance.
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This study is designed to prove the role and effect of ethics codes in professional societies, especially for scientists and engineers working in R&D project groups The hypotheses of influence on ethical conduct within the sample groups are tested and analyzed by statistical methods Results show that the age of researchers and the integrity factor among the ethical conduct factors have significant influence on ethical conduct of research groups The regression model of the ethical conduct factors also indicates a meaningful reference in an application or development of new ethics code in research organizations
플래시 메모리는 비휘발성이면서도 작고 가벼우며, 전력 소모가 적고 충격에 강하다는 장점 등으로 인해 휴대 기기를 포함한 다양한 기기의 저장매체로 사용되고 있다. 그러나 플래시 메모리는 하드디스크와는 달리 제자리 갱신이 불가능하고, 읽기 연산에 비해 쓰기 및 지우기 연산이 매우 느리기 때문에, 기존의 하드 디스크를 기반으로 설계된 데이터베이스 시스템은 플래시 메모리 상에서 최적의 성능을 내기 어렵다. 플래시 메모리 상에서 데이터베이스의 성능을 극대화하기 위해, 어떤 데이터에 변경이 발생하면 원래 위치의 데이터를 덮어쓰는 대신, 해당 데이터의 변경 사항에 대한 로그만을 다른 위치에 기록하는 방식들이 제안되었다. 본 논문에서는 플래시 메모리 기반의 데이터베이스 시스템을 위한 효율적인 로깅 방법을 제안한다. 제안하는 방법은 기존 방법들과 달리, 로그만을 저장하는 로그 블록들을 별도로 두고 데이터의 변경에 따라 발생하는 로그를 로그 블록들에 고르게 분포시킨다. 이를 통해 제안하는 방법은 페이지 쓰기 및 블록 지우기 연산의 횟수를 크게 감소시킬 수 있다. 합성 데이터와 TPC-C 벤치마크 데이터를 사용한 실험을 통해, 제안하는 방법은 기존의 방법에 비해 좋은 성능을 나타냄을 보였다. Flash memory becomes increasingly popular as data storage for various devices because of its versatile features such as non-volatility, light weight, low power consumption, and shock resistance. Flash memory, however, has some distinct characteristics that make today’s disk-based database technology unsuitable, such as no in-place update and the asymmetric speed of read and write operations. As a result, most traditional disk-based database systems may not provide the best attainable performance on flash memory. To maximize the database performance on flash memory, some approaches have been proposed where only the changes made to the database, i.e., logs, are written to another empty place that has been erased in advance. In this paper, we propose an efficient log management scheme for flash-based database systems. Unlike the previous approaches, the proposed approach stores logs in specially allocated blocks, called log blocks. By evenly distributing logs across log blocks, the proposed approach can significantly reduce the number of write and erase operations. Our performance evaluation shows that the proposed approaches can improve the overall system performance by reducing the number of write and erase operation compared to the previous ones.
The purpose of this paper was to analyze the kinds and roles of multimedia materials in E-works that are distributed with elementary textbooks (3~6 grade) of the 2009 revised science curriculum. Five criteria (forms, goals, key competencies, inquiry process, running time) were set for this. The sample of the paper was the 784 multimedia materials in E-works of elementary science textbooks (3~6 grade) of the 2009 revised science curriculum. The results of the multimedia materials analysis are as follows: The result of the material forms of multimedia is that the form of highest ratio is text type. But all forms were used evenly in E-work. 56.2% of the multimedia materials are for “inquiry” in the goal criteria, and 65.0% of the multimedia materials are related to “science inquiry” in the key competencies criteria. Two facts indicate many multimedia is used to develop students’ inquiry ability. However the ratio of multimedia materials in motivation step is higher than that in inquiry activity step. In analysis of running time, the ratio of “under 5 min” multimedia materials is the highest. But, the ratio of 5~10 min multimedia materials in inquiry part is higher than that in motivation part in The Chi-square test between “running time” and “parts” that consist of motivation part and inquiry part. Through the analysis of module and the categorizing the multimedia materials, we found that the multimedia materials play eleven roles in E-works that are distributed with elementary textbooks.