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The purpose of this study was finding effects of social-cognitive role play activity and free play activity on developmentally delayed young children and peers' interaction. In order to achieve this purpose, developmentally delayed young children and norm리 young children were asked to acquire the social skill concepts through role play and free play activity using the constructive puppet performance and to use these concept through role play and feedback. Also, it is suggested that the social skills acquired by developmentally delayed young children are used by normal young children together. This study focuses on 20 developmentally delayed preschoolers and 18 normal young children in integrated classroom of nursery school in Seoul. From each the group, young children were chosen tentatively into the cognitive-role play group and free play group. Here again, the role play group were divided into high level and low level according to the personal verbal communication skill. The results of this study are the following. 1. A cognitive-role play in comparison with a free play had an effect on improving the peer acceptance of developmentally delayed young children. 2. A cognitive-social role play in comparison with a free play had an effect on improving social competence and school adjustment behavior of developmentally delayed young children. 3. A cognitive-role play in comparison with a free play had a partial effect on reducing maladjustment behavior scale of developmentally delayed young children. Such results may be derived in some views as follows. First, the result of comparison and analysis for subject' individual scores for a maladjustment behavior showed that most of them got a score close to 0 in sub-realms, accordingly it is considered as the influence of floor effect. Second, a cognitive-social role play is composed based on contents' to rise social skills of developmentally delayed young children, therefore this study have a limit to reduce problematic behaviors like aggressive behaviors or rebellious behaviors included into a maladjustment behavior scale. Third, in case of developmentally delayed young children, when they try to approach and react peers, they excessively contact physically because of their poor verbal communications. 4. A cognitive-social role play in comparison with a free play had an effect on improving social interactions of developmentally delayed young children and normal young children. Social interactions of developmentally delayed young children were examined by sub-realms. The result showed that they had an effect on the initiation and affirmative responses of interactions and expended social interactions. A negative response for peer initiations was also reduced. A more minute analysis of this results showed that a start behavior and an entry behavior were improved, and an affirmative response and an alternative response were improved. An in expanded social interaction, a question behavior out of sub-realms was improved. These results showed that developmentally delayed young children more positively started interactions to young children and affirmatively responsed on initiations of peers. In addition, a cognitive social role play in comparison with a free play had an effect on increasing social interaction times of developmentally delayed young children. That is why social interactions of developmentally delay young children got more actively proceed by the improvement of their social skills, and they could more continuously interact with peers one play This means that social interaction pattern of developmentally delayed young children are continuously changing not one time, and a cognitive-social role play has qualitatively changed an interaction pattern of developmentally delayed young children. Besides, social interactions differently indicated according to a verbal ability of developmentally delayed young children, this means that a high verbal ability made social interactions more actively performed. And a social skill(adaptive behavior) learned by a cognitive-social role play had an effect of maintenance.
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본 연구는 치료적 음악찰동이 자폐성장애아동의 부적응행동 감소에 미치는 영향을 알아보기 위해 실시된 것이다. 연구대상은 장애아교육기관에서 교육받고 있는 4명의 자폐성장애아동 이었으며, 이들에게 치료적 음악활동을 24회기 동안 실시하여 그 결과를 분석하였다. 음악활동은 매 회기 30분씩 총 24 세션을 실시하였으며. 치료 시기별로 8회씩 3기로 나누어 1기와 2기는 개별 치료를 실시하고 3기는 2명씩 그룹치료를 실시 하였다. 연구 결과 치료적 음악활동은 자폐성장애아동의 상동행동과 과잉행동 그리고 공격행동을 감소시키는데 효과적이었다. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of music therapy on the inappropriate behaviors of autistic children. The subjects in this study were four autistic children who attended a school for the disabled. The experiment was conducted in 24 sessions, which were divided into three terms with eight sessions each, and each session run 30 minutes. The individual treatment was provided in the first and second terms, and a paired group treatment was offered in the third phase. As a result, it's found that the music therapy had an effect on alleviating the repeated activities, hyperactivities and aggressive activities of the autistic children.
The purpose of this study was to examine how vocational education was provided to student with disabilities, what problems it was faced with and what reform measures there would be. After literature of vocational education intended for student with disabilities was reviewed, teachers who were in charge of vocational education for student with disabilities were interviewed to acquire qualitative data on special schools. In addition, experts had a conference about ideal directions for vocational education. After problems with occupational education for student with disabilities and feasible reform measures were discussed, the following findings were given:There were several problems with vocational education provided by special schools to student with disabilities, such as uniform education, a shortage of qualified professional teachers, emphasis of school convenience, a lack of relevant facilities and insufficient opportunities for occupational exploration. There was something wrong with school-to-work in special schools as well, like a lack of identity and inadequate opportunities for professional job education. Besides, student with disabilities' diverse needs weren't satisfied.To tackle those problems, a wide variety of measures should be taken to enrich vocational education to help special schools provide quality vocational education. It's also needed to take actions to improve school- to-work and vocational education in special classes, and there should be legal and institutional aids to remedy the current situations.
본 연구는 특수교육지원센터의 서비스 질 결정요인을 알아보기 위하여 실시된 것이다. 연구대상은 전국 특수교육지원센터 근무자 166명으로 하였다. 이들을 대상으로 설문을 실시하여 특수교육지원센터의 서비스 질 결정요인을 알아보았다. 본 연구를 통하여 나타난 결과를 요약 정리하면 다음과 같다. 첫째, 특수교육지원센터의 서비스 질에 대한 지각은 성별, 고용형태, 그리고 지역에 따라 유의한 차이가 나타났다. 즉, 남성이 여성에 비해, 정규직이 비정규직에 비해, 그리고 농·산·어촌이 대도시에 비해 높게 나타났다. 둘째, 특수교육지원센터 근무자의 서비스 질과 관련하여 직무관련 요인에서는 직무태도와 전문성을 가장 높게 평가하고 있으며, 반면 직무프로세스와 직무환경요인은 상대적으로 낮게 평가하고 있는 것으로 나타났다. 셋째, 특수교육지원센터 근무자의 만족에서는 센터 만족과 직무만족이 비교적 낮게 나타났다. 즉, 근무자의 전반적 만족도는 낮다고 볼 수 있다. 넷째, 센터의 업무프로세스와 서비스 질 관리 및 지원센터 환경만족 또한 매우 낮은 것으로 나타났다. 다섯째, 지원센터 근무자의 센터 지원만족과 직무만족에 영향을 미치는 요인을 알아본 결과 직무태도와 직무전문성이 가장 높은 상관을 보였으며 센터지원만족은 다른 요인들과 가장 밀접한 관련이 있는 것으로 나타났다. The purpose of this study was to examine the determinants of the quality of service provided by employees of special education support centers. The participants in this study were 166 people who included teachers of special education support centers across the nation and experts in this field. A survey was conducted by visiting the selected people to determine what factors would affect the quality of service provided by the special education support centers. As for the data of the survey, a statistical analysis was conducted to look into the determinants of the quality of service and the factors related to their satisfaction with support from the centers. The findings of the study showed that when each of the determinants of the quality of service was analyzed, job attitude and professionalism were found to be major factors to affect the quality of service among the job-related factors. In contrast, the factors of job process and job environments were found to exert a relatively less influence on that. The employees of the special education support centers expressed relatively lower satisfaction with the centers and their job. In other words, it could be said that the overall satisfaction of the employees was low. There were significant differences in satisfaction with work process and environments according to the type of employment and gender. In terms of the type of employment, the regular workers were more satisfied than the irregular workers. By gender, the male employees were relatively more satisfied than the female employees. An analysis of factors that affected the satisfaction of the employees with support from the centers and their job satisfaction indicated that job attitude and job professionalism had the closest correlation to job satisfaction and the other factors were most closely correlated to satisfaction with support from the centers.
Background: The improved technique for cardiopulmonary resuscitation(CPR) has resulted in the survival of many patients who experienced cardiac arrest. However, mortality in resuscitated patients is high, and the survival rate without brain damage is very low. Various neurological examination models, neuro-imaging techniques, electrophysiological procedures, and biochemical tests have been studied with respect to the detection of cerebral damage and outcome, but an early, reliable prediction of individual outcomes is still uncertain. Methods: We studied twenty patients who had been in a coma for more than 24 hours after CPR, Somatosensory evoked potentials(SEP) were measured within the first three days after CPR. Results: Of the twenty patients, seven patients(35%) had a good outcome, and thirteen patients(65%) had a bad outcome. Of the eleven patients with loss of the cortical evoked potential's N2O peak, all had a bad outcome. Conclusion: SEPs are of great benefit in prognostic evaluation after CPR.
Purpose: Cocoa has antihypertensive activity, improves cerebral blood flow, and is an antioxidant. We evaluated the effect of cocoa extract on penile erection using the relaxation of the corpus cavernosal tissue in rat. Materials and methods: We used male 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats weighting 250-350 g divided into three groups: corpus cavernosal tissue with the endothelium (group 1), tissue without the endothelium (group 2), and endothelium pretreated with L-NAME (group 3). Changes in isometric tension were examined in an organ bath. Aortic tissues were divided into three groups and treated in similar experiments simultaneously. Results: Cocoa extract dose-dependently relaxed corpus cavernosal tissue pre-contracted by phenylephrine (10-6). In group 1, cocoa extract (10-3g/ml) induced relaxation by 97±5% (mean±SD). The extract was still effective but less potent tissue without endothelium or pretreated with L-NAME (10-4M). Similar effects were seen in aortic rings. Conclusion: Cocoa extract relaxes corpus cavernosal tissue in a dose-dependent manner via NOS and the endothelium. Cocoa extract may therefore be effective for improving erectile function.
The purpose of this study was to examine the strengths of students with learning Disabilities in classroom to acquire some information on how to foster strengths. The subjects in this study were 29 selected students with learning Disabilities and five of their teachers in an elementary school located in J province. The teachers taught the selected students. To examine characteristics of the students with learning Disabilities in classroom, participant observation was carried out, and qualitative interviews were conducted as well. Their strengths were investigated in terms of the 24 virtues of Seligman's positive psychology. The major findings of the study were as follows: First, the strengths of the students with learning Disabilities that were found by making a participant observation were honesty, kindness, tolerance and courage. Second, the words of which the students with learning Disabilities were most aware among the strengths-related words were 'love' and 'courage,' and the words of which they were least aware were 'spirituality,' 'humanity' and 'love of learning.' The word that made the best favorable impression was 'integrity,' and the word that made the worst favorable impression was 'love of learning.' Third, the improvement of self-concept and self-esteem was most necessary in relation to the selection of the objects and content of a strengths discovery program suitable for class setting. Fourth, regarding the way of conducting a strengths discovery program, they responded it would be most advisable to conduct it for 40 minutes each. As for the weekly frequency of the program, they considered it most desirable to conduct it once or twice a week. Finally, they answered it would be effective to conduct it during normal classroom hours rather than after school. Accordingly, it seems advisable to provide a strengths discovery program for students with learning disabilities during school hours. 본 연구는 수업상황에서 나타난 학습장애 학생의 강점을 찾아보고 강점을 기르는데 필요한 기초자료를 얻는데 목적을 두고 있다. 연구대상은 J도 관내 초등학교에 재학 중인 학습장애 학생 29명과 이들을 현장에서 지도하는 교사 5명으로 하였다. 수업 상황에서 나타나는 학습장애 학생의 강점을 찾기 위하여 수업현장에서 교사의 참여관찰 및 질적 면담을 실시하였다. 학습장애 학생의 강점을 발견하는데 적용한 틀은 셀리그만의 긍정심리학에 제시된 24개 덕목을 중심으로 하였으며, 수업관찰 및 면담을 토대로 학습장애학생의 강점을 발견하는 방법을 알아보았다. 이와 같은 절차와 방법을 거쳐 얻어진 결과를 요약 정리하면 다음과 같다. 먼저, 수업참여 관찰을 통해 발견된 학습장애 학생의 강점은 솔직함, 친절함, 관대함, 용기 등 이었다. 둘째, 학습장애 학생의 강점 관련 단어 인지도가 가장 높은 단어는 ‘사랑', ‘용기' 등 이었으며 반대로 인지도가 가장 낮은 단어는 ‘영성', ‘자애', ‘학구열' 등이었다. 또한, 호감도에 있어서는 ‘진실성'이 가장 높았으며 반대로 ‘학구열'이 가장 낮게 나타났다. 셋째, 수업상황에서 강점 찾기 활동 프로그램을 구안할 경우 목표와 내용 선정 시에는 자아개념과 자존감 향상이 가장 필요한 것으로 나타났다. 넷째, 강점 찾기 활동 프로그램을 운영할 경우 운영시간과 방법에 대하여는 1회 40분이 가장 적절하다는 반응을 보였다. 또한, 실시 횟수는 주당 1-2회기 정도가 가장 적당한 것으로 나타났다. 다섯째, 강점발견프로그램 적용시 프로그램 실시 시기와 관련하여 방과 후 보다는 일과 중에 실시하는 것이 효과적이라는 반응을 보였다. 여섯째, 강점발견 프로그램 실시방법과 관련하여 활동중심수업으로 학생들에게 잦은 피드백을 제공하는 것이 좋다는 반응을 보였다. 즉, 직접교수방법을 적용하여 학습장애 학생들의 실패를 예방하고 긍정적인 피드백을 통하여 긍정적인 신념을 갖도록 할 필요가 있는 것으로 나타났다.