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Virgin female Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 200∼230 g, were mated with healthy males. And pregnant rats were seperated and fed a tyrosine deficient diet (tyr. 0.00 %) during various stages of gestation and lactation period, and the offsprings were compared with the rats fed a tyrosine control diet (tyr. 0. 36%). Brain and serum protein, brain and serum tyrosine and brain catecholamines; norepinephrine and dopamine were measured. Body weight and brain weight were also measured. DEF. I group received the deficient diet from delivery; DEF. II group, from the 15th day of gestation; DEF. III group, from the 8th day of gestation and continued until 35th day of postnatal period. Control group was fed a control diet (tyr. 0.36%) throughout the experimental period. Body and brain weight were significantly lower in deficient groups than those of the control group, but the brain weight was not so severely affected by the tyrosine deficient diet as the body weight. And tyrosine deficiency to have an adverse effect on brain protein synthesis and the adverse effect appeared more severe in preweaning than in postweaning period. In deficient groups, serum tyrosine showed severely decreasing tendency, but brain tyrosine did show such a sharp decrease. Brain norepinephrine and dopamine contents a decreasing tendency in deficient groups compared with the control group. But only at 7th day, both norepinephrine and dopamine contents were significantly depressed in all three DEF. groups. This shows that tyrosine restriction in maternal diet is not so critical to brain catecholamine content of offsprings except the neonatal rats. It seems that norepinephrine level was more affected by dietary tyrosine restriction than the dopamine level.
Lipoprotin (a)[Lp(a)] is an LDL-like particle with a large glycoprotein called apo (a) attached to its apoB moiety through disulfide bond. Many case-control studies supported the opinion that plasma Lp(a) levels were associated with premature myocardial infarction. We developed the competitive ELISA method for Lp(a), and using this method we quantitated the Lp(a) concentration in sera of 250 healthy control subjects and 82 patients who underwent coronary angiography for suspected coronary artery disease. Among them 37 patients had no obstruction in the coronary artery (Cath-control group), while the others revealed the presence of coronary artery desease (CAD group). The minimal detectable level of ELISA method for Lp(a) was 4.4 ng/well. The within-assay coefficients of variation (CVs) ranged from 2.69 to 9.92%, and the between-assay CVs ranged from 4.06 to 17.81%. The mean of the analytical recovery was 93.8% and ranged from 81.9 to 106.8%. The mean and median Lp(a) values of the normal Korean population were 0.149 and 0.120 g/L, respectively. The Lp(a) values of the CAD group were significantly higher than those of Cath-control group and normal population (p$lt;0.001, p$lt;0.0001, respectively). A standardized discriminant function coefficient of Lp(a) by mutivariate discriminant statistical analyses indicated that the Lp (a) is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease in Koreans.
A quantitative restriction of maternal diet was given to Sprague-Dawley rats during lactation. Animals were seperated into two groups, control and deficient groups. And 30 g of diet during lactation was given to deficient group. All the offsprings were weaned at 3 weeks of age and fed a diet ad libitum for 4 weeks of rehabilitation. Body and brain weight, brain DNA, protein, phospholipid, cholesterol were determined on offsprings of each group randomly sacrificed at 0, 1, 2, 3, 5 and 7 weeks of age. Body and brain weight of offsprings of deficient group were significantly lower than the control group. Their deficits were the largest at 3 weeks of age. After a recovery period, body and brain weights were almost to normal weight but these values were still lower than the control. Brain DNA, protein, phospholipid and cholesterol content of deficient group was lower than the control group. In spite of nutritional rehabilitation after weaning, their contents were not recovered completely. DNA, protein and lipid syntheses in the brains of deficient group were delayed by malnutrition.
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4차 산업혁명 시대에 인간에게 필요한 것은 시대적 변혁에 유연하게 대처하고 지식을 융복합적으 로 결합시킬 수 있게 하는 핵심역량이다. 대학융합전공은 사회와 산업의 변화에 신속하게 대응하고 대학생의 핵심역량을 함양시키도록 하는 유용한 전공 방식이다. 하지만 융합전공에 대한 이해가 부 족하고, 대학마다 융합전공 운영방식이 달라 융합전공의 효과적인 운영방식에 대한 논의가 필요하다. 이에 본 연구는 핵심역량을 함양하기 위해 대학 융합전공의 목표 등을 제시하는 대학융합전공기준을 개발하는 것을 목적으로 한다. ‘가교 교육과정기준’ 형식으로 핵심역량 함양 대학융합전공기준을 가 안-초안-수정안-최종안의 4단계에 걸쳐 개발하였다. 본 연구에서 개발된 핵심역량 함양 대학융합전공기준이 학교현장에 안착하고 실효성을 갖기 위해 서는 핵심역량과 융합전공에 대한 학내 구성원의 이해와 적극적인 협조, 대학융합전공을 촉진할 수 있는 인프라와 대내외 네트워크 구축, 융합전공 교수자의 전문성 함양 등이 요구된다. What humans need in the era of the Fourth Industrial Revolution is key competencies to cope flexibly with the changes of the times and to combine various knowledge in a flexible manner. Convergence majors are implemented as a method designed to respond and adapt quickly to rapid changes made in society and industry and to promote key competencies of undergraduate. However, there is a lack of understanding of convergence majors and different universities have different ways of operating convergence majors, which requires discussion on the effective way of operation of convergence majors. The purpose of this study is to develop university standards of convergence major that suggest goals of university convergence major in order to promote key competencies. University Convergence Major Standards to promote Key Competencies are developed in the form of ‘Bridging Curriculum Standards' through four stages: preliminary draft, initial version, revised version, and final version. In order for the university convergence major standards to promote key competencies developed in this study to settle in the university curriculum, understandings and cooperations among university members on the needs for convergence education and convergence majors, building infrastructure and networks that can promote university convergence majors, the professors’ expertise in teaching university convergence majors are required.
This thesis analyzes the narrative style and authorial intention of Byeong-hu-man-rok(病後漫錄), a biographic Sino-Korean work written by Choi Gyu-seo, through comprehensive reading of the whole text. The contents can be divided into four phases in the basis of some major events in his life, namely, his entering on an official career, political turbulence in the year of Gisa(己巳換局) and retirement. In the first phase which describes his early days before becoming an official, a number of humorous mistake stories are shown to reveal the authors unceremoniousness and give readers pleasure and moral lessons by dealing his embarrassing experiences in light tone. In the second phase, his integrity as a high rank official is emphasized. He tries to defend himself against bad reputation, self-portraying what he had to do in defiance of the king and his tutor. Also in the third phase, he explains why he had to be cautious and made efforts to solve the problems of serious political conflicts, to justify his behaviors and intention that he felt misunderstood by other people. Finally, personal thoughts and principle of his life after retirement are shown in the last phase, which shows his highly cautious attitude to stick to his own convictions and preserve his peaceful retired life. 본고는 최규서의 자전적 필기 저작인 『병후만록』의 내용을 전체적으로 조망하면서 작품의 서술양상과 저자의 저술의도를 분석하였다. 『병후만록』의 내용은 출사․기사환국․은거를 기준으로 모두 네 개의 구간으로 구분된다. 출사 이전을 다룬 첫 번째 시기에는 젊은 날의 실수담을 가감 없이 서술한 기록이 많다. 이 시기의 일화는 부끄러운 과거를 유쾌하게 그림으로써 재미와 교훈을 주고 아울러 현재 저자의 소탈한 면모를 드러낸다. 두 번째 시기에서는 삼사의 관료로서 권위에 굽히지 않는 강직한 면모가 강조된다. 임금과 스승의 뜻과 반대되더라도 소신을 관철하는 내용의 일화들은 세간의 평가와는 다른, 자신의 진정한 모습을 보이려는 의도가 내포되어 있다. 세 번째 시기에는 당쟁의 폐단을 줄이려 노력하고 더불어 자신의 신중한 처신을 해명하는 일화가 많다. 이로써 사람들에게 곡해되었던 자신의 행동과 의도를 제대로 이해받고자 하였다. 네 번째 시기의 기록에는 은거 중의 소회나 신중한 처신에 관한 일화가 주조를 이룬다. 이 시기의 일화는 그가 자신의 의지를 지키고 은거 생활을 유지하기 위해 얼마나 조심스럽고 전전긍긍하게 살아갔는지 보여준다.
With the expansion of students' choice of subjects and the establishment of the comprehensive evaluation system of high school records(CESSR) in college entrance, the completion of elective courses necessary for studying university majors is used as a major evaluation factor for college entrance. In this study, we analyze the level of completion of high school science Ⅱ elective courses among the natural sciences applicants of the CESSR at K University in 2019 and 2020 to give suggestions to students' selection of science Ⅱ elective courses and evaluation of the CESSR. As a result of the study, the ratio of completion by science Ⅱ elective courses shows different characteristics for each college, confirming the link between the college and science Ⅱ elective courses. In addition, it is confirmed that each college has a high percentage of students taking certain elective courses, which are useful for studying the major. Through this, we suggest that the tendency to complete science Ⅱ elective courses is an important evaluation factor, and that universities needs to identify and compare the current status of the opening of each courses by high school. 학생의 과목 선택권이 확대되고 대입에서 학생부종합전형이 정착되면서 대학 전공 공부에 필요한 선택과목의 이수 여부가 주요 평가요소로 활용되고 있다. 이에 본 연구에서는 2019, 2020학년도 K대학교 학생부종합전형 자연계 지원자의 과학Ⅱ 선택과목 이수 현황을 분석하여 학생의 과목 선택 및 학생부종합전형 평가에 시사점을 주고자 하였다. 연구 결과, 과학Ⅱ 선택과목별 이수 비율은 단과대학별로 다른 특성을 보여 단과대학과 과학Ⅱ 선택과목 간 연계성을 확인할 수 있었다. 또한, 단과대학별로 특정 선택과목 조합의 이수 비율이 높아 해당 전공을 이수하는 데 유용한 선택과목이 서로 다름을 확인하였다. 이를 통해 과학Ⅱ 선택과목 이수 경향이 중요한 평가요소가 될 수 있으며, 대학은 각 학교별 과목 개설 환경 파악 및 비교 분석이 필요함을 제언하였다.
In this report, we investigated meal patterns by area, age, profession from the data of the Korean National Nutrition Survey which had been carried out in 1989. The proportion of home prepared meal was about 90% at breakfast and dinner, and 46.3% at lunch. People had meals outside of home mainly at lunch(31.1%), and usually ate restaurant meal(17.7%). The proportion of meal skipped was 7.1% at breakfast, 3.9% at lunch, and 1.2% at dinner. At large city, 10.3% of people skipped breakfast, it was the highest proportion among three areas(large city, small city, and rural area). Also, the proportion of meal outside of homes was the highest among all areas. In rural area, home prepared meal was prevalent for all meals. Among all age groups, people between 20 and 49 ate out most frequently. For people between age 16 and 19, meal skipping was frequent for breakfast and dinner, especially, 20.5% of girl skipped breakfast. At lunch, the proportion of meal skipping was the highest in age higher than 50 groups. Among all professions, people in service job skipped lunch and dinner at the highest proportion. Manager and deskworker skipped breakfast by 12.9% and they ate out at lunch by 82.5%.
Monoamine oxidases(MAO), the mitochondria) membranebound flavoproteins, catalyze the oxidative deamination of biogenic monoamines. MAO activity of rat brain was assayed by spectrophotometrically using benzylamine as substrate. Basic assay condition was optimized and the specific activity of isolated mitochondria) fraction was 2 nmoles/㎎/min. at standard condition. In order to correlate the MAO activity with the physico-chemical state of MAO, the enzyme activity was assayed in the presence of various chemicals known to be affect the metabolic state of mitochondria. Among the tested the proton & Ca ion exhibited interesting results. When pH was altered from 7.2 to 9.0, the activity of the brain enzyme was increased approximately twice and the calculated Km value at the alkaline pH was 5 times smaller than that of neutral pH. Thus the V/K profile indicate that the neutral molecule appears to be the active substrate. The effects of Ca ion on the enzyme activity also affected by the pH of the incubation medium. While the added Ca ion activated the enzyme activity at alkaline pH, it exerted inhibitory effect at neutral pH. When the substrate was changed to kynuramine which act on both types of MAO A & MAO B, the effects of Ca ion were reversed dramatically opposite direction. Considering the Ca ion role in the mitochondria, these preliminary data suggest that Ca ion could be a physiological modulator of the MAO activity. (supported by KOSEF).
임신한 흰쥐에게 필수지방산이 풍부한 옥수수기름과 필수지방산이 결핍된 야자경화유를 각각 임신 일주일부터 먹여 출생과 이유후 7주까지 사육하면서 적당한 시기에 새끼쥐의 뇌에서 DNA, 단백질, 콜레스테롤, 인지질, 중성지질, Poteolipid protein, 및 지방산 조성을 측정하였다. 필수지방산이 결핍된 새끼쥐는 실험기간동안 체중이 유의적으로 감소했으며 대조군의 약 70% 정도 밖에 되지 않았으나 뇌무게는 별 차이가 없었다. 뇌의 핵산과 단백질은 결핍식이에 영향을 받지않으나 myelin 의 지표인 proteolipid protein은 감소하였다. 뇌지질 또한 결핍식이에 영향을 받지 않았다. 지방산 조성은 양에는 별 이가 없었으나 n-6/n-3의 비는 실험기간동안 일률적으로 낮은 것으로 보아 필수지방산의 결핍증을 알기 위한 좋은 지표라고 생각된다. Sprague Dawley pregnant rats were fed the corn-oil as a EFA-sufficient diet and hydrogenated coconut oil as a EFA-deficient diet during the 14 days of gestation and through lactation. Body and brain weights were measured on pups and the brains were analyzed for DNA, protein, proteolipid protein, cholesterol, phospholipid, and triglyceride. Body weights were significantly low in EFA-deficient group through the 7 week period, but brain weights were significantly depressed before weaning. Brain DNA and protein contents were not affected by EFA deficiency. However, proteolipid protein was significantly lower in the EFA-deficient group than the EFA-sufficient group. Brain cholesterol, phospholipid, and triglyceride were not affected by the EFA deficiency. Fatty acid compositions in the brain were not significantly different between groups but the ratio of n-6/n-3, which is considered to be a biochemical index of EFA deficiency, was much lower in the EFA-deficient pups all through the 7 week period.