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본 논문은 1971년 지갑성의 회갑 기념 음악회에서 함동정월과 김명환이 지갑성에게 산조를 기증한 음원에 제시된 최옥삼류 가야금산조 中 늦은자진모리에 대한 연구이다. 산조의 악장명은 장단명과도 관계가 있으며, 지갑성이 늦은자진모리의 악장을 두 단락으로 나누어 제시하고, 굿거리와 자진굿거리라고 해석한 매우 귀중한 자료이다. 이 자료의 분석을 통하여 악장명이 주는 의미를 파악하고 늦은자진모리에 해당하는 장단 빠르기를 이해하여 이론과 실제 연주에 도움이 되고자 하였다. 그 내용을 정리하면 다음과 같다. 이재숙ㆍ성애순의 악장 구성은 다스름-진양조-중모리-중중모리-늦은자진모리-자진모리-휘모리 총 7장으로 구성되었다. 지갑성은 다스름-진양조-중모리-중중모리-굿거리-자진굿거리-자진모리-휘모리(당악)로 악장명을 제시하고 있다. 악장명은 늦은자진모리로 제시되어 있지만, 음악 안에 내재되어 있는 장단은 두 단락으로 구분되어 진다. 선행연구는 1~55장단까지 중중모리로, 56~155장단까지 자진모리로 제시하였다. 지갑성은 1~91장단까지 굿거리, 92~154장단까지 자진굿거리로 단락을 구분 지었다. 중중모리, 굿거리, 자진굿거리, 자진모리는 모두 3소박 4박의 구조로 되어 있으나, 지역적인 특색, 연주자, 반주자의 해석에 따라 달라질 수 있다. 늦은자진모리가 중중모리로 해석될 경우 중중모리의 연장선으로 이해되어 연주 빠르기의 변화가 없다. 따라서 해석의 차이로 인한 중중모리로 연주되어도 둥글둥글한 표현미와 함께 중중모리와 다른 연주 빠르기를 가지고 연주해야 한다. 늦은자진모리의 장단과 빠르기, 리듬 구조를 분석하고, 지역적인 음악 특색을 반영하여 지갑성이 두 단락으로 나누어 구조화 시킨 배경을 이해할 수 있다. 경기 무악의 대가였던 지갑성은 경기도 음악권에서의 환경을 인식하여 늦은자진모리를 중중모리-자진모리로 이어지는 장단연속체로 보지 않고, 굿거리-자진굿거리의 장단연속체 느낌으로 해석한 것이다. 늦은자진모리는 최옥삼류 가야금산조의 대가인 함동정월이 명명한 것으로 악장명은 늦은 자진모리로 정의되어야 한다. 다만 중중모리-늦은자진모리-자진모리로 이어지는 장단연속체의 연주에 있어서 지갑성의 해석을 참고하여 연주할 필요가 있다. 선행 연구 결과와 지갑성의 악장 해석 차이에 의한 장단 빠르기를 적용하면 중중모리-자진중중모리(굿거리)-자진모리(자진굿거리)-자진자진모리(자진모리)로 해석할 수 있다. 이와 같은 장단 빠르기로 연주하였을 때 자연스럽게 몰아가는 감흥에 영향을 주어, 최옥삼류 가야금산조의 장단연속체 느낌을 표현하는 실제 연주가 될 것이다. 앞으로 이론과 실제 연주를 위한 조언을 제시하자면 늦은자진모리는 다른 산조의 자진모리로 인식하면 안 된다는 것이다. 실제 연주나 콩쿠르에서도 늦은자진모리를 자진모리로 인식하여 제시하는 경우는 지양해야 할 것이다. 그동안 학계ㆍ교육계ㆍ연주계에 알려지지 않은 최옥삼류 가야금산조의 굿거리 악장과 관련하여 늦은자진모리를 연구하였다. 이를 통해 최옥삼류 가야금산조의 늦은자진모리를 다른 산조의 자진모리와 비교하여 어떻게 해석하고 적용해야 할지 밝히는 계기가 되었다. 이러한 악장의 재해석 연구는 이론뿐만 아니라 실제 예술적인 연주 표현에 도움이 될 것이며, 더 나아가 향후 21세기 새로운 가야금산조 형성 발전에도 영향을 미칠 것으로 기대한다. This study focuses on late Jajinmori found in the song source which is donated to Jie, Gapsung by Ham, Dongjungwol and Kim, Myunghwan at Jie, Gapsungs' 60th birthday concert in 1971. The movement title of Sanjo is related to the rhythm title and it is a very precious material in which Jie, Gapsung divided the movement of late Jajinmori of Gayageum Sanjo of Choi, Oksam style into two paragraphs and which he also interpreted it as Gutguri and Jajingutguri. Through the analysis of this material, this study attempted to grasp the meaning of the movement title and understand the pace which belongs to late Jajinmori, and finally attempted to assist the theory and the actual performance. The following are the results. The organization of the movement in Gayageum Sanjo of Choi, Oksam style is composed of 7 movements, namely, dasureum-Jinyangjo-Jungmori-Jungjungmori -late Jajinmori-Jajinmori-Huimori in case of Lee, Jaesuk and Sung, Aesoon. However, Jie, Gapsung uses different names for the movement, namely dasureum-Jinyangjo-Jungmori-Jungjungmori-Gutguri-Jajinmori-Huimori(Dangak) The movement tile is proposed as late Jajinmori, the rhythm inherent in the music is categorized into two paragraphs. From the existing study, 1<sup>st</sup>~55<sup>th</sup> rhythm is proposed as the feature of Jungjungmori and 56<sup>th</sup>~155<sup>th</sup> the feature for Jajinmori. However, Jie, Gapsung defines 1<sup>st</sup>~91<sup>th</sup> rhythm to be Gutguri and 92<sup>nd</sup> to 154<sup>th</sup> rhythm to be Jajingutguri. Jungjungmori, Gurguri, Jajingutguri, Jajinmori all have 3 little beat and 4 beat, however, differences can be made according to the regional characteristics, performers, accompanists, and the interpretation of the audience. Therefore, even while it is performed as Jungjungmori due to the different interpretation, it contains the pace of Gutguri and it should be played with round expressiveness and pace. What we can learn from the different pace in the paragraph is that when late Jajinmori is interpreted as Jungjungmori, it is understood as in the continuum of Jungjungmori and the change in the pace cannot occur. The structured background to divide into two paragraphs was confirmed as the results of analysis of the rhythm, pace, and the rhythm structure of late Jajinmori. Jie, Gapsung, a master of Gyunggi shaman music, perceiving the musical environment of Gyunggido music zone, did not consider late Jajinmori as a continuum of rhythm flowing from Jungjungmori-Jajinmori but he interpreted it as a feeling from the rhythm continuum of Gutguri-Jajingutguri. Late Jajinmori which is coined by Ham, Dongjungwol, a master of the Gayageum Sanjo of Choi, Oksam style should have its movement title defined as late Jajinmori. used. However, with the regard to the performance of rhythm continuum of Jungjungmori-late Jajinmori-Jajinmori, Jie, Gapsung's performance should be taken into consideration while playing. The comparison between the existing studies and the results of Jie, Gapsung's movement interpretation yield that it should be played in the interpreted pace of Jungjungmori-Jajinjungjungmori-Jajinmori-Jajinjajinmori. This is to produce natural climax and it fits for the actual performance in pursuit of late Jajinmori of Gayageum Sanjo of Choi, Oksam style. A piece of advice is that late Jajinmori should not be confused with other Sanjo for the theory and the actual performance. Late Jajinmori should not be perceived as Jajinmori in actual performance or competition. As mentioned above, late Jajinmori has been studied with regard to Gutguri movement of Gayageum Sanjo of Choi, Oksam style, unknown to the academic circle and the performance circle. Late Jajinmori of Gayageum Sanjo of Choi, Oksam style as been compared to Jajinmori of other Sanjo and examined how to be interpreted and applied. This kind of re-interpretation study of movement is going to provide assistance not only to the theory but also to the actual artistic performance, providing a positive impact to the development of new Gayageum Sanjo in the 21<sup>st</sup> century.
This paper on an experiment, using System Dynamics, on the affect of increase in number of beds and medical instruments used for the care of premature infants, which constitute the physical requirements in quality of medical services, on changes in the survival rate of premature infants that leads to demographic changes of Newborn infants. The model has four sectors: take-in capacity, survival rate of premature infants, demographics without newborn infants and demographics with newborn infants. The model simulates the changes in demographics of the newborn infants from 2002 to 2022. The study results show that the survival rate of premature infants can be increased by improving the physical aspects in the quality of medical services. An average of 1,900 premature infants can survive as a result of the physical quality improvements in medical services, adding up to an increase of 37,300 newborn infants by the year 2022.
Objectives: The purpose of this study is to parenting attitudes perceived by adolescents into different groups and to examine the impact of sub-factors of parenting attitudes on smart phone addiction. Methods: Data was collected by distributing questionnaires to high school students located in the nationwide regions and a total of 1,020 people were surveyed. Inconsistent parenting attitudes were divided into the consistent group and inconsistent group to carry out descriptive statistics, multiple regression, and path analysis. Results: In both the consistent and inconsistent parenting attitude groups, it was found that among the sub-factors, interest(p<.01) had the biggest impact on smart phone addiction. Inconsistent parenting attitude group was found that smart phone addiction levels in adolescents were more higher than consistent parenting attitude group. Conclusions: Through the above results, it was confirmed that smart phone addiction to directly impact parenting attitude. This implies that when raising their children, parents should display consistent attitudes in order to prevent addictive smart phone usage among adolescent.
We designed a 16-week feeding experiment to test the effects of dietary supplementation with distillers` dried grain (DDG) on the growth, feed utilization, and body composition of juvenile muddy loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus. Seven isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets were formulated to contain 0% DDG (Control); 10% 20% and 30 % DDG from rice (diets RM10, RM20 and RM30); and 10%, 20%, and 30% DDG from rice and wheat flour (diets RWM10, RWM20 and RWM30), respectively. Three replicate groups of juvenile muddy loach averaging 1.5 ± 0.10 g were fed one of the diets to satiation twice daily. Survival of juvenile muddy loach fed the RWM20 and RWM30 diets was higher than that of the control group (P<0.05), while weight gain tended to decrease when fish were fed diets containing DDG. Weight gain of fish fed the RWM10 diet was greater than that of fish fed other diets, but the RM30 diet resulted in less weight gain than did the control (P<O.05). The feed and protein efficiency ratios of fish fed the RM10, RM20, RM30, RWM10, RWM20 and RWM30 diets were all similar to the control (P>0.05). Neither daily feed intake nor proximate composition of the whole body was affected by dietary DDG (P>0.05). The compositions of isoleucine, leucine, lysine, threonine, and valine were all elevated in fish fed the RM30, RWM10, RWM20 and RWM30 diets relative to those of other groups (P<0.05). In contrast, methionine + cystine and phenylalanine + tyro-sine were all lower in fish fed the RM30, RWM10, RWM20 and RWM30 diets, as compared to those of other groups (P<0.05). Our results suggest that DDG is suitable as a partial replacement for soybean meal and wheat flour, and could be used at a rate of up to 20% for rice, or 30% for rice and wheat flour, for optimum growth performance of juvenile muddy loach.
A feeding trial was conducted to investigate the growth and body composition of juvenile sea cucumber Aposticho pus japonicus in integrated culture with abalone Haliotis discus hannai or rockfish Sebastes schlegeli . Triplicate groups of sea cucumber averaging 1.2±0.05 g were cultured alone or with abalone or rockfish for 12 weeks. Survival of sea cucumber was not affected by co-culturing ( P >0.05). Weight gain of sea cucumber cultured with rockfish was significantly higher than that of sea cucumber cultured alone ( P <0.05), and did not differ from that of those cultured with abalone ( P >0.05). These findings indicate that co-culturing sea cucumber with rockfish effectively improves the growth of sea cucumber.
Because of the open data in public domains, it is easy to collect the public data. However, people find difficulty in visualizing the data in material that they actually want. Especially, A map is a difficult material to do the visualization work, without using the specific tools and learning. Therefore, in this paper, we proposed an interface tool for map data visualization that user can easily visualize various national statistics data on the map. We designed the interface by classifying the properties of the map systematically, focusing on the completion and convenience for making the map. After that, we developed a web-based application using D3.js. After user evaluation, we found that our application can visualize the map more quickly and completely than any other web interfaces for map data visualization. Users also found a higher satisfaction in operating convenience.
Purpose: This study investigated the factors influencing sleep quality in adults according to age groups. The escriptive study was conducted in metropolitan areas of South Korea to control for possible sleep differences between adults living in rural areas and those living in cities. Participants were 450 adults between 19 and 65 years old. Methods: Self-administered questionnaires consisting of including the Korean Modified Sleep Leeds Evaluation Questionnaire, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and the Perceived Stress Scale were used to assess the quality of adults' sleep. Results: Sleep quality was poor across the all age groups Stress and subjective health status were influencing factors of sleep quality among participants in their 20s; subjective health status and circadian rhythm (evening-type) were influencing factors of those in their 30s; subjective health status, alcohol consumption, and work days of less than 8 hours were influencing factors among participants in their 40s; and stress, circadian rhythm (evening-type), subjective health status, work days of over 11 hours, past smoking habit, and light physical activity were influencing factors of those aged 50 years and over. Conclusion: The quality of sleep was low across the all adult age groups in South Korea. Although the factors influencing quality of sleep differed by age groups, they in general indicate the need to focus on maintaining and controlling health status in sleep interventions.
본 연구에서는 실린더 내 잔류 연료 및 soot 저감을 목적으로 설계된 네 개의 실린더 형상이 스월노즐 인젝터가 적용된 압축 착화 엔진 성능에 미치는 영향을 알아보기 위해 수치 해석적 연구를 수행하였다. 네 개의 실린더 형상은 연소 영역을 확장을 위해 피스톤 보울의 직경을 증가시키거나, 분사된 액적의 분열 거리 증가를 위해 피스톤 보울의 길이를 증가시켰으며, squish flow의 영향을 최소화 또는 최대화하기 위해 piston rim 길이를 증감하였다. 기존 실린더 형상과 비교 연구 결과, large bowl의 경우, 기대한 것과 같이 연소 영역이 넓게 형성되고, 생성된 soot이 빠르게 산화되어 ISSoot 값이 약 21% 감소하였다. Small bowl의 경우, 충분한 분열 거리가 확보되고, 잔류 연료가 감소하여 ISSoot 값이 16.5% 감소하였다. A numerical study was conducted to investigate the effect of cylinder geometries, which were designed to reduce the residual fuel and the soot emission in a CI engine with a swirl nozzle injector. Four cylinder geometries which changed the diameter of the piston bowl to expand the combustion zone or varied the length of the piston bowl to increase the break-up distance of the injected droplets were considered in this work. In addition, piston rim length changed to investigated the effect of squish flow. As results, in case of the large bowl piston, the soot was rapidly oxidized due to the enough combustion zone by the increased bowl diameter, so the ISSoot value decreased about 21 %. In case of the small bowl, which was expanded the piston bowl length with reduced bowl diameter, it had reduced ISSoot value up to 16.5% than the conventional cylinder geometry because the residual fuel decreased since enough break-up length was secured and the formed soot in the piston bowl was rapidly oxidized.