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Objectives: This study was conducted to evaluate asbestos handling history of workers at automobile manufacturing plants in Korea. Methods: National regulations on asbestos and Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency(KOSHA) database on the information of asbestos containing products were reviewed. We investigated asbestos related materials from one automobile manufacturing plant. Material safety data sheets(MSDS) collected in 2010, work environment monitoring results reported from 2000 to 2013, trade union reports and asbestos survey reports were reviewed. We also interviewed workers with long career and did walk-through survey. Results: The Ministry of Labor in Korea has permitted asbestos manufacturing since 1990. In 1997, the use of crocidolite and amosite asbestos were banned. In 2007, the Korean government announced a total ban on the manufacturing, importation and use of all kinds of asbestos, which took full effect in 2009. A total of 174 asbestos products information from KOSHA database was analyzed. Extruded cement panel for building, special brake for crane farm machinery, gasket, joint sheet and thermal insulator were produced until 2007. From automobile manufacturing plant survey, we confirmed that asbestos containing materials(ACM) such as gasket, heating induction materials have been used until 2011. Asbestos containing building materials(ACBM) such as bamlites, slate and ceiling tex were reported at 122 asbestos dismantling projects in 2014. Conclusion: Although the use of all kinds of asbestos were banned from 2009, ACMs and ACBMs installed before 2009 were still found at automobile manufacturing plant until 2011 and 2014 respectively. In particular, asbestos slates should be managed because most of slates had not been removed until 2014.
Comparing the adsorption properties on a Pt(100) with a Fe(100) surface, We consider six types of binding site;di-σ(1), di- σ(2), 4-fold, μ2-site, 1-fold and 2-fold. On a Pt(100) surface, Calculated binding energies are 1.14 eV, 0.81 eV, 0.27 eV, 0.03 eV and 1,38 eV, respectively. On a Fe(100) surface, Calculated binding energies are 3.02 eV, 3.20 eV, 2.57 eV, 1.71 eV, 2.51 eV and 2.27 eV, respectively. CO2 adsorbs on a Pt(100) to form three distinct adsorbed species; Physisorbed molecular CO2 for μ2-site is linear type, Chemisorbed molecuar CO2 for di-σ(1), di- σ(2) and 4-fold are bent, and for 1-fold, 2-fold are normal to surface plane. Adsorbed species on a Fe(100) are bent for di-σ(1), di- σ(2), 4-fold and μ2-site, and normal to surface for 1-fold and 2-fold. Particularly, ∠OCO bending angle for μ2-site on a Fe(100) is 246˚. It is found that the binding site for adsorbing CO2 on a Fe(100) surface are stronger chemisortion than Pt(100) surface, and chemisorbed CO2 bends because of metal d mixing with the 2πu→6a1 CO2 orbitals.
Objectives: The goal of this study is to standardize industry, process, and job within work environment measurement information. Methods: We selected 180 work environment measurement reports on 30 industries from a database monitored from 2014 to 2016 by the Korea Industrial Health Association. Ten industrial hygienists, each with over five years of experience in measurement, conducted a primary standardization of 180 reports. Two professional industrial hygienists with more than 20 years of experience each reviewed and revised the results of the primary standardization. We also examined the validity on the usefulness of the standardized database by the two industrial hygienists. Results: The final standardization results were classified into eight major categories, 23 sub-major categories, 39 minor categories, 53 unit categories and 70 sub-unit categories in the Korean Standard Industrial Classification (KSIC) 10th revision. A total of 161 processes were standardized, and there were 148 processes with K2B codes. Standard job was coded into 13 job groups including operator, automobile maintenance, nurse, maintenance, manager, excavating machine operator, forklift driver, radiologist, clinical pathologist, signer, researcher, kitchen assistant, and concrete reinforcement ironworker. Conclusions: Although the standardized information in this study may be only a part of the total information, it can be useful for improvement of the K2B system. Additional research is needed for an ongoing clean-up of data in the K2B and re-calibration and reclassification of standard processes until the future national exposure monitoring system is fully established.
Odor and VOCs generation by various industries is considered to be a big problem because neighbours have become less tolerant of low-level releases that were previously acceptable. Increasingly stringent federal and provincial regulations have made it necessary to apply air pollution control measures at publicly owned treatment works. Traditional odor control technolygies such as thermal oxidation or carbon adsorption may not be cost effective for treationg the low and variable contaminant concentrations found in large volumes of off-gases. Biological off-gases treatment is used for the elimination of odor and VOCs In Europe, biofiltration has been used successfully to control odors, organic and inorganic air pollutants that are toxic to humans, as well as VOCs from a variety of industrial and public sector sources. The experiences in Europe have demonstrated that biofiltration has economic and other advantages over existing air pollution control technologies, more so if applied to off-gas streams that contain only low concentrations of air pollutions that are readily biodegradable.
수용액 중의 Direct Blue 제거를 위하여 이온 및 흡착콜로이드부상의 두 가지 거품분리기술을 이용하여 행하였다. 이온 부상법 에서는 초기농도 25 ppm의 Direct Blue 수용액을 3분처 리 후 잔존 Direct Blue의 농도를 0.5 ppm 미만으로 낮출 수 있었으며, 흡착콜로이드부상에서는 2분처리 후 잔존 Direct Blue의 농도를 0.1 ppm미만으로 낮출 수 있었다. 수용액 중의 Direct Blue의 제거를 위한 최적 pH는 이온부상에서는 pH 4이고 흡착콜로이드부상에서는 pH 3-5였다. Direct Blue 제거효율에 영향을 미치는 인자들인 계면활성제, 외부이온, Al(III) 첨가 등의 영향에 대해 조사하였다. 아울러 수용액 중의 Direct Blue의 제거에 있어서 이온부상법과 침전부상법의 흡착기구 및 분리메카니즘을 비교하여 관찰하였다. Experimental investigations on the removal of Direct Blue from an aqueous solution were carried out through two foam separation techniques: ion flotation and adsorbing colloid flotation with Fe(III). The residual concentration of Direct Blue can be lowered to below 0.5 ppm in 3 minutes by ion flotation and below 0.1 ppm in 2 minutes by adsorbing colloid flotation from the aqueous solution containing 25 ppm of Direct Blue. The optimum pH for the removal of Direct Blue was found to be 4 for the ion flotation and 3-5 for the adsorbing colloid flotation. The effects of surfactant, foreign ions, and Al(III) addition on the removal of Direct Blue are discussed. The adsorption and separation mechanism on the removal of Direct Blue by the foam separation techniques of ion and adsorbing colloid flotation were also observed.
Experimental investigations on the removal of Cu ( II ) from aqueous solution were carried out through two foam separation techniques ; foam fractionation and precipitate flotation. Efficient removal of Cu ( II ) could be obtained by precipitate flotation due to precipitation greater than by foam fractionation. Foreign ions inhibited the separation efficiency. The extent of inhibition by the divalent ions Caz+ and S0;- was found more serious than that by the monovalentions Na+ and NO3.
To investigate the conformation of ATP and ATPi- the conformational total energies were calculated using an empirical potential function by varing all the Independent degree of freedom of them backbone. The empirical potential function was composed of electrostatic, polarization, nonbonding, torsion and hydrogen bond potential. For ATP and ATP- state, conformational total energies are -192.03 Kcal/mole and -176.20kca1/mo1e.