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This paper since the mourning apparel system has formatted in Zhoudynasty, produced a far-reaching impact on future generations, attracted manyscholars` attention, but due to the lack of information, the research is still in“mourning” writing level, however, this system is not constant in Zhou dynasty. Through the analysis of “mourning” scripture arrangement and explainsinterpretation , there are obvious differences between the treatment of “beclose to relatives” and “look up to the upper”, this difference is the ritual changeimprint, reflected from the Western Zhou Dynasty to the Eastern ZhouDynasty, along with the gradual strengthening of hierarchy, “look up to theupper” principle is beyond the “be close to relatives” principle, so thatpatriarchal background has been implicit, but the monarch gradually explicit. There are many breach phenomenon of Western Zhou Dynasty ritual in theEastern Zhou period, or an individual case, or a common phenomenon, the moreit is the ritual change caused by the case. Therefore, the mourning apparel system of the Western Zhou Dynasty was destroyed, the Eastern Zhou Dynastysystem gradually formed at the same time, it is simplified, has the nationalcharacteristics, and the monarch play an important role in the changes ofnational etiquette.
하단비 ( Dan Bee Ha ),김민주 ( Min Ju Kim ),주해진 ( Hae Jin Joo ),조진희 ( Jin Hee Cho ),빙소진 ( So Jin Bing ),임윤규 ( Yoon Kyu Lim ),현진원 ( Jin Won Hyun ),지영흔 ( Young Heun Jee ) 한국예방수의학회(구 한국수의공중보건학회) 2011 예방수의학회지 Vol.35 No.1
'스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.
Vanadium, a dietary micronutrient, has been reported to present interesting biological and pharmacological properties, including superoxide and nitric oxide scavenging effects. Low-dose ionizing radiation (LDR) is known to damage DNA and cause apoptosis of peripheral immunocytes by producing reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aim of this study was to elucidate the capacity of immune activation of Jeju water containing vanadium on immunosuppression caused by LDR. We examined the ROS production, DNA damage, cell apoptosis and proliferation of peripheral immunocytes in irradiated mice drinking different concentrations for 90 days; V0 (vanadium 0㎍/L, control), V1 (vanadium 15~20㎍/ L) and V2 (vanadium 20∼25㎍/L). Compared to V0 control where level of ROS showed tendency to increase, the ROS production was attenuated in peripheral immunocytes of irradiated mice drinking V1 and V2. DNA damage of peripheral immunocytes triggered by LDR significantly increased in mice drinking V0 compared to non-irradiated control, whereas V1 and V2 dramatically induced remission of DNA damage. On the observation of apoptosis of peripheral immunocytes, V1 and V2 showed the potency to reduce the number of apoptotic cells. On the other hand irradiated mice drinking V0 exhibited raised number of apoptotic cells. From the results obtained, we speculated that Jeju water containing vanadium (V1 and V2) has a potential role in decreasing DNA damage and apoptosis of immune cell by inhibiting ROS production. Consistent with this, Jeju water containing vanadium (V1 and V2) exhibits a capacity to enhance cell proliferation of peripheral immunocytes, which is suppressed by LDR as shown in V0 control. Collectively, Jeju water containing vanadium reduced DNA damage and apoptosis and induced the stimulatory potential on immunocytes. Theseresults suggest that Jeju water containing vanadium sustained immune activities under immunosuppression caused by LDR.
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Glatiramer acetate (GA; Copaxone) has been shown to be effective in preventing and suppressing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS). It has been recently shown that GA-reactive T cells migrate through the blood-brain barrier, accumulate in the central nervous system (CNS), secrete antiinflammatory cytokines and suppress production of proinflammatory cytokines of EAE and MS. Development of EAE requires coordinated expression of a number of genes involved in the activation and effector functions of inflammatory cells. Activation of inflammatory cells is regulated at the transcriptional level by several families of transcription factors. One of these is the nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) family which is present in a variety of cell types and involved in the activation of immune-relative genes during inflammatory process. Since it is highly activated at site of inflammation, NFκB activation is also implicated in the pathogenesis of EAE. In this study, we examined whether the inhibition of NFκB activation induced by GA can have suppressive therapeutic effects in EAE mice. We observed the expression of NFκB and phospho-IκB proteins increased in GA-treated EAE mice compared to EAE control groups. The immunoreactivity in inflammatory cells and glial cells of NFκB and phospho-IκB significantly decreased at the GA-treated EAE mice. These results suggest that treatment of GA in EAE inhibits the activation of NFκB and phophorylation of IκB in the CNS. Subsequently, the inhibition of NFκB activation and IκB phosphorylation leads to the anti-inflammatory effects thereby to reduce the progression and severity of EAE.
The maintenance of peripheral immune tolerance and prevention of chronic inflammation and autoimmune disease require CD4+CD25+ T cells (regulatory T cells). The transcription factor Foxp3 is essential for the development of functional, regulatory T cells, which plays a prominent role in self-tolerance. Retroviral vectors can confer high level of gene transfer and transgene expression in a variety of cell types. Here we observed that following retroviral vector-mediated gene transfer of Foxp3, transductional Foxp3 expression was increased in the liver, lung, brain, heart, muscle, spinal cord, kidney and spleen. One day after vector administration, high levels of transgene and gene expression were observed in liver and lung. At 2 days after injection, transductional Foxp3 expression level was increased in brain, heart, muscle and spinal cord, but kidney and spleen exhibited a consistent low level. This finding was inconsistent with the increase in both CD4+CD25+ T cell and CD4+Foxp3+ T cell frequencies observed in peripheral immune cells by fluorescence-activated cell-sorting (FACS) analysis. Retroviral vector-mediated gene transfer of Foxp3 did not lead to increased numbers of CD4+CD25+ T cell and CD4+Foxp3+ T cell. These results demonstrate the level and duration of transductional Foxp3 gene expression in various tissues. A better understanding of Foxp3 regulation can be useful in dissecting the cause of regulatory T cells dysfunction in several autoimmune diseases and raise the possibility of enhancing suppressive functions of regulatory T cells for therapeutic purposes.
김치 熟成中에 NDMA, NDEA 및 NPYR 등 N-nitrosamine의 生成如否를 밝히고자 그 生成要因物質인 窒酸鹽과 亞窒酸鹽 및 amine類의 변화를 實驗考察하였다. 試料用 김치는 배추, 고추가루, 마늘, 생강만을 넣어서 만든 對照試料와 여기에 멸치젓과 새우젓을 넣은 것 모두 3個群으로 만들고, 5℃에서 75일간 熟成시키면서 15일 주기로 N-nitrosamine과 TMAO, TMA, DMA, 窒酸鹽, 亞窒酸鹽 및 ascorbic acid의 함량변화를 분석하였다. TMAO, TMA, DMA, 窒酸鹽, 亞窒酸鹽 및 ascorbic acid는 比色定量法에 의하였고, NDMA, NDEA와 NPYR은 GLC-TEA에 의하여 定量하였다.<br/> 멸치젓과 새우젓을 첨가한 김치의 熟成中에 總2級 amine은 현저하게 증가하였는데도 불구하고, 第3級 amine인 TMAO와 TMA는 거의 변화가 없었다. 그리고 이때 第2級 amine은 주로 DMA였음을 吸光曲線과 GLC-FTD에 의하여 확인하였다. 한편, 김치 熟成中에 窒酸鹽의 함량은 크게 감소하였음에도 불구하고 亞窒酸鹽은 증가하지 않았으며, N-nitrosamine의 生成量은 檢出限界미만이든가 흔적정도의 양이었다. 멸치젓과 새우젓을 첨가한 김치 熟成中에 DMA는 상당히 많은량이 함유되어 있으나 NDMA가 生成되지 않은 것은 NO₂-이 남아있지 않기 때문이라고 확신할 수 있었다. 그러나 김치 熟成中에 NO₂-가 生成되지 않은 것은 아니고, NO₃-에서 NO₂-가 生成되는대로 ascorbic acid나 아미노산과 같은 nitrosamine生成 沮害劑들에 의해 소비되어 버리는 것이라고 볼 수 있었다. The possibility of formation of carcinogenic N-nitrosamines such as nitrosodimethylamine(NDMA), nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) and nitrosopyrolidine (NPYR) during the fermentation of Kimchi was investigated. Three different types of Kimchi, formulated with chinese cabbage, red pepper powder and garlic, with or without one of both fermented shrimp and anchovy juice, were cured for 75 days at 5℃. The changes in contents of nitrates, nitrites, pH, ascorbic acid, secondary amines, trimethylaminoxide (TMAO), trimethylamine (TMA) and NDMA were analyzed periodically during the fermentation. TMAO, TMA. DMA, nitrate, nitrite and ascorbic acid were analyzed by colorimetric methods, and NDMA, NPYR and NDEA were determined by the method of GLC-TEA. Although the total secondary amines markedly increased, no significant changes in the levels of TMAO and TMA were observed during the fermentation Kimchi added with fermented shrimp or anchovy juice. The predominating component of secondary amines was confirmed to be dimethylamine by means of nitrosating technique coupled with gas chromatography. No appreciable increase in the level of nitrites was appeared although nitrate level in the Kimchi apparently decreased. Non detectable or trace level of nitrosamine formation was detected whereas the nitrates fairly decreased during the fermentation of Kimchi. This could be explained by the fact that the lack of nitrites was resulted in the system due to rapid consumption of nitrites formed from nitrates by the reactions with ascorbic acid and amino acids which have been known as inhibitors of nitrosation reaction.