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In the process of modernization, a great deal of British and American sports culture was diffused into out own educational system as well as our livelihood. However we lacked research in the areas such as the origin and background to the development of British sports culture. In a general point of view British Sports culture was a creation of several factors such as British politics, society, geography, religion and nationality. However in an ideological sense, the single most influential factor in the development of British sports culture was Muscular Christianity and at the nucleus of Muscular Christianity was the concept of manliness. Therefore this article was written with two main objectives. Firstly, 19th century juvenile literature and its ideals of masculinity were examined in order to reveal the figure of a manly juvenile. Secondly, this article examines the rearing of masculine juveniles and its correlation with the development of sports. In novels by Thomas Hughes such as BOP(The Boys Own Paper) the character of a masculine gentleman illustrated was similar to that of a Middle Age Knight with outstanding prowess in sports. This was the appearance of a typical gentleman of the late 19th century and among the characteristics demanded of them were; bravery, honesty, honour, patriotism, loyalty between friends, exceptional ability in masculine sports, empathy for the weak, an unyielding stance against the strong, manners and a worthy attitude of the defeated. That is to say, a courageous and loyal knight of the old. In order to create a template of a manly gentleman in upper class education, training of youths in organisations such as the Boyscout in addition to sports and outdoor activities were considered vital. These physical training bore the intent of prolonging the tradition of sturdy manliness. In addition, an ethical temperament was also emphasised. However, further emphasised than this ethical quality in juvenile literature of this age was to incite in youths the idol of a man; aggressive and harsh, brave, relentless and one that does not step back in the face of battle. To encourage these male temperaments, sports was considered important and as a result sports developed earlier in Great Britain than in other nations.
Baseball is a national game in the United States but it has also taken root as a mainstream sports in Korea. This study aims to dispel doubts about the Abner Doubleday myth and the process in which baseball created. The central focus of the study is placed on the Mills Commission's fabrication of the baseball creation story and to revealing the social and ideological setting in which the said story was created. The findings are as follows. Firstly, the Doubleday baseball creation story is a fabricated one. Albert G. Spalding and the Mills Commission devised the creation story of American baseball to dismiss the theory that baseball had its origins in British folk games. Americanism was the ideological backdrop of this fabrication. Spalding's marketing strategy did play a part but Americanism was most clearly identified as the driving force behind the baseball creation story. 본고는 야구의 기원에 얽힌 더블데이 신화의 탄생과정에 대한 의문을 해소하기 위해 수행된 것이다. 연구의 초점은 더블데이 창안설의 탄생 과정과 사상적 배경 파악에 둔 것이다. 체육 지도자들에게 교육 자료를 제공할 목적으로 수행된 이 연구의 결과는 두 가지로 요약된다. 더블데이의 야구 창안설 조작을 주도한 것은 스팔딩과 밀스위원회였으며, 그 이유는 줄곧 제기되어온 채딕의 영국 창안설을 일축하기 위한 것이었다. 그리고 조작에 직결된 의식은 아메리카니즘이었다. 스팔딩의 마케팅 전략, 즉 사업상 재정적 동기가 작용했다는 주장도 있었지만 가장 뚜렷하게 확인된 것은 미국 문화국가주의, 즉 아메리카니즘이었다.
한국 체육사학회는 2005년 창립 10주년을 맞았으며, 2007년 10월 제20호 학회지를 발간을 맞았다. 지난 50년 동안 한국의 체육 및 스포츠에 관한 학문적 연구는 짧은 역사에도 불구하고 큰 진전을 보았다. 그러나 체육과 스포츠 역사에 대한 연구 성과는 미흡한 편이었다. 미국에서는 1885년 ‘미국체육학회(AAHPERD)'의 모체가 된 ‘체육진흥협회 (AAAPE)'가 창립되었고, 1896년 『미국체육학회지(The Journal of Health, Physical Education and Recreation)』가 창간되어 체육에 대한 전문적인 연구가 시작되었다. 또한 1900년을 전후로 하트웰(Edward M. Hartwell, 1850-1922)이 체육사에 관한 연구를 시작한 이래 1973년 ‘북미체육사학회(the North American Society for Sport History)'가 결성되어 오하이오 주립대학(The Ohio State University)에서 창립 정기총회(first annual convention)를 개최했다. 이러한 역사에 비교하면 한국 체육사학회의 창립은 매우 늦은 것이었다. 그러나 어려운 여건 속에서도 한국체육사학회는 창립 이후 12주년 동안 꾸준히 성장해왔으며, 『한국체육사학회지』제 20호를 발간하기에 이르렀다. 이제 『한국체육사학회지』 제20호 발간을 계기로 한국 체육사 연구의 현황과 실태를 한번 쯤 점검해보고 미래 학문적 진보를 위한 방안을 마련해야 하며, 전체 논문을 한눈에 바라볼 수 있도록 논문 목록을 한번 쯤 정리해 둘 필요가 있다.
This article concerns an innovator who contributed in the American community of Sports during the1990s. The main focus of this study is Dr. Dudley Allen Sergent- he who is well known for the terminology -'Sergent Jump'. It is the intention of the author to study his life and humanity; his evaluation of Physical Education and his accomplishments noted by history. Dr. Dudley Allen Sergent was chosen for this research for his obvious contributions to the field of Physical education. Before the dawning of the 'New Physical Education Age', in addition to those; Dr. JC Warren Catherine Beecher, Dioclesian Lewis, Dr. Edward Hitchcock and William G. Anderson, Dr. Dudley Allen Sergent greatly influenced the establishment of the American Physical Education Community. In this study, various references were documented and its' contents analysed. Articles, critical responses/reviews, books, letters written by Dr. Sergent himself as well as articles, documents and new paper articles relating to that of Dr Sergent were analysed. The results are as follows. Firstly, Dr. Sergent was a pioneer in the field of Modern Sports Science. Through his contribution in the field, the American Sport Science community experienced great advancements. In an era that Physical Education was not recognized as a major curriculum in education the manner in which Dr. Sergent dedicated his life to his research is a reflection of his strong willed personality. Furthermore his contribution in the progress Women's Sports was largely due to his ideals of 'Movement for the Emancipation of Women'. Secondly, Dr Sergent possessed strong beliefs of Muscular Christianity as well as being a devotee to Darwinism Born in New England and through his Anglo-Saxon bloodline, Dr Sergent was influenced by Muscular Christianity and recognised the philosophy in health as well as the importance of physical activity. Thirdly, Dr Sergent saw the significance of sports in preventing illnesses. A Doctor of Medicine, he identified Physical Culture as an aspect of preventive medicine and Physical Education as a precinct in education for maintaining and improving one's health. Finally Dr Dudley Allen Sergent achievements are a contribution the Community of Modern Sports Science and to a lesser extent the foundations and running of the Normal School of Physical Education. That is, the development in education/training of P.E teachers as well as advancement in scientific measurements in the field of Physical Education.
Physical Education in Korea has been undergoing progressive changes under the influence of international situation since the liberation from the Japanese rule. But, There has been so much argument among Physical educatiors on th opaque idea and philosophy of Physical education. The philosophy of physical education introduced from Europe, America and Japan has been so strongly influnced on our conventional philosophy of Physical education. However, as far as Korean identity is concerned Physical education in Korea has been too mach flexible without any subjective idea and fixed goal but has just imitated those of other nations. Thus, it should be strongly suggested that we must establish Korean idea of Physical education. Here, it is intended to establishment of Korean idea of Physical education through illumination of mordern philosophy of education and the Korean conventional philosopy of education. The following is the suggestions of this study. In the light of the Educational philosophy, our Physical Education Should take into account the concepts of "historical self" "democratic freedom, and "healthfull life" in order to establish its aims and objectives.