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      • KCI등재

        이중관으로 연결된 자연치와 임플랜트의 악골 내응력분포에 관한 3차원 유한요소분석

        이수옥,최대균,권긍록,우이형,Lee,,Su-Ok,Choi,,Dae-Gyun,Kwon,,Kung-Rock,Woo,,Yi-Hyung 대한치과보철학회 2008 대한치과보철학회지 Vol.46 No.4

        서론: 임플랜트와 자연치가 혼재하는 증례에 있어서 보철물의 연결여부와 그 결과에 대해 논쟁이 많이 있어왔다. 본 연구에서는 임플랜트와 자연치를 이중관으로 연결했을 경우에 치조골 내에서 임플랜트 주변 조직의 하중에 대한 응력의 양상을 분석하여 자연 치와 임플랜트를 연결하는 보철물의 방식으로 이중관의 사용가능성을 비교 분석하고자 하였다. 연구재료 및 방법: 실험군으로서는 한 개의 자연치아와 한 개의 임플랜트를 이중관으로 연결한 모델을 사용하고, 대조군으로 두 개의 임플랜트를 이중관으로 연결한 모델을 사용하여 응력분포의 차이를 비교분석하였다. 임플랜트와 자연치 각각 통상적인 금합금을 사용하여 내,외관을 모델링한 후 각각의 외관을 연결한 구조를 형성한다. 내관과 외관은 $6^{\circ}$의 경사도 (taper)로 형성하고 내외관 사이의 공간을 인정하여, 하중을 가했을 경우 내외관 사이에 합금의 마찰력과 변위를 계산하여, 그 결과가 골내 임플랜트의 응력 분포에 영향을 줄 수 있도록 실험모델을 형성하였다. 하중은 일반적인 저작력의 크기로 임플랜트 부위와 자연치 부위에 각각 부여하여 응력의 차이를 비교하였으며, 최종적으로 대조군과의 차이를 비교하고자 하였다. 하중 조건은 임플랜트와 자연치아 사이, 임플랜트 후방, 전방부 자연치아의 사이에 하중을 가하였으며, Load case 1, 2, 3로 분류하였다. 실험을 위해서 ANSYS Version 8.1을 사용하여 3차원 유한 요소 분석을 시행하였다. 연구성적: 지대주에 가해지는 응력 - 최대 응력은 실험군이 대조군에 비해 각각 2.4 (Load Case1), 1.02 (Load Case2), 0.46 (Load Case3)배 높게 나타났으며,Load Case3의 경우 대조군의 최대응력이 더욱 높게 나타났는데, 이것은 전치부 치아의 경우 하중을 효과적으로 분산하기 때문인 것으로 보인다. 악골내에 가해지는 응력 - 악골내에서 최대 응력은 실험군이 대조군에 비해 각각 1.69 (Load Case1), 1.26 (Load Case2), 1.93 (Load Case3) 배 크게 나타났다 결론: 임플랜트와 자연치아가 혼재된 경우, 이중관으로 상부 보철물을 연결한 경우, 임플랜트만으로 구성된 대조군에 비해, 임플랜트 및 임플랜트 식립 부위의 악골에 가해지는 최대 응력은 1.02 에서 2.4배 가량 높게 나타났다. 자연치아의 움직임이 임플랜트의 경부 및 악골 내에 응력을 집중시킨 것으로 보이며, 자연치아가 있는 악골부위에서는 응력이 거의 발생하지 않았다. 본 실험의 경우 자연치아와 임플랜트에서 모든 하중을 받는 것으로 계산하였고, 실제 가철성 의치에서 나타나는 점막의 영향을 배제하였기 때문에, 실제 임상에서는 후방 임플랜트에 미치는 최대 응력의 크기는 2.4배 이하일 것으로 추정할 수 있다. 앞으로, 실제 임상에 적용하였을 경우, 임플랜트에 미치는 영향 및 자연치아에 미치는 결과에 대한 연구가 필요할 것이다. Purpoose: For decades dental implants have been used widely in the field of prosthetic dentistry. However there is confusion when establishing treatment plans in cases where some teeth are remained but an insufficient number of implants can be used due to limited anatomical status and ecomomical problems. Many clinicians have tried to connect natural teeth and implants, and it still has controversy. But, there have been few studies on mechanical analysis of connecting natural teeth and implants with konus telescopic removable partial dentures. The purpose of this study was to analyze the stress distribution of prosthesis, abutment and alveolar bone when teeth and implants were connected with the konus telescopic denture, by means of 3-dimensional finite element analysis. Material and methods: The assumption of this study was that there were 2 mandibular canine (11 mm in length, 4 mm in diameter) and 2 implants(10 mm in length, 4 mm in diameter) which are located in the second premolar region. The mandible, teeth, implants, abutments, and connectors are modeled, and analyzed with the commercial software, ANSYS Version 8.1(Swanson, Inc., USA). The control group used implants instead of natural teeth. 21038 elements, 23544 nodes were used in experimental group and 107595 elements, 21963 nodes were used in control group, Stress distribution was evaluated under 150 N vertical load on 3 experimental conditions - between teeth and implants (Load case 1), posterior to implants (Load case 2), between natural teeth (Load case 3). Results: 1. In all load cases, higher von mises stress value was observed in the experimental group. 2. Maximum von miss stress observed in all load cases and all locations were as follows ; a. 929.44 Mpa in the experimental group, 640.044 Mpa in the control group in outer crown and connector - The experimental group showed 1.45 times high value compared with the control group. b. 145,051 Mpa in the experimental group, 142.338 Mpa in the control group in abutment - The experimental group showed 1.02times high value compared with the control group. c. 32.489 Mpa in the experimental group, 25.765 Mpa in the control group in alveolar bone - The experimental group showed 1.26times higher value compared with the control group. 3. All maximum von mises stress was observed in load case 2, and maxim von mises stress in alveolar bone was 32.489 Mpa at which implant failure cannot occur. 4. If maximum von mises stress is compared between two groups, the value of the experimental group is 1.02 times higher than the control group in abutment, 1.26 times higher than the control group in alveolar bone. Conclusion: If natural teeth and implants are connected with the konus telescopic denture, maximum stress will be similar in abutment, 1.26 times higher in alveolar bone than the control group. With this result, there may be possible to make to avoid konus telescopic dentures where natural teeth and implants exist together.

      • KCI등재

        The Scarlet Letter 에 나타난 Symbolism 의 현대적 조명

        최대해 한국호손학회 2000 미국소설 Vol.7 No.1

        The purpose of this paper is to examine Hawthorne's symbolism in The Scarlet Letter. Nathaniel Hate tells his truths in symbolism. The novel repeatedly claims some deep meaning and of its symbolism. The pupose of such method is obviously to introduce multiple possibilities and hence to keep meaning. Symbols an range from the most obvious substitution of one thing for another. In Hawthorne's use of symbols in The Scarlet Letter, we observe the author mating one of his most distinctive and significa caotributiams to the growth of American fiction. The symbolism in this novel implies many thins. Among such symbols is the letter A itself. In its initial form, it is a red cloth letter which is a literal symbol of the sin of adultery. But Hawthorne maces the A it mode variously symbolic before the novel ends. The letter A appears in a variety of forms and places. The letter A begins to become the symbol of $quot;helpfulness$quot; to some people, zest Adultery, but Able, Affection, Angel, Alpha, Abel, Adam, America. In describing nature and persons in The Scarlet Letter, Author often uses $quot;light and shadow$quot;: the most prominent of these is contrast of light mid dark Night is used as a symbol for concealment, and day is a symbol for exposure. Dimmesdal's mounting the scaffold and standing with I-les and Pearl at night will not suffice: he (mows that his symbolic acceptance of his guilt nest take place in the daylight. The colors that are employed in this literary work are diverse. All the colors in the novel ace associated with one of mere natural of moral values, positive a negative. The most frequent colors are rad, black, gray, green, scarlet, crimson, purple, ruddy. The colors ted in these types of images are associated with natural good, moral good and spiritual good, natural evil and moral evil. $quot;Red$quot; stand for $quot;sin, passion, adultery, and the deep heart of Nature' and $quot;Black$quot; symbolizes $quot;evil, sin$quot; and represents emotions such as $quot;sad, inauspicious, sorrow, unhappiness.$quot; The colors of $quot;green, yellow, brown$quot; the colors as often find in Nature, are also used for representing the betty of vivid Nadine. The scaffold scene is equally symbolical. Hawthorne plans this scene to insane the dramatic equality of minister's revelation. The minister strands revealed by light of day. This final scene is completed by the presence of the missing sinner, his guilt, and the world, symbolized by die people around the scaffold. The forest is also symbolic in a variety of way. The symbolic meanings of the forest can be analyzed from different points of view. The moral law does not coincide with the natural law. From this viewpoint, the forest is depicted as a place where witches gather, and where souls are signed away to devil. The forest represents the $quot;heathen$quot; forest. It is however the four major characters that Hawthorn's pours as symbolist are brought into fullest play. Each of his major s symbolizes a certain view of sin and its effects on the human heat. Modem people may say that this literary work is indeed the work of symbolic romance, as it begins with, and ends with symbols.

      • KCI등재후보

        A Study on the Narratives of the Brontës

        최대해 한국영미어문학회 2004 영미어문학 Vol.- No.73

        This study aims to explain how the Bront s' Narratives is interwoven by various narrative techniques. In this paper I have examined the three novels of the Bront s.Charlotte Bront 's Jane Eyre has a fundamental conflict between mother-figures and heroine Jane. It is Jane's failure to establish rapport with her primary mother-figure, Mrs. Reed that finally leads to the plot's failure to reach a resolution until the very end of the novel. Unlike other works where the mother is absent and it is the lack of maternal presence that breeds mistrust and conflict between characters, Jane Eyre has a powerful presence of a surrogate mother. Emily's Wuthering Heights seems to be very neatly designed, though it has multiple narrators and interwoven plots. Beneath the surface, however, there are ruptures in the layers of narratives that we can detect at a second reading. These ruptures are caused by the narrators who choose to tell the story in their own special way, and they ultimately reveal a fragmentation in author's vision which splits the novel itself.Anne Bront makes use of established genres like the fairy tale, the gothic and the Bildungstroman, and subvert and deconstruct these older, "patriarchal" forms of narrative.Anne's The Tenant of Wildfell Hall is similar to Wuthering Heights, especially because both novels have twin tales yoked together. Markham and Helen tell two separate stories in Anne's novel like Emily's Lockwood and Dean. Helen bestrides both stories, and there is an underlying pattern of repetitiveness that links the plots in both novels, in spite of breaks and fragmentations.Indeed, the Bront sisters use earlier, more rigidly defined forms of narratives in their fragmentary narration. Their novels that originate from their personal history of suffering, struggles and catastrophes surely create a form that illustrates for readers the shape of things to come in English literature.

      • KCI등재

        Anne Bronte의 The Tenant of Wildfell Hall에 나타난 서술기법연구

        최대해 한국영미어문학회 1998 영미어문학 Vol.- No.52

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

      • KCI등재

        급성 카바메이트 중독후 발생한 급성 관상동맥증후군

        최대해,Choi,,Dai-Hai 대한임상독성학회 2007 대한임상독성학회지 Vol.5 No.1

        The carbamates are a group of insecticides derived from carbamic acid, with a broad spectrum of uses as agricultural and household garden insecticides. Carbamate insecticides are reversible cholinesterase inhibitors. Their inhibitory action is mediated by reversible carbamylation of acetylcholine, as with the organophosphate insecticides. Carbamates are absorbed by the body through multiple routes, including inhalation, ingestion, and dermal absorption. Although poisoning can result from occupational exposure or accidental ingestion, in most cases there is suicidal intent. This is particularly true in developing countries, where the highest incidence of morbidity and mortality from this cause occurs. Cardiac complications often accompany poisoning by carbamate compounds, which may be serious and often fatal. The extent, frequency, and pathogenesis of cardiac toxicity from carbamate compounds has not been clearly defined. Possible mechanismsinclude sympathetic and parasymphatetic overactivity, hypoxemia, acidosis, electrolyte derangements, and a direct toxic effect of the compounds on the myocardium. Patients with carbamate poisoning should immediately be transferred to an intensive or coronary care unit where appropriate monitoring and resuscitative facilities are available. We here report a case of acute coronary syndrome resulting from acute carbamate ingestionthat resulted in a healthy discharge.

      • Co-infection with MERS and Influenza A Virus in Patient with Pneumonia, Korea

        최대해,하경임 대한응급의학회 2020 대한응급의학회 학술대회초록집 Vol.2020 No.2

        Material & Method Thumbnail of Radiographs of patient co-infected with MERS and influenza A virus, Korea, 2005.) Chest computed tomography demonstrating a mass, ground-glass consolidation in the both lung.) Chest radiograph showing improved lung fields after 7 days in the intensive restritive care unit. A 58-year-old man was seen in the clinic of Korea local Hospital on June 1, 2005, for fever and dry cough. The patient visited and stays 3hours in SamSung Medical center from May 27, 2005, and began having symptoms May 30. He reported hypertension with regular medication. Routine blood tests revealed a leukocyte count of 4.120 × 109 cells/L (reference range 3.5?9.5 × 109 cells/L). Chest computed tomography revealed a unremarkable. But, patient's travel history, he was isolated for suspected MERS. We obtained a nasopharyngeal swab specimen for detection of MERS and for differentiation of influenza A and B viruses by using RT-PCR. The sample was negative for MERS but positive for influenza A. The patient was discharged with oral oseltamivir and instructed to stay home for isolation. Result On June 13, the patient returned to the hospital reporting persistent fever and aggravated dyspnea. Routine blood tests showed a leukocyte count of 4.25 × 109 cells/L A chest radiograph showed diffuse exudative shadows in bilateral lungs, indicating acute respiratory distress syndrome. Physical examination revealed respiratory rate of 20 breaths/min and oxygen saturation of 93% on ambient air. On June 17, we performed a second test for MERS by using a sputum sample, which also was negative. Conclusion This case highlights 2challenges in the diagnosis of MERS. First, the sensitivity of tests to detect MERS from upper respiratory specimens might be insufficient. Repeated rRT-PCR testing of nasopharyngeal swabs was negative for MERS before the patient was admitted to the intensive care unit. To date, diagnosis of MERS is made mainly on the basis of nucleic acid detection from nasopharyngeal swabs.

      • KCI등재

        Hawthorne 의 종교적 죄의식 : The Scarlet Letter 를 중심으로

        최대해 한국호손학회 2001 미국소설 Vol.8 No.1

        The objective of this paper is to analyze the sense of religious sin in Nathaniel Ha. This paper is to represend diverse approaches to the main Characters in The Scarlet Letter. Hawthorne was brought up in the family of Puritan tradition. He sets three characters on the stage and he is interested in moral, religious view. Hawthorne's main material is the religious view and ethical point of Calvinistic life in New England. He believes that Love your enemies, do good to those who hate you, bless those who curse you, and pray for those who mistreat you. Three kinds of religious sin can be divided in The scarlet Letter. Hester Prynne commits sin of adultery with minister Dimmesdale, and she repents his sins. She is forced to tear 'A' on her breast as a sign of adulteress. She heartily tries to overcome her sufferings. Finally, she has changed the meaning of adultery into Angel. Dimmesdale didn't confess himself to guilty. His moral cowardice results in his sufferings. Eventually he confess his sin on the scaffold and dies. Even thou he confesses late, he also reaches his redemption. In Roger Chillingworth, Hawthorne deals with his malice. Chillingworth transformed himself into devil and 'Unparadonable sinner'. He broke against the nature's providence. Finally he can also get salvation by repenting. In elusion, Hawthorne, in The Scarlet Letter, represents that people are forced to take their right step because 'They beings have an original sin.

      • 1P-415 선택적인 백금@탄소 코어-쉘 나노입자를 이용한 역전류 현상 최소화

        최대일,강윤식,유성종 한국공업화학회 2017 한국공업화학회 연구논문 초록집 Vol.2017 No.1

        자동차용 연료전지는 반복적인 시동 켬, 시동 끔 과정을 견뎌낼 수 있어야 한다. 시동을 켜거나, 끌 때 외부에서 유입된 공기로 인해 발전장치 내부 연료극에는 산소가 존재하게 된다. 산소가 존재하는 환경에서 발전 장치를 시동 하게 되면 연료고갈에 의한 역전류 현상이 발생한다. 역전류 현상은 공기극의 전위를 증가시켜 탄소 지지체를 부식시키고, 촉매의 성능 및 내구성 저하를 유발한다. 따라서, 연료전지가 자동차에 적용되기 위해서는 역전류 현상을 방지할 수 있어야 한다. 개발된 백금@탄소 코어-쉘 나노입자는 크기 의존적인 반응을 통해 수소와 선택적인 반응을 한다. 자동차용 연료전지 촉매로 적용되었을 때, 유입된 공기로 인해 연료극에 존재하는 산소를 효과적으로 차단하여 원치 않는 산소 환원 반응을 방지하고, 결과적으로 시스템 내부에서 발생하는 역전류 현상을 최소화할 것으로 기대된다.

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