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Objective : We investigated which measurement is more useful and reliable between NRS, horizontal VAS, and vertical VAS in 110 hospitalized patients who complain LBP and low extremity pain. Also, we analyzed interrelation in each measurement. Methods : Before we began investigation, we informed the objective and method of this investigation to patients. Then we checked patient`s pain degree by using those three measurements(NRS, horizontal VAS, and vertical VAS). We evaluated that sensitivity, correlation and inter-individual variability of each measurement depended on analyzing values. Results : We included 108 patients because we excluded 8 patients who could not check VAS degree. Both of horizontal VAS and vertical VAS showed statically significant and high sensitivity appearing normal distribution shape. But NRS didn`t show normal distribution shape. The mean value of horizontal VAS and NRS was significantly higher than NRS. There was no sharp difference clinically between horizontal VAS and NRS in inter-individual variability. The interrelation of each measurement were very close. Conclusions : There was significant difference between horizontal VAS, vertical VAS and NRS in statistics , not in clinical aspect. However, We can use those measurements usefully in pain evaluation because their interrelation is very close.
여성의 경제활동참가는 양적이나 질적인 면에서 크게 증가 하고 있다. 하지만 아직도 노동시장에서의 성별 임금격차가 심하고, 산업별 혹은 직업별 편중현상 또한 심하다. 본 연구에서는National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79)를 사용하여 미국 노동시장에서 나타나는 성별 임금격차와 성차별의 현상과 추이를 파악하고자 하였다. 분석방법으로는 Blinder-Oaxaca Decomposition과 Juhn-Murphy-Pierce (JMP) Decomposition 방법을 사용하였다. 분석결과에 따르면 일반적으로 알려진 바와는 달리 성별 임금격차 자체는 크게 개선되지 못했고, 노동시장의 차별에서 기인한 차이를 남성(혹은 여성)의 시간당 평균임금에 대비하여 얻은 비중을 살펴보면 노동시장에서 성차별이 지속적으로 감소했다고 주장할 근거가 약하다는 것을 알 수 있었다. 이런 결론은 분석방법의 차이가 아니라 자료의 차이에 기인한다. 본 논문에서는 동일한 집단을 대상으로 하여 분석 기간 동안 노동정책이나 노동시장상황의 변화뿐만 아니라 남녀의 생애주기를 고려하여 성역할의 차이까지를 포함하고 있기 때문에 기존의 연구와는 상이한 결론에 도달하게 된 것으로 추론한다. 이런 시도를 통하여 노동시장내에서만 얻은 자료를 대상으로 분석할 경우에 발생할 수 있는 중대한 관찰의 오차를 피할 수 있다. 따라서 성별 임금격차를 개선하기 위해서는 노동시장에서 성차별을 제거하는 노동정책뿐만 아니라 노동시장 진입 혹은 재진입에 영향을 미치는 요인들에 대한 학술적인 연구와 정책적인 지원이 절실히 필요하다고 사료된다. It is well-known that female labor force participation has consistently increased over the past decades. However, it is also true that gender disparity in labor market still persists and female workers have been disproportionately distributed in certain industry or occupation. It is the objective of the study to determine the existence of gender discrimination in the U.S. labor market using National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79) data using Blinder-Oaxaca Decomposition and Juhn-Murphy-Pierce (JMP) Decomposition methods. Contrary to the known statistics, gender disparity in income measured by the average hourly wage rate has not been improved significantly based on the ratio of the unexplained gender gap to the male workers` average wage. Gender disparity in come persists. It was not the methodology, but the data, to show the contradictory results. A panel data analysis using NLSY79 makes it possible to take different treatment outside of labor market into account during the entire lifetime. Gender discrimination might occur when female workers try to enter labor market, which can`t be reflected in the labor market data. Thus, it is necessary to investigate further the factors which can determine labor market entry conditions.
Objectives: To evaluate the safety of multiple-dose intramuscular Shinbaro Pharmacopuncture in male and female Sprague-Dawley(SD) rats over a period of 4 weeks(12 sessions). Methods: In order to test the safety of multiple-dose intramuscular Shinbaro Pharmacopuncture we used 40 healthy male and female 6-week old SD rats(male weight 171.79~196.37 g, female weight 127.93~146.43 g). Shinbaro Pharmacopuncture was administered intramuscularly to male and female SD rats at doses of 4.6 (low dose group, n=10), 9.2 (moderate dose group, n=10), and 18.5 mg/kg(high dose group, n=10), respectively. General symptoms, body weight changes, blood tests, biochemical testing, necropsy, organ weight and histopathogical findings were examined over a 4-week period. Results: 1. No mortalities or adverse effects were caused by the investigational substance were ob- served during the study period. 2. There was no significant difference in body weight caused by the the investigational sub- stance across all groups. 3. No significant between-group difference was found to be caused by the investigational substance in blood tests and biochemical testing. 4. No abnormalities were detected by a necropsy examination with the unaided eye at the macro level after treatment with the investigational substance. 5. Difference in organ weight between groups caused by the investigational substance was not found. 6. All groups did not exhibit pathological findings caused by the investigational substance in histopathogical examination. Conclusions: According to these results, Shinbaro Pharmacopuncture has no systemic or organ toxicity with multiple-dose intramuscular administrations in male and female SD rats over a 4- week period (12 sessions). These results imply that no adverse effects are observed at a level (NOAEL) of Shinbaro Pharmacopuncture of 18.5 mg/kg.
이기범,하인혁,김호선,배영현,김노현,서창용,양규진,정유화,소민지,이윤재,Lee, Ki-Beom,Ha, In-Hyuk,Kim, Ho-Sun,Bae, Young-Hyun,Kim, No-Hyeon,Suh, Chang-Yong,Yang, Kyu-Jin,Jung, You-Hwa,So, Min-Ji,Lee, Yoon-Jae 척추신경추나의학회 2016 척추신경추나의학회지 Vol.11 No.2
'스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 9시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.
Objectives : To determine the effectiveness of Chuna manual therapy for neck pain Methods : We searched 7 electronic databases(OASIS, NDSL, Ovid-MEDLINE, Ovid-EMBASE, Cochrane library, AMED, CNKI) to find all Randomized controlled trials that used Chuna manual therapy as a treatment for neck pain. The methodological quality of each RCT was assessed by the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Results : 7 RCTs met our inclusion criteria. The meta-analysis of 7 studies showed favorable results for the use of Chuna manual therapy. High risk of bias were observed for performance bias and detection bias. Conclusions : Our systematic review found favorable results using Chuna manual therapy for neck pain. But there are several limitations in our study due to lack of well-designed RCT. To obtain stronger evidence, further clinical trials would be needed.
'스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 9시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.
Health care big data is thought to be a promising field of interest for disease prediction, providing the basis of medical treatment and comparing effectiveness of different treatments. Korean government has begun an effort on releasing public health big data to improve the quality and safety of medical care and to provide information to health care professionals. By studying population based big data, interesting outcomes are expected in many aspects. To initiate research using health care big data, it is crucial to understand the characteristics of the data. In this review, we analyzed cases from inside and outside the country using clinical data registry. Based on successful cases, we suggest research method for evidence-based Korean medicine. This will provide better understanding about health care big data and necessity of Korean medicine data registry network.
Objectives: This study analyzes the electronic medical record (EMR) data of the spine specialist oriental hospital and clinic in various regions, and reports the actual number and used cases of Chuna therapy. Methods: 2,470,772 data was extracted retrospectively from electronic medical records of all inpatients and outpatients who were treated chuna therapy at 21 Korean medicine hospitals and clinics from January 1, 2018 to December 31, 2018. The characteristics of medical treatment using chuna therapy reflect the minimum, maximum and average values of the number of hospitalized patients, length of hospitalization, frequency of hospitalization, number of outpatients, frequency of treatment and frequency of visit. Diseases were classified in the proportion of Chuna treatment according to the KCD, 7th edition. The chuna and blindness charts were derived accordingly from illness and disease of each part of the body. Results: During the study period, a total 1,342,022 inpatients and outpatients visited the study sites. The male proportion was a little higher than the females’ (male: 53.7%, female: 46.3%). According to age, the 30s and 40s were more than half the total(30s: 33.0% and 40s: 20.1%). Chuna therapy was treated to more outpatients than hospitalized patients (outpatient: 83.6%, hospitalization: 16.4%), and most treatments were related to musculoskeletal illness(99.06%). Conclusions: As a result of this study, 1,342,389 chuna therapy was performed in 21 hospitals for one year. As highly demanded by the public, we look forward to ensuring national health care options and medical access when health insurance for chuna therapy is applied beginning March 2019 .
Objectives: The main aim of this study is to evaluate changes in the microbiological safety of pharmacopuncture exposed to room temperature for an elapsed period of time. Methods: The four most frequently used pharmacopuncture products were stored in syringes at room temperature at three different hospitals for 24 hours and 48 hours respectively, and they were compared with pharmacopuncture products stored in vials through a sterility and microbial limited test. Results: Storage forms and duration of exposure to room temperature did not show significant difference in bacterial or fungal contamination, which was confirmed by the sterility and mi- crobial limited test. Conclusions: Pharmacopuncture products stored in syringes at room temperature for 24 hours and 48 hours demonstrated their safety in terms of lack of microbiological contamination.
Background: There is a controversy about the effect of having a usual source of care on medical expenses. Although many studies have shown lower medical expenses in a group with a usual source of care, some have shown higher medical expenses in such a group. This study aimed to empirically demonstrate the effect of having a usual source of care on medical expenses. Methods: The participants included those aged 20 years and older who responded to the questionnaire about “having a usual source of care” from the Korean Health Panel Data of 2012, 2013, and 2016 (6,120; 6,593; and 7,598 respectively). Those who responded with “I do not get sick easily” or “I rarely visit medical institutions” as the reasons for not having a usual source of care were excluded. The panel regression with random effects model was performed to analyze the effect of having a usual source of care on medical expenses. Results: The group having a usual source of care spent 20% less on inpatient expenses and 25% less on clinic expenses than the group without a usual source of care. Particularly, the group having a clinic-level usual source of care spent 12% less on total medical expenses, 9% less on outpatient expenses, 35% less on inpatient expenses, and 74% less on hospital expenses, but 29% more on clinic expenses than the group without a usual source of care. Conclusion: This study confirmed that medical expenses decreased in the group with a usual source of care, especially a clinic-level usual source of care (USC), than in the group without a usual source of care. Encouraging people to have a clinic-level USC can control excessive medical expenses and induce desirable medical care utilization.
1990년대 이후 무역대금결제방식에 후불송금(Open Account)조건의 신용거래가 주류를 이루면서 결제리스크가 커지고 있다. 본 연구는 한국 기업들의 후불송금조건수출에 대한 결제리스크관리와 관련하여 후불송금조건을 수용하는 기업들의 특성인 수출지향성과 그에 따른 리스크인식도, 외부적 리스크관리환경, 리스크 관리수준과의 관계를 살펴보고 나아가 리스크 관리에 대한 성과를 적절히 거두고 있는가를 분석하고자 한다. 실증결과 후불송금조건으로 수출하는 수출지향적 기업들의 결제리스크 노출도는 높게 나타났으며, 리스크관리수준도 높은 것으로 나타났다. 또한 수출기업의 리스크관리수준은 외부의 리스크 관리환경에 영향받는 것으로 나타나 수출보험기관(ECA)의 적정한 수출보험료 책정과 접근성 제고 노력이 필요함이 제기되었다. 그러나 수출보험을 비롯하여 수출팩토링, 보증신용장 등과 같은 리스크재무기법에 의한 리스크관리수준이 높다고 해서 리스크관리성과가 높지는 않았다. Since 1990, the credit transaction based on O/A(Open Account) has been mainly used in trade payment. This study focuses on the following topics related to default risk management for O/A export by Korean companies. First, the study attempts to analyze the factors which affect to risk management level under O/A. Second, whether they achive the desired performance as much effort on the risk management as they make. According to the empirical result, the exposure of default risk of export companies based on O/A is high. These companies have high risk management level and it means that they are managing the risk properly. Moreover, the environment of risk management also affect to the risk management level of export companies, so the continuous efforts of ECA such as improving accessibility to export insurance and charging proper insurance cost are necessary. But even though the level of risk management using export insurance, export factoring, stand-by L/C is high, the performance is not so high enough.
Introduction This study aims to demonstrate the effectiveness of using clinical practice guideline (CPG) leaflets as a communication tool between doctors and patients. We will collect basic data on whether using leaflets based on traditional Korean medicine (TKM) CPGs accomplishes the goal of improving clinical decision-making for diagnosis and treatment by TKM doctors. We will also evaluate the leaflets as a communication tool in the treatment of lumbar herniated intervertebral discs (HIVDs) in terms of patient and physician satisfaction and ease of treatment. Methods and analysis We will evaluate efficacy through a comparison of satisfaction and clinical outcomes in randomly allocated groups of HIVD lumbar patients visiting the Jaseng Hospital of Korean Medicine who do or do not receive CPG-based treatment. Following the evaluation, we will make recommendations on whether to implement CPG interventions for patients selecting TKM treatment after HIVD diagnosis and the method of clinical treatment. Finally, we will evaluate the perception of and satisfaction with CPGs among TKM doctors and patients.