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Objective: This study is designed to measure the concentration of DBPs (disinfection by-products) in pool water and in air and to estimate the carcinogenic potential through the evaluation of inhalation exposure. Methods: The subjects were six indoor swimming pools with many users in Gwangju. Samples of pool water and indoor air were taken every one month from August 2018 to August 2019 and analyzed for eight swimming pool standards. Three-liter air samples were collected and the VOCs were analyzed using GC/MS directly connected to thermal desorption. Results: pH was 6.8-7.5 and the concentration of free residual chlorine in pool water was 0.40-0.96 ?/ℓ. Physicochemical test items such as KMnO₄ consumption and heavy metal items such as Aluminum met existing pool hygiene standards. No VOC materials were detected except for the DBPs. The concentration of THMs in the pool water was 11.05-41.77 µg/L and the THMs mainly consist of Chloroform (63-97%) and BDCM (3- 31%). The concentration of indoor air THMs is 13.24-32.48 µg/m3 and consists of Chloroform. The results of carcinogenic assessment of chloroform in the indoor swimming pool via inhalation exposure were 2.0 to 6.4 times higher than the ‘acceptable risk level’ suggested by the US EPA. Conclusions: The concentration of THMs in the pool water is 11.05-41.77 µg/L, most of which is chloroform. In addition, the concentration of indoor air THMs is 13.24-32.48 µg/㎥ . The result of carcinogenic assessment of chloroform was 2.0 to 6.4 times higher than the ‘acceptable risk level’ suggested by the US EPA.
장길식 ( Gil Sik Jang ),김연희 ( Yun Hee Kim ),최영섭 ( Young Seop Choi ),김승호 ( Seung Ho Kim ),김종민 ( Jong Min Kim ),배석진 ( Seok Jin Bae ),조영관 ( Young Gwan Cho ),구태형 ( Tae Hyoung Koo ) 한국환경농학회 2016 한국환경농학회지 Vol.35 No.2
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study is to evaluate the soil quality to cultivate crops in urban garden. METHODS AND RESULTS: During the period of six month from March to August 2015, measured eight heavy metals, seven Organic items and Fluorine on seventeen urban sites and thirty-one suburban sites in Gwangju city. METHODS AND RESULTS: The average concentration and range of heavy metal in soil are 0.15 mg/kg(ND-0.6) for Cd, 14.9 mg/kg(1.5-33.3) for Cu, 4.4 mg/kg(0.4-71.8) for As, 0.05 mg/kg(ND-1.366) for Hg, 24.7 mg/kg(13.1-62.7) for Pb, 102.5 mg/kg(49.1-276.4) for Zn and 9.2 mg/kg(ND-90.1) for Ni but Cr6+ is not detected. The average value and range of soil fertility items are 253.5mg/kg(76.6-1766.0) for fluorine, 6.4(4.8-7.7) for pH, 20.3 g/kg(5.0-44.0) for orangic matters, 562.7 mg/kg (28.0-1672.0) for available phosphate, 0.6 cmol+/kg (0.1-2.3) for K, 9.7 cmol+/kg (2.7-22.0) for Ca, 3.0 cmol+/kg (0.9-7.4) for Mg, 1.0 ds/m(0.2-2.9) for conductivity. The concentration of Hg in Suburban area is 0.005 mg/kg lower than 0.134 mg/kg in urban area. Also, the concentration of As, Cd, Ni and Zn is lower than urban area as 32%, 37%, 51%, 71% respectively. CONCLUSION: According to SPI index of soil contamination, 39 sites are first degree and 8 sites are second degree and 1 site(41th) is fourth degree. Pb and Cd are not detected and As is detected tiny amounts in plants grown polluted soil, so heavy metals have not moved to plants.
김종민 ( Jong Min Kim ),안병용 ( Byeung Yong Ahn ),김승호 ( Seung Ho Kim ),김동수 ( Dong Soo Kim ),김연희 ( Yun Hee Kim ),최영섭 ( Yeong Seop Choi ),윤상훈 ( Sang Hoon Yoon ),배석진 ( Seok Jin Bae ),조영관 ( Young Gwan Cho ),김은 한국환경분석학회 2014 환경분석과 독성보건 Vol.17 No.2
This study was conducted to assess removal efficiency and develop improvement plans for a T-P treatment plant in the 1st sewage treatment plant in Gwangju. The findings of this study are as follows: among all processes, the T-P removal process achieved the highest efficiency (84%), whereas the T-N removal process showed the lowest (1.2%). About 77% of the 84% T-P removal efficiency was credited to the sedimentation basin, indicating that coagulant injection is essential. Comparing coagulants using jar tests found that the optimal PAC input was 20~25 ppm and its T-P removal efficiency was 94~95%, whereas the optimal LAS input was 25~30 ppm with T-P removal efficiencies of 84~89%. This shows that PAC can achieve a better removal efficiency than LAS. Although the jar tests suggested the best PAC input of 20~25 ppm, the actual input at the plant was 28~36 ppm, about 8~11 ppm higher. This may be attributable to the significantly shortened retention time in the sedimentation basin due to the high-rate coagulation of an inclination plate settler using micros and. The degrees of coagulation by rapid mixing were measured, and zeta potentials were found moderate ranging between -8.44~-8.40 mV. This indicates that a pump injection method should be adopted for the best coagulation (zeta potential: 0~+3 mV). Replacing the four existing rapid-mixing coagulant injectors (power consumption: 85.6 kW/h) with one device using pump injection (power consumption: 1.5 kW/h) may not only improve T-P removal efficiency but also reduce the annual electricity cost by 60 million won.