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      • KCI등재후보

        플라톤 이데아론을 바탕으로 아상블라주 기법을 활용한 아트메이크업 작품제작

        최주희(Joo-Hee Choi),한지수(Ji-Soo Han) 한국화장품미용학회 2020 한국화장품미용학회지 Vol.10 No.2

        Humans conceptualize and acquire knowledge through perceived sensations. Human senses are obtained from individuals, but also they are acquired and structured in organization and education, and concepts that fit in the structure beyond individual senses are established. Humans have built these concepts through education and institutions. Nowaday, in a society respects diversity however the knowledge conceived through the acquisition of dependence on a consistent perception. As the humans specified in the Plato"s theory of Ideas bound in the caves, Humans regard all the experiences as a real. Education according to the system that humans have built seems to limit the human being"s awareness of new existence from the truth (light). Accordingly, the beliefs that humans have and the senses formed through the system that humans have been protected so far have contradiction. This study explained the theoretical background and the contradiction of the above according to the analogy of the cave based on Plato"s theory of Ideas, and produced the art works by using the characteristics of the assemblage techniques. As for the assemblage techniques, the characteristics of the assemblage techniques were classified into five types: materiality, shape, dailyness , coincidence, and sociality. The results of this study, which produced art make-up works using the assemblage techniques based on Plato"s theory of Ideas, are as follows. Each of the eight works expresses certain contrast by its silhouette and the real work.

      • KCI등재

        18세기 중후반 훈련도감의 立役 범위 확대와 도감군의 상업활동

        최주희(Choi, Joo-Hee) 고려사학회 2018 한국사학보 Vol.- No.71

        18세기 들어 대외정세가 안정됨에 따라 중앙군문의 위상은 이전시기와 달라졌다. 영조대 戊申亂이후 왕실 호위와 궁궐 숙위의 중요성이 강조되었으며, 도성 순라와 성곽 보수, 禁松, 捉虎등 도성을 재정비하는 차원의 각종 국역이 균역법 시행 이후 재검토되었다. 삼군문이 중앙정부의 각종 역사를 분담하는 체제가 형성되었으며, 그중 훈련도감군은 금·어 양영의 상번군보다 각종 역사에 우선적으로 차출되었다. 18세기 중반 이후 훈련도감군이 각종 국역에 일차로 동원된 배경은 첫 번째, 균역청으로부터 감필에 따른 급대재원을 비교적 충실히 지급 받은 데에서 찾을 수 있다. 둘째, 영조 32년(1756)부터 금위영과 어영청의 停番을 훈련도감군이 대신 서게 하고 이들에게 旅需錢을 지급하는 조치가 취해지면서 나타난 효과로 볼 수 있다. 이 과정에서 훈련도감군은 도성의 상업활동에 적극 가담하여 초기 手持之物을 판매하던 수준에서 점차 난전을 열고 도고활동을 벌이는 단계로까지 나아갔다. 정부입장에서는 서울의 공물조달역을 행하는 공시인과 마찬가지로 도감군 역시 국역을 수행하는 자들이었기 때문에, 일부 상업활동을 허용해주는 선에서 이들의 생계를 보전해주고자 하였다. 그러나 18세기 이후 이들이 난전, 도고행위로 서울시장을 위협하는 수준에 이르자, 정부는 도감군의 상업활동을 제재하는 조치를 취하였다. 애초에 국역체제의 틀 속에서 정부는 도감군의 입역을 확대하였으나, 그에 따른 반대급부로 난전, 도고활동을 전면 허용해줄 수 없는 상태에서 군문에 대한 정부의 상업정책은 이처럼 미온적인 성격을 띨 수밖에 없었다. 辛亥通共이 반포된 이후 도감군의 상업활동에 대한 정부의 규제 역시 도고행위를 금지하는 수준 이상을 넘지 않았다. 이에 18세기 후반 훈련도감은 난전과 도고활동을 지속적으로 전개하여 부수적인 이익을 도모하였으며, 경강선인들과 경쟁하여 삼남의 세곡을 임운하는 권한도 확보하였다. 또한 景慕宮을 개건하는 과정에서 주변을 정비하고 모민을 조성하는 역할을 주도함에 따라 서울의 동부권 상업 발달에도 기여하였다. Tributes to be delivered to royal merchants and governmental offices were procured by the brokers in the capital city upon expansion of Daedongbeop to 6 Provinces since 18<SUP>th</SUP> century. The brokers who were paid by the government on tributes and services started to be responsible for the transportation of the inflowing goods to the capital and maintenance services of palaces and official residences. The national services that had been dispatched and handled by the people were changed into the payment system since Daedongbeop was effective. Hence, the market merchants and brokers in the capital paid by Hojo and Sunhyechung provided with a variety of goods to be required for King’s visit or movement. On the other hand, soldiers were dispatched to the defense of the castle as well as services by obligation unlike market merchants or brokers. Especially, the soldiers in Hullyeon Dogam played roles as the most important position among three armies upon dispatching to defend the royal family as well as various services such as castle defense and patrol, maintenance of castle wall, Gumsong, Chakho, and so on. They were mobilized to the construction of Chunggye stream in Youngjo period and played a crucial role to reconstruct Kyungmo Palace and install ship bridge on Han River in Jungjo period. Since the soldiers who were under brokers and army of the capital were responsible for the national services requested by the government with different roles, livelihoods of market merchants and brokers were threatened if the commercial activities of the soldiers who had been already paid were expanded and acknowledged. This is the reason that the government could not but to control the commercial activities of the soldiers with Nanjeon in terms of governmental commercial policy in 18<SUP>th</SUP> century. Therefore, the commercial activities of soldiers since Shinhaerongong in late 18<SUP>th</SUP> century was announced were still controlled. Nonetheless, HullyeonDogam tried to gain the benefit additionally upon continuous commercial activities and Nanjeon, and they secured the right of grain paid as a tax in three Souths competing with Gyunggang merchants. In addition, they contributed to the development of eastern commercial area partly upon leading the role to organize Momin and to perform maintenance during the course of reconstruction for Kyungmo Palace.

      • KCI등재

        19세기 재지사족층의 친족결집 노력과 내적 균열양상 : 호남지역 善山 柳氏家의 친족활동을 중심으로

        최주희(Choi Joo-hee) 고려사학회 2010 한국사학보 Vol.- No.38

        Ryu Hui-Ch'un(柳希春), the well-known author of the Mi-Am's Diary(眉巖日記), was an official of the central government of the Choson dynasty in the 16<SUP>th</SUP> century and also a scholar himself. He was one of the king Son-jo(宣祖, 1567~1608)'s trusted men in the capital city, while constantly putting much effort to get involved with the local Yang-ban society of Tamyang(潭陽). Even with Ryu Hui-Ch'un's effort, the Ryu family of Sun-san in Tam-Yang area unfortunately failed to produce either higher officials or outstanding scholars who might have succeeded what Ryu Hui-Ch'un had achieved, and barely saved face of the family by stubbornly devoting the family members to Confucianism. In the 19<SUP>th</SUP> century, when the profoundly institutionalized status system was breaking down, the Ryu family of Sun-san in Tam-Yang needed to re-sustain their social status and fame as 'prosperous family of the Ho-nam province(湖南華族),' or as 'the descendants of the noted wise man.' Facing the social challenge, the Ryu family contacted the family members who had been scattered in Tamyang, Pu'an, Kokshong area. The main project which the newly collected Ryu family put priority on was publishing the literary works of their successful ancestor, Ryu Hui-Ch'un. However, the distant relatives of the Ryu family apparently did not share deep emotional solidarity especially in sharing the high expenses for the campaign of the clan such as taking care of the ancestors' graveyards, publishing the books, which might have redounded to the clan's glory. Thus, the concentration of the Ryus of Sun-san in the 19<SUP>th</SUP> century ironically caused bitter conflicts inside the clan. The famous Collection of Mi-am's Works(眉巖集) is a heritage which was clearly invented by the Ryu family as a symbol of the collective Ryu clan in the 19th century when the dissonance of the clan reached the peak.

      • KCI등재

        조선후기 왕실·정부기구의 재편과 서울의 공간구조

        최주희(Choi, Joo-Hee) 서울시립대학교 서울학연구소 2012 서울학연구 Vol.- No.49

        The purpose of this paper is to research how redistributing public finance influenced commercial development in early modern Korea. Choson dynasty made a reformation the tributary system called as Daedong-pub[大同法] through 17~18th centuries. It meaned that the unit of tax got more equalized such as rice or coin and it was impossible to calculate appoximately the tax amount after Daedong-pub. Actually due to carry out Daedongpub, the more larger amount of tax than Ho-jo[戶曹] got into the granaries belonged to Sunhye-chng[宣惠廳] every year. Sunhye-chung redistributed its own finance to contracted merchants such as Gong-in[貢人] or Jeongye-in[廛契人]. They purchased the goods designated by each governmental agencies[貢物] in Seoul market and then procured to them. During 18~19th centuries governmental offices and their contracted merchants increased and Seoul market also got enlarged. Analzing the aspects of the increase of central government agencies through 17th~mid 19th centuries, we can find two noticeable points. One thing, the agencies of central government have increased by 32.1% till mid 19th century. The other thing, the most of them were agencies for sacrificial service or royal family and the second most of them were military agencies. Each group was tend to be located another space in Seoul. Specially, there were many of procurement agencies for Royal family[供上衙門] and Royal houses[宮房] that operate their own finances[內帑] in the mid-west side and northwest of Seoul around Gyungpok Palace[景福宮]. Royal family spent their own money and finances supported by central government in Seoul market. On the other hand, the military camps[軍營] were established around Changdeok palace[昌德宮] and a lot of serviceperson lived there after Japanese Invasion of Korea in 1592[壬辰倭亂]. Military camps increased their funds by lending grains to people or producing coins and joined commercial transaction in Seoul market. Professional soldiers and servicepersons sold theiry handiworks in Y-heon market[梨峴] of the northeast side. They got salaries from Hojo or payed for military service from Boin(保人). They also had begun to take part in trading under the aegis of military camps or influential officers in seoul market. Because of their commercial activity, the new markets in northeast and south side of Seoul got developed continuously utill 19th century. In short, Seoul market got developed in late Choson in consequence that the procurement system for sacrificial service and royal family had enlarged and military camps had joined actively for commerce.

      • KCI등재

        16세기 양반관료의 선물관행과 경제적 성격

        최주희(Choi Joo-hee) 한국역사연구회 2009 역사와 현실 Vol.- No.71

        This article is originated out of an intention to understand the economic system and fiscal situations of the 16th century through the Yangban officials' custom of exchanging gifts. For five centuries, the Joseon dynasty maintained a strong convention of using currency that had actual material-values, from the society's top to the bottom. The Yangban Sajok figures, who rose to become the political leaders of the country in the 16th century with their own Neo-Confucian political agendas, practiced the principle of mutual aid and beneficiary cooperation among themselves, by frequently exchanging gifts, in both the central political arena at the capital and inside local communities. By doing so they solidified their political alliance. Such gifts that were exchanged between Yangban officials and Sajok figures, were mostly 'political gifts' arranged to facilitate one's own receiving of a recommendation for a governmental seat, yet such gift exchanges constituted a flow of some 'economic meaning' as well. Gifts that were provided to Yangban officials and Sajok figures were in many cases obtained through official revenue sources. From the royal family they were provided in the format of bestowal(either Bongyeo/封餘 or Sasong/賜送), and from the official bodies they came in the form of provisions(either Gonggwae/供饋 or Jigong/支供). In the 16th century, when both the Sajok figures and governmental officials coexisted to constitute a dual-layered leadership in both the capital and local societies, the financial system operated with several kinds of expenditure being made without any clear distinction among them in terms of resources, like whether it came from an official revenue sources or private revenue sources. The concepts of a 'gift' and a 'bribe' were put somewhere in the middle, in such gift exchanging customs and habits.

      • KCI등재후보

        발달장애인의 범죄피해 시 진술분석에 관한 연구

        최주희(Choi Joo Hee),공정식(Gong Jung Sik) 사단법인 안전문화포럼 2021 안전문화연구 Vol.- No.14

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 9시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        발달장애인이 범죄에 노출될 가능성이 일반성인에 비해 높음에도, 재판과정에서 주요한 증거로 작용될 수 있는 이들의 진술을 체계적으로 검토할 평가척도가 마련되지 않은 상황이다. 그러므로 본 연구의 목표는 일반성인과 다르게 나타나는 발달장애인의 진술양상에 대한 형사절차 관계자들의 이해를 높이고, 수사 및 재판과정에 발달장애인의 진술이 올바르게 적용되도록 하며 더 나아가, 차후 발달장애인 진술분석 평가척도 개발에 유의미한 자료가 되는 것이다. 진술분석이 북미 및 유럽에서 널리 활용되는 도구인 만큼 국내와 더불어 풍부한 국외 자료를 분석하여 발달장애인 진술분석 시 유의해야할 점에 대해 조사하고, 발달장애인 진술분석 평가척도의 필요성에 대해 분석하였다. 특히 발달장애인이 범죄취약계층임을 고려하여 발달장애인이 피해자인 경우에 중점을 두어, 발달장애인 유형에서 큰 부분을 차지하는 지적장애인 및 자폐성장애인 진술분석에 대한 분석을 수행하였다. 결과적으로 일반성인과 다르게 지적장애인과 자폐성장애인의 명확한 발달능력 저하의 특성이 발견되었고, 이는 발달장애인의 기억오류, 기억혼동, 암시 · 유도 · 반복질문 취약, 진술오염 등의 가능성을 증가시켜, 이들의 진술과정 및 진술신빙성 판단과정에도 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다. 국내 2015~2018년 지적장애인 사건을 검토한 결과, 법관은 지적장애 피해자가 핵심사실에 대해 일관되고 구체적이게 진술할 경우 진술의 신빙성을 인정하는 경향이 높은 것으로 나타났고, 더하여 피해자의 진술신빙성을 파악하는 과정에서 피고인과의 관계성, 무고가능성 등을 검토하는 것으로 나타났다. 하지만 수사 및 재판과정에서 일관되게 적용되는 명확한 발달장애인 진술분석 평가척도는 존재하지 않으며, 이를 위한 일반원칙 및 통합적인 세부 평가기준 제시에 대한 꾸준한 분석과 연구가 필요한 상황이다. 발달장애인 진술분석 평가척도를 개발하여, 발달장애인 진술 신빙성 검사를 더욱 공정하고 체계적이게 수행하고, 이들의 진술이 법정에서 올바르게 적용될 수 있도록 해야 한다. Although people with developmental disabilities are more likely to be exposed to crimes than ordinary adults, there is no evaluation measure in place to systematically review their statements that can serve as major evidence in the trial process. Therefore, the goal of this study is to enhance criminal procedure officials’ understanding of the statements of people with developmental disabilities that appear differently from ordinary adults, to ensure that statements of people with developmental disabilities are correctly applied to the investigation and trial process, and furthermore, to be a significant data for the development of a official statement analysis assessment scale for statements of people with developmental disabilities. In addition to domestic data, abundant foreign data were used to investigate what should be noted when analyzing statements of developmental disabilities, it is because a statement analysis is a widely used tool in North America and Europe. In particular, considering that people with developmental disabilities are vulnerable to crime, the emphasis was placed on cases where people with developmental disabilities are victims. And, a study was conducted on the statement analysis of intellectual disabilities and autistic disabilities, which account for a large part of the types of developmental disabilities. As a result, unlike ordinary adults, a clear decline in the developmental ability of intellectual disabilities and autistic disabilities was found, this increased the likelihood of memory errors, memory confusion, vulnerability to implications, leading, and repetitive questions, and contamination of statements, which also affected the process of statements and the process of determining the credibility of statements. As a reviewing, the 2015~2018 intellectual disability case in domestic, judges tended to acknowledge the credibility of the statement when the intellectual disability victim consistently and specifically state the core facts. In addition, it was found that in the process of figuring out the credibility of the victim’s statement, the relationship with the Defendant and the possibility of false accusation were reviewed. However, there is no clear evaluation scale for statement analysis of developmental disabilities that is consistently applied during the investigation and trial process, to build this, constant analysis and research on the presentation of general principles and integrated detailed evaluation standards are needed. By building an evaluation scale for the analysis of statements for developmental disabilities, the credibility test for statements of developmental disabilities should be conducted more fairly and systematically, and their statements should be applied correctly in court.

      • KCI등재

        18세기 전반 宣惠廳의 재정운영 양상 -同春堂後孫家所藏 『消遣法』을 중심으로-

        최주희 ( Joo-hee Choi ) 한국고문서학회 2015 古文書硏究 Vol.47 No.-

        同春堂宋浚吉(1606~1672) 後孫家에 전해 내려오는 『消遣法』은 제목만 봐서는 시간을 보내기 위해 소일거리로 쓴 책처럼 보이지만, 실상은 매우 실용적인 목적으로 선혜청의 세입·세출과 각종 경비식을 필사해 놓은 재정장부이다. 본고의 검토 결과, 『소견법』은 숙종 34년(1708) 황해도에 詳定法이 시행되고 얼마 되지 않은 시점에, 동춘당 송준길의 증손인 宋堯卿(1668~1748)이 선혜청 낭청직을 역임하면서 필사한 자료로 추정된다. 『소견법』의 구성을 살펴보면, 크게 ⓛ본청용도와 ②일년 세입·세출액(작전·잡비식 포함), ③대동 저치미 지급식, ④節目⑤공물가 지급식으로 구분해 볼 수 있다. ⓛ본청용도에는 제조당상과 낭청에게 지급되는 각종 물품이 열거되어 있는데, 이는 부가세에 해당하는 公剩價米로 마련되었다. 『소견법』에 기재된 剩米會錄式[100석당 1석]과 空태價捧上式[1석당 2승]은 18세기 전반 선혜청이 6청체제로 정비 되는 과정에서 자체운영경비를 어떻게 마련하였는지 확인할 수 있는 근거자료가 된다. 참고로, 영조35년(1759) 공잉색이 설립될 당시 선혜청은 100석당 2석의 剩米를 거두고 있었으며, 공인들에게 공물가를 지급하면서 空石價로 1석당 2승의 쌀을 수취하였다. 다음으로 『소견법』에는 선혜청의 1년간 세입·세출액을 산출해 놓았다. ②선혜청의 수지구조는 당시 지출[208,243석]이 수입[182,806석]을 초과하는 상황에 있었다. 특정 해의 수치이기는 하지만 『소견법』의 데이터는 18세기 전반 선혜청의 경비가 늘어나는 추세를 반영하고 있다. 또한 『소견법』에는 현재 『대동사목』이 남아있지 않은 경기와 강원도의 세입·세출액과 경기, 황해도의 ③대동저치미 지급식이 쓰여 있어 향후 경기 선혜법뿐 아니라 강원도와 황해도의 상정법을 복원하는 데에 중요한 실마리를 제공할 것으로 보인다. 한 가지 주목할 점은, 본문 중간에 ④節目을 적어 놓은 것이다. 절목은 선혜청 관원의 근무일수, 公事처리절차, 대동세의 출납과 창고 관리, 하급원역의 감독에 관한 처리규정을 담고 있다. 이를 통해 대동사목이나 법전에 명시되지 않은 선혜청 낭청의 역할과 위상을 파악할 수 있었다. 마지막으로, ⑤공물가지급식에는 18세기 전반 선혜청에서 각사소속 공물주인과 廛契人들에게 분기별로 공물가를 지급한 내역이 적혀 있다. 大同事目에는 공물가 지급식이 마련되어 있지 않기 때문에 그간 선혜 각청의 공물가 지출규모를 파악하려면 19세기에 작성된 『萬機要覽『이나 『宣惠廳貢案』 등을 활용할 수밖에 없었다. 그러나 『소견법』의 발굴로 자료의 공백을 어느 정도 메울 수 있으리라 생각한다. 『소견법』은 동춘당 후손가에서 필사한 자료이기는 하지만, 17세기 『대동사목』과 19세기 『청사례』를 연결시켜주는 선혜청 관련 자료라는 점에서 사료적 가치가 크다고 하겠다. 『소견법』을 통해 향후선혜청 연구에 많은 진전이 있기를 바란다. A simple glance at the title of the book would lead to believe that <Sogyeonbeop (消遣法)> passed down to the descendants of Song Jun-gil (1606-1672) was written as a pastime. However, it was actually a financial ledger in which the financial details of the Seonhyecheong (宣惠廳, Agency to Bestow Blessings) during the early 18th century were transcribed. <Sogyeonbeop> is estimated to consist of materials transcribed by Song Jun-gil’s great grandchild Song Yogyeong during his term in office within the Seonhyecheong as Staff Officer( nangcheong). The position of Staff Officer( nangcheong) was a core one, in that such individuals were in charge of the general affairs of Seonnyecheong. As such, the <Sogyeonbeop> should be regarded as materials transcribed from the standpoint of his position as Staff Officer. Song in fact recorded in a detailed manner various articles that had been provided to officials from the Seonhyecheong in the front of the book. The very nature of this list would seem to indicate that Song was a direct beneficiary of these articles. In addition, Song also wrote down instructions for the inspection of lower level officials and in connection with the workdays of a Staff Officer in a subsection related to the work duties of Staff Officers. In conclusion, the <Sogyeonbeop> should be perceived as an account of life within the Seonhyecheong during a particular period that was prepared in accordance with the needs of a specific individual who held the position of Staff Officer, and not as a document officially prepared by the branch of the central government known as the Seonhyecheong. The book has since been passed down to the author``s descendants. Furthermore, the presence of memoson which the circumstances of the time were written between the pages that were added by later generations indicates that <Sogyeonbeop> was preserved and read by the descendants based on objectives that were not necessarily the same as the initial intention of the author. on which the circumstances of the time were written between the pages that were added by later generations indicates that <Sogyeonbeop> was preserved and read by the descendants based on objectives that were not necessarily the same as the initial intention of the author.

      • 19세기 전반 중앙재정의 실태와 다산 정약용의 재정개혁안

        최주희(Choi, Joo Hee) 충청남도역사문화연구원 2018 충청학과 충청문화 Vol.24 No.1

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 9시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        정약용은 『주례』를 모델로 중앙관제를 관체제로 정비하고, 정전제적 토지질서 하에 부세체계를 정비함으로써 民産과 國用을 진작시키는 개혁방안을 제시하였다. 정약용의 토지제도개혁안은 당시 토지 사유화 경향이 심화되는 가운데, 향촌에서 급재결을 불법적으로 늘리고 궁장토, 둔토 등의 면세결을 확대해가는 상황을 타개하기 위한 방안으로 모색되었다. 정약용은 중앙에 경전사를 설치하여 경무법에 따른 경지구획을 정리하고, 사전 매입을 통해 구일세를 적용할 공전을 확보하고자 하였다. 그러나 조속의 실제 수취액을 따져보면, 세입을 파격적으로 늘릴 수 있을지 장담하기 어려운 점이 있었다. 이에 정약용은 평부사를 설치하여 부세자원을 발굴하는 한편, 가난한 백성에게 잡역이 편중되는 현실을 개선하고자 하였다. 우선 재산을 고려하여 6부의 호구에 부가지정, 택전지정, 옥속지정을 차등 과세하는 한편, 시장과 산림·천택을 국가의 관리 하에 두고 관시지부, 산택지부, 폐여지부를 부과하는 안을 모색하였다. 특히 그는 정전을 경작하지 않는 백성들도 9職내에서 직을 부여받고, 옥속의 부세를 바쳐야 하는 점을 강조하였다. 창고운영론은 정약용이 제시한 가장 현질적인 대안이라 할 수 있다. 그는 향촌에서 자행되는 환곡의 폐단을 신랄하게 비판하면서도, 한편으로 환곡창과 상평창의 운영을 확대허여 진휼과 재정보용에 활용하는 방안을 제안하였다. 정약용은 중앙관서와 지방감영에서 자의적으로 운영하는 잡다한 환곡을 정비하여 호조와 지방감영에서 일원적으로 관리하고, 반류 반분의 원칙 하에 2할의 모곡을 수취하여 중앙경비와 지방관수에 보용하도록 하였다. 이와 더붙어 환곡의 일부를 상평창곡으로 각도에 분치하여 환곡을 보조하는 기능을 담당하도록 하였다. 요컨대, 정약용의 재정재혁얀은 周禮의 차용과 古制의 활용으로 현실과 다소 괴리되어 보이는 듯하지만, 실상은 19세기 당대를 현실감 있게 고민한 데서 나온 개혁방안이었다고 평가할 수. 있을 것이다.

      • KCI등재

        특집논문 : 조선후기 부세수취 관행과"중간비용" ; 대동법(大同法) 시행 이후 중간비용의 처리양상과 과외별역(科外別役)의 문제

        최주희 ( Joo Hee Choi ) 성균관대학교 대동문화연구원 2015 大東文化硏究 Vol.0 No.92

        17세기 후반부터 전국에 확대 시행된 대동법은 현물납에 따른 民役의 부담을 대폭 완화시켜준 조치였다. 각도 대동사목이 작성되는 과정에서 운송비[船馬價·태價]와 수수료[作紙·役價]의 일부가 大同儲置米(餘米)와 上納米내에 포함되었다. 문제는 선혜청이라는 대동세의 출납기구가 신설되고, 중앙의 공물조달체계가 재편되는 과정에서 새로운 중간비용이 창출되었다는 점이다. 군현에서 대동세를 상납할 때 선혜청에 人情米를 바쳤으며, 공인들이 왕실과 정부각사에 공물을 진배할 때에도 人情·作紙를 별도로 납부하였다. 또 대동세 수취시 잉미[1,000석 당 20석]를 더 거두고 공인에게 공물가를 지급할 때에도 空石價[1석당 2승]를 추가로 징수하여 선혜청의 청사유지비와 관원의 인건비로 썼다. 특히 공인들에게는 무상의 과외별역이 부과되었는데, 이것은 18세기 이후 공인들이 조달시장을 이탈하는 배경이 되었다. 대동법 시행을 계기로 공인들이 시장에서 공물을 구매하여 왕실과 중앙각사에 진배하는 시스템으로 전환하였다고 하더라도, 공물조달의 최종단계에 있는 왕실과 중앙각사는 조선전기와 마찬가지로 현물[공물·진상]을 진배 받는 구조를 계속 유지하였다. 이로 인해 궐내·외 각사에서 각종 수수료·잡비를 징수하는 관행이 계속 유지되었으며, 공인들에게 공물을 추가징수하고 과외별역에 동원하는 폐단이 18세기 이후 가시화되었다. 정부로서도 한정된 대동세입을 가지고 정부관서와 지방관아의 행정을 유지하기란 쉽지 않았다. 여기에 양란 이후 왕실과 정부기구가 재편되고 관서행정에 필요한 각종 역을 고립해 쓰는 구조가 형성되면서 중앙의 재정규모는 긴축재정을 표방하는 정부의 정책과는 달리 늘어나는 추세에 있었다. 이에 중앙정부는 貢弊의 간행과 貢市人詢막을 통해 이러한 과외별역을 스스로 개선하려는 노력을 19세기까지 지속해갔다. 18세기 이후 정부의 대공시인정책이 ``詢막``의 형태로 전개된 것은 이처럼 정부재원을 조달시장에 충분히 공급할 수 없는 상황에서 공인들이 겪는 과외별역의 폐단을 개선해줌으로써 공물조달체계를 안정적으로 유지하려는 현실적인 타협책에 다름 아니었다. Existing transportation costs, fees, and labor costs linked to the collection of the Uniform Land Tax(Daedongse) were rolled into the Uniform Land Tax following the expansion of the related law(Daedongbeop) nationwide during the late 17th century. The collection en bloc of various spot goods as well as military and corvee labor services under the Uniform Land Tax led to an easing of the abuses associated with the collection of surtaxes and miscellaneous expenses. However, the Joseon government found itself having to run the central and local governments based solely on the amounts collected through the Uniform Land Tax. In this regard, the government sought to overcome the deficit in general expenses by assigning extra corvee labor to the tribute men who paid the costs of tribute products in conjunction with important national events. However, this extra corvee labor privately assigned by government officials on top of the official national corvee labor had the effect of significantly increasing the burden bore by tribute men. In this regard, the government organized consultative meetings that had as their objective the resolution of the problems faced by tribute men and merchants. It also published records related to the situation of tribute men in a book called < Tribute Malpractice(gongpye) >. As such, following the implementation of the Uniform Land Tax Law, the Joseon government continued to try to find ways to alleviate the exploitative nature of the extra corvee labor arbitrarily implemented by the central government agencies and bodies.

      • KCI등재

        18세기 중반『탁지정례(度支定例)』류(類) 간행의 재정적 특성과 정치적 의도

        최주희(Choi, Joo-hee) 한국역사연구회 2011 역사와 현실 Vol.- No.81

        During the middle period of king Yeongjo's reign, a book named 『Takji-jeong'rye(度支定例)』 was published in the wake of the crown prince's overseeing of the government and also amidst all the preparations made for Yeongjo's stepping down from the throne. It was published to cut unnecessary spending of the government's money, and also to prevent certain malpractices that could come from the governmental offices' requirement of the public to report for more national duty(應役) or to agree to additional submissions. It was to secure a sufficient monetary basis to aid the unstable government and its "Tangpyeong" policy. Since the early half of the Joseon dynasty, the concept of 'only spending an amount of money based upon what has been collected(量入爲出), has been compromised, especially in the revenue area, as discussions of the tributary taxation process did not lead to a more aggressive solution such as revising the tributary item register itself, but only to a compromising result demonstrated by the creation of the 'Daedong Samok.' In terms of the royal family's and the governmental offices' collection of tributary items, other than the regular amount that should be collected by the Seon'hye-cheong office, additional submissions were being forced, and the Hojo (Ministry of Finance) office's "Byeolmu" collection was increasing as well. The king and the government were finding it difficult to discourage such practices. So king Yeongjo intended to bring reforms to the 'spending area,' in order to reduce malpractices which were continuing to plague the people in the 'revenue area.' This was the primary reason behind compiling 『Takji-jeong'rye(度支定例)』, which was a book related to the government's spending. The publication of 『Takji-jeong'rye(度支定例)』 was one of the centerpieces of king Yeongjo's fiscal policies, which included the initiation of the land tax 'Bichong-je(比據制)' act and the government's agenda to promote 'cutting spending(節損)' and also to pursue ways of ensuring the people's 'stable living (恒産).' Yet 『Takji-jeong'rye(度支定例)』 as well granted some 'special cases,' while the government's spending of tributary items was quietly allowed in the form of the Byeolmu( ) practice. So, during the latter(別貿)half of king Yeongjo's reign and also the reign of king Jeongjo's, Takji-jeong'rye(度支定例) had to be revised on a regular basis.

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