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Arcs have long been used as a light and a heat source. Modern industrial applications demand the arc<br/> discharge to be run at a power level which has not been encountered hitherto. Because of the high power level<br/> encountered, there is a strong interaction between the arc discharges and their surroundings. This interaction<br/> makes quantitative prediction of industrial arc plasma systems extremely difficult. The design of such systems<br/> is still largely based on trial and error although the situation is rapidly improving because of the available<br/> computational power at a cost which is still rapidly coming down. The desire to predict the behavior of arc<br/> plasma system, thus reducing the development cost, has been the motivation of arc research. The most<br/> enormous duty of a circuit breaker is to interrupt fault current in a circuit, thereby protecting other<br/> components from damage. This is achieved by separating the two contacts in a gas or a liquid, and an arc is<br/> inevitably established between the contacts. The arc must be controlled during the high current phase of the<br/> AC cycle and interrupted at an appropriate current zero. In this paper, we have simulated the flow<br/> characteristics of high current arc and surrounding gas in a SF6 gas circuit breaker. This is based on an arc<br/> model which takes account of the turbulence enhanced momentum and heat transfer and the radial radiation<br/> transfer (including re-absorption at the edge of the arc). The radiation transfer in a circuit breaker is calculated<br/> based on a monotonic radial temperature profile from the axis. The temperature, velocity, electric field as well<br/> as the pressure can easily be visualized under arcing conditions.
This study described computer aided die design system for cold forging of non-axisymmetric parts such as gears and splines. To design the cold forging die, an integrated approach based on a rule-base system and commercial F. E. code were adopted. This system is implemented on the personal computer and its environment is a commercial CAD package named as Auto CAD. The system includes four modules. In the initial data input module, variables which are necessary to design of die are inputted by user and die material are selected from the database according to the variables. In the analysis and redesign module, stress distribution acting on the designed die is analyzed by commercial FEM code NISA IT with elastic mode. If die failure predicted, the designed die would modified in four ways to prevent die failure in both states of stress free and pressurizing. The developed system provides useful date and powerful capabilities for die design of non-axisymmetric parts.<br/>
GIS(Gas-Insulated Switchgear) which utilize SF? gas for an insulation may be exploded because of pressure and temperature rise due to the internal arc fault if a short-circuit accident is occurred. The protection against an internal arc fault is provided by a high safety margin between design and bursting pressure and by the application of pressure relief devices which is based on the knowledge of simulated pressure rise. This paper describes the prediction of the pressure and carries out the actual test.