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          崔致遠의 시를 통해 본 9세기 黃海航路

          최낙민(Choi, Nack-Min) 한국해양대학교 국제해양문제연구소 2015 해항도시문화교섭학 Vol.0 No.12

          海雲崔致遠(857∼?)은 9세기 바닷길을 통한 羅唐간의 문화교류를 대표하는 인물일 뿐만 아니라 한국 漢文學의 비조로 추앙받는 인물이다. 때문에 최치원에 대한 연구는 문학, 철학, 역사 등 다양한 방면에서 진행되어 많은 성과물을 내고 있다. 하지만 그의 행적을 해양실크로드와 연관시켜 진행한 연구는 그리 많지 않다. 다행히 최치원은 『桂苑筆耕集』卷20에 수록한 七言絶句15수와 七言律詩15수가 884년 10월 양주를 떠나 다음해 3월 신라의 왕도 경주에 도착하기까지 귀국길에 창작한 것임을 밝히고 있다. 본문에서는 최치원 선생의 『桂苑筆耕集』 뿐만 아니라 『孤雲集』?등에 수록된 작품 중, 귀국시기에 지어진 시를 분석하여 그가 이용한 황해항로를 살펴보고 시에 드러난 최치원의 심경을 살펴보았다. 먼저 황해항로의 西端揚州에서 중국 동해안에 이르는 大運河길을 통해 귀국을 즈음한 최치원의 복잡한 심경과 함께 강남지역의 사회상을 살펴보았다. 다음으로는 항해에 필요한 순풍을 기다리기 위해 한겨울을 바닷가에서 보냈던 최치원의 시를 통해 항해에 종사하는 사람들의 종교와 삶을 유추하였다. 마지막 장에서는 황해항로에 대해 고찰하고 慶州의 모습을 통해 바닷길을 통한 문화교류의 양상을 살펴보았다. 이를 통해 경제적인 측면이 강조된 남양해양실크로드와 달리 신라와 당을 연결하는 황해해로의 특징은 문화교류에 있었음을 확인할 수 있었다. Choi Chi Won(857∼?), also known by his pen names as Haeun and Goun, is not only a person who represents the cultural exchange between the two dynasties, the Silla-Tang (羅唐) through the Sea Route in the ninth century, but also one of the most revered figures as the progenitor of Sino-Korean literature (漢文學) in Korea. For this reason, the studies on Choi Chi Won are being carried out and have achieved a number of products in various fields, such as literature, philosophy, and history. There is, however, only few works conducted on his deeds in connection with the Maritime Silk Road. Fortunately, Choi Chi Won expressed that the poems in his twenty-volume work, 『桂苑筆耕集』Gyewon Pilgyeonjip : Plowing the Gassia Grove with a Writing Brush were composed during the return voyage from the time he left Yangzh?u (?州) in October of the year 884 to the time he arrived at Gyeongju, the capital of the Silla Dynasty in March of the next year. Those poems are fifteen verses written in quatrain with seven chinese characters in each line (七言絶句) and the other fifteen poems which includes eight-line verse with seven-chinese characters each (七言律詩). This thesis explores the Yellow Sea Route that Choi Chi Won made a voyage on and how his mind was expressed in his poems by analyzing his poetry written during the homecoming. The analysis includes 『孤雲集』 The collection of Goun’s poetical work as well as 『桂苑筆耕集』Gyewon Pilgyeonjip, in the body. At first, it aims to read Choi’s complicated emotions around the time when he returned back home through the Grand Canal on the Yellow Sea Route from the western end of Yangzh?u linking to the eastern coast of China. It also endeavors to dissect social aspects in the southern region of the Yangtze River. Furthermore, religions and the lives of the people engaged in navigation will be analogized through Choi’s poetry which was composed on the seaside as he waited for a tailwind to continue his voyage. In the last chapter, the modality of the cultural exchange through the Maritime Silk Road is explored by contemplating the Yellow Sea Route and Gyeongju. From this work, it is assured that the main characteristic of the Yellow Sea Route, connecting the Silla and Tang Dynasties, is the cultural exchange which is different from the South Sea-Maritime Silk Road in which economic aspects are emphasized.

        • KCI등재

          “東方의 巴黎”, 근대 해항도시 上海의 도시이미지

          최낙민(Choi Nack Min) 부산경남사학회 2010 역사와 경계 Vol.75 No.-

          Having various urban images as such 'Paris of the East', 'London of the East', 'New York of the West', etc. Shanghai had yet become one of the six big cities of the world with its population amounting to over three million. This article aims to search for the reason for why Chinese prefered to call it 'Paris of the East'. The rapid development of Shanghai as the typcal big city of modern China was connected profoundly to its particular urban spaces of Shanghai International Settlement and the French Concession. Among others, the image of 'Paris of the East' had been made up by its intellectuals-citizens who pursued for the French culture and distinctive space trait of the French Concession. We examined how the French Concession had been constructed and Shanghai's urban images had been made up focusing on "Xujiahui parish" defined mainly by edge-Yangjinbang-, path-Abenue Joffre-, and landmark-St. Igantius Cathedral. And we interrogated into the activities and documents of contemporary Chinese intellectuals and literary artists which had displayed at the cafes and public parks of Avenue Joffre, a physical space that made its modern urban images up. Consequently, it can be said that these intellectuals and literary artists were anxious to make China a cultural power of world like France and re-create Shanghai as a model of modern city like Paris. Absolutely, their such ideas lacked the accurate appreciations of reality. However, alongside of 'old-Shanghai Nostalgia' phenomena which tried to recover the abundance and culture of 1920ㆍ1930s' Shanghai, the image of 'Shanghai, Paris of the East' come to life again today.

        • KCI등재

          金光洲의 문학작품을 통해 본 海港都市 上海와 韓人社會

          최낙민(Choi Nack-Min) 동북아시아문화학회 2011 동북아 문화연구 Vol.1 No.26

          Kim Gwangju had stayed in Shanghai from July 1929 to February 1938. This article interrogates the urban images and Korean society represented in his literary works which had been published in journals and magazines and been written about Korean lives in Shanghai from 1932 to the moment when he leaved from it. Kim grasped the nature of cosmopolitan Shanghai through the space of sea-port which “issues the fragments of everyday life... pleasures, melanchory, conspiracy, suicide, etc., whenever ships anchor into.” He recognized that Shanghai was a sea-port where colonialist country was connected with colony and a space like “a piteous femme fatal who has been provided as an arena of pleasures where westerners enjoyed at their disposals wearing the pretended western clothes of concession.” Not only for Korean, but also those who were bound with traditional local orders, Shanghai as an arena of pleasures appeared as ‘an anonymous island’ which could hide everything of cosmopolitan city. many of Korean patriots became degraded pursuing pleasures through drinking, sex, and opium. Accepting the anarchist influence, Kim criticized severely not only the moral decadence of Korean patriots, but also the factionalism and splits of nationalists in Shanghai who “would kill easily their own compatriots shooting gun if their doctrines and opinions differ each other” by his works. In addition, they revealed the sympathy with the lives of Korean lower immigrants who were sacrificed by the conspiracy of Imperialism and capitalism. He also suffered the self-pity of poor his own who had been interwound with the actual economic difficulties, the regret for evading from revolution, the dept consciousness for comrades, and the shyness with his choice.

        • KCI등재

          1930년대 문학작품을 통해 본 해항도시 靑島

          최낙민(Choi, Nack-Min) 동북아시아문화학회 2013 동북아 문화연구 Vol.1 No.35

          Qingdao has a clear image of ‘a little Europe in China’ with “green mountain, blue sea, red roofs and green tree”. Qingdao, which was a small fishing village before port opening, grew into an international sea port city in 1930s. However, since the cultural level of the local community was not high, it needed a lot of help from elites and writers from other regions to add cultural colors to the city. The most important incentive that attracted prominent writers at that time in Qingdao was National Qingdao University and National Shandong University. This study focused on the analysis of proposes addressing Qingdao among the works of the writers based on National Qingdao University and National Shandong University in 1930s. First of all, the pictures of a sea port Qingdao were examined focusing on the construction of Qingdao Port and railroad. Next, the pictures of Qingdao depicted in the works of Xinyuepai(新月派) wirters including Wen Yiduo(聞一多) and Yang Siqiu(梁實秋) who came to Qingdao when National Qingdao University was founded in 1930 were examined. Finally, this study examined the pictures of a sea port city Qingdao and life of people in Qingdao through the works of Wang Tongzhao(王統照) who represented the local writers in Qingdao and was engaged in teaching and writing. Through these, this study found that while most works of Xinyupai were limited to introducing natural environment of Qingdao and exotic city figures, the writers around Wang Tongzhou had deeper understanding of Qingdao"s history and social problems as well as depicted the life, joys and sorrows of Qingdao people at that time. There are rich literatures with Shanghai as their background. However, the literary works with Qingdao as background are fewer in terms of volume and writers. Therefore, the studies on Qingdao are fewer. In particular, considering the fact that there is almost no study on QChinese literature of Qingdao in Korea literature society, this article has a significance. In addition, examining the relationship between cultural construction and university in a new sea port in modern times would be a method to reveal the cultural identity of a sea port city.

        • KCI등재

          16世紀 中國의 海港都市를 통해 본 文化交涉 : 廣州와 泉州를 중심으로

          최낙민(Choi Nack-Min) 동북아시아문화학회 2008 동북아 문화연구 Vol.1 No.17

          In this article, the term ""sea port cities"" does not simply refer to the ports as a facility for international trading. It is rather defined as the place where the innovative ideas and new brains are created and where diverse aspects of each culture are combined by the regional and international exchanges of cultures. This article is intended to identify how different cultures are interacting each other. The term ""Cultural interaction"" includes the acceptance of the new culture by a historical accident, conflicts with the native culture and intergration, and transformation into a new one. From the perspective mentioned above, this article is intended to identify the process of forming a new society and its mechanism comrehensively in historical, philosophical, literal aspects by understanding the interactions of the people and culture and the conflicts and acceptance, and the creation of the new culture in the Guangzhou(廣州) and Quanzhou(泉州) area in 16th century.

        • KCI등재

          예수회 신부 吳漁山의 ‘十年海上’ 사목활동과 天學詩 고찰

          최낙민(Choi, Nack-Min) 대한중국학회 2017 중국학 Vol.59 No.-

          '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

          본고에서는 1688년 57세의 나이로 사제 서품을 받고 上海에서 10년간 선교활동(‘十年海上’) 을 수행한 예수회 신부 오어산의 삶을 통해 동질적인 가치의 보편성을 추구하는 가톨릭과 유 교문화를 중심으로 하는 중국 고유문화 사이에서 발생하는 긴장을 해결하고, 두 문화를 융합 하기 위한 그의 노력을 살펴보고자 하였다. 이를 위해 오어산의 三餘集 속에 수록된 시 가운데 상해에서 창작한 기독교문화와 예수회 신부들의 활동을 담아낸 광의의 天學詩를 분석 대상으로 하였다. 본문에서는 먼저 상해지역의 기독교 전교기지였던 老天主堂을 중심으로한 예수회 오어산 신부의 생활을 살펴보고, 예수회원의 중국 선교활동에 있어 중요한 역할을 담당했던 서양의 천문학과 자연과학지식에 대한 그의 태도를 밝히고자 하였다. 이를 통해 예수 회 신부가 되면서 자연스럽게 바티칸 포교성의 지휘와 감독을 받게 된 중국 지식인의 글로벌한 종교 활동을 살펴볼 수 있었다. 다음으로 오어산 신부가 상해지역의 선교활동에서 보여준 목자로서의 노력, 사람 낚는 어부가 되고자 한 선교사로서의 모습을 살펴보고자 하였다. 이를 통해 기독교와 중국 고유문화를 융합하고자 노력한 예수회 신부 오어산의 사목활동이 갖는 로컬적인 의미를 확인할 수 있었다. This paper attempts to review the Jesuit priest Wu Li’s missionary work in Shanghai from a “global-local” perspective. To achieve this goal, the first part of the paper examines Wu’s life in the Old Catholic Church in Shanghai and figure out his attitude towards Western scientific knowledge, one of the two major axes in the missionary works of the Society of Jesus in China. The second part focuses on Father Wu s effort of his missionary work, forgetting how grey his hair turned and crossing the Huangpu River for ten years. In this presentation, Wu Li’s pastoral activities on Shanghai will be introduced first through poems in Sanyuji (三餘集). Father Wu Li, who lived in 17th 18th century, would never have been aware of the progress of globalization. However, Wu Li who became a Catholic priest, can be regarded as a trailblazer in overcoming the tension between the view of Catholic seeking universal values and the view of Chinese intellectuals focusing on Confucianism.

        • KCI등재

          1920年代 開城商人들의 紅蔘販路 視察記 考察 : 『中遊日記』와 『香臺紀覽』을 中心으로

          최낙민(Choi, Nack-Min)(崔洛民) 대한중국학회 2020 중국학 Vol.73 No.-

          '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

          한반도의 인삼은 중국의 비단과 차, 일본의 은과 함께 동아시아 상품교역네트워크를 구성하는 중요한 상품이었고, 지금도 그 상품가치를 높여가고 있다. 인삼이 해외수출상품으로 확립된 것은 개성상인들의 노력에 힘입은바가 크고, 일제강점기에 활동한 개성상인 孫鳳祥과 孔聖學은 紅蔘과 白蔘 등 인삼제품을 해외시장에 수출한 주역이었다. 전통학문에 대한 깊은 소양을 갖춘 儒商 손봉상과 공성학은 중국, 대만과 홍콩 등지의 헌삼판매처를 시찰한 자신들의 활동을 『中遊日記』와 『香臺紀覽』에 남겼다. 그러나 개성상인들이 남긴 우리나라 최초의 해외시장 시찰기라 할 두 책을 텍스트로 한 홍삼판로 시찰에 대한 연구가 전무한 상황이라 이에 대한 연구가 시급하다. 본고는 일제강점기, 개성상인들의 중국 및 세계 인삼시장에 대한 인식과 함께 고려인삼의 해외시장 개척에 대한 그들의 의지와 노력을 확인하고자 하였다. Ginseng on the Korean Peninsula, along with silk and tea from China and silver from Japan, was an important product that formed the East Asian Trade Network, and is still increasing its value. Ginseng was established as an overseas export product thanks to the efforts of Kaesong merchants. While Japanese colonial era, Bong-sang Son and Sung-hak Gong, who Kaesong merchants were to played a major role in exporting ginseng products to overseas markets. In 1923 and 1928, they visited red ginseng markets in China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan at the invitation of the Mitsui Company. After returning home, they published two books, China sightseeing diary中遊日記 and Travel in Hong Kong and Taiwan香臺紀覽, recording their inspection activities in the red ginseng market. In Chapter 2 of this paper, confirmed the perception of the global ginseng market by Kaesong merchants by organizing and analyzing the red ginseng market research records, especially the Shanghai meeting data contained in the China seeing diary. Chapter 3 looked at the passion for the development of red ginseng markets in southern China and Southeast Asia, including Taiwan and Xiamen, based on the record of Travel in Hong Kong and Taiwan. Chapter 4 confirmed the willingness and efforts of Kaesong merchants to develop their own overseas white ginseng sales market, which is not restricted by Mitsui Trading Co., a red ginseng monopoly, through an investigation of Ok Kwan-bin and Lee Yoo-sun, whom they met in Shanghai.

        • KCI등재

          汪兆鏞의 『澳門雜詩』를 통해 본 해항도시 마카오의 근대

          최낙민(Choi, Nack-Min) 한국해양대학교 국제해양문제연구소 2018 해항도시문화교섭학 Vol.0 No.19

          辛亥革命이후, 청의 遺老이기를 자처한 汪兆鏞은 ‘共和革命’의 성지가 된 고향 廣州의 소요를 피해 전후 12차례 마카오로 피난하였고, 단속적으로 13년여를 마카오에서 생활하였다. 왕조용은 民國時期 마카오와 내지를 오가며 활동한 “兩棲作家” 중의 대표적인 인물로, 한때는 마카오를 ‘辛亥動亂’을 피해 온 사람들이 모여 사는 武陵桃源과도 같은 공간으로 인식하기도 했다. 그러나 현지 생활을 통해 마카오가 이미 중국의 주권이 미치지 않는 포르투갈의 식민지가 되었다는 사실을 통감하게 되었다. 포르투갈인들의 식민지 마카오에서 생활하게 된 청 왕조의 舊臣 왕조용은 시로서 마카오가 겪어야 했던 수난의 역사와 이 땅을 지키지 못한 청 조정의 무능함을 기록하고, 유럽과 포르투갈의 도시와도 같은 도시 근대화의 과정을 걷고 있는 해항도시 마카오의 변화를 적고, 포르투갈 식민자의 통치 하에서도 중화민족의 문화와 전통을 지키며 살아가는 현지 중국인들의 모습을 담았다. 1918년 除夕에는 마카오에서 지은 이러한 시들을 모아 『澳門雜詩』를 上梓하였다. 본문에서는 『澳門雜詩』에 수록된 『雜詠』 五言古詩26수, 『澳門寓公詠』 七言絶句8수, 竹枝詞40수 등을 통해 해항도시 마카오의 특별한 역사, 포르투갈 마카오식민정부의 주도하에 진행되는 도시 근대화 사업과 항만건설, 그리고 그들의 지배 하에서 살아가는 현지 중국인의 삶에 대한 왕조용의 인식 변화를 살펴보고자 하였다. After the Xinhai Revolution, Wang Zhaoyong fled to Macao 12 times before and after to avoid unrest in his home state Guangzhou, and lived in Macao on a restricted basis for 13 years. Wang Zhaoyong is one of the most representative writers of the “Amphibious writers” who evacuated between Macao and mainland China during The period of the Republic of China. At one time, he recognized Macao as a paradise where people gathered to avoid “Xinhai Revolution.” However, it became clear to him that through his life in Macao, Macao became a Portuguese colony that did not reach China"s sovereignty. Wang Zhaoyong, a before bureaucrat who lived in a Portuguese colony in Macao, as poem recorded the tragic history of Macao"s. Wang Zhaoyong also has shown of the changes in Macao, a seaport city that is undergoing the process of modernization of cities like Europe and Portugal, and the local Chinese who live in keeping with the culture and traditions of Chinese people even under the rule of Portuguese colonialists. At the end of 1918, he collected poems related to Macao and published a poem entitled Aomen Miscellaneous Poems. In the text, through the “City of Macao”, I will research the special history of Macao, urban modernization projects led by the Macaoian colonial government in Portugal, port construction and the lives of local Chinese people.

        • KCI등재

          明의 海禁政策과 泉州人의 해상활동

          최낙민(Choi Nack-Min) 부산경남사학회 2011 역사와 경계 Vol.78 No.-

          명대는 중국고대 해상교통이 번성에서 쇠락으로 전변하는 시기였다. 이러한 변화는 ‘海禁’과 ‘朝貢’을 기초로 하는 명의 해외교통정책 속에 충분히 반영되어 있다. 왜 명조가 이와 같은 대외정책을 선택하고 지속시킬 수밖에 없었는가에 대해서는 정론이 없다. 하지만, 명의 해외교통정책은 해금정책이 부분적으로 해제된 隆慶元年(1567)을 경계로 市舶司를 중심으로 한 朝貢貿易, 貢舶貿易 時期(1368~1566)와 民間 海商을 중심으로 한 商舶貿易, 密貿易 위주의 後期(1567~1644)로 나누어진다. 중앙조정의 해양정책에 따라 천주인의 해상활동은 다른 모습을 보여주고 있다. 본문에서는 해금정책이 실시된 이후 國家와 海港都市, 中央朝廷과 地方權門의 拮抗關係 속에서 해항도시 천주가 어떤 영향을 받았는지를 살펴보았다. 그리고 바다를 삶의 터전으로 삼았던 천주인의 해상활동이 해양정책에 따라 어떤 모습으로 변화했는지를 살펴보았다. 태생적으로 해양성을 가진 천주인은 중앙조정의 해금정책에도 불과하고 기꺼이 법을 어기고 바다로 나가 海賊이 되고 海寇가 되었다. 천주인들은 땅에서도 그랬던 것처럼 혈연과 지연, 언어를 공유하는 동향들을 조직하여 바다위에 泉州幇과 천주네트워크를 건설하였다. In Ming dynasty, Chinese maritime exchanges turned from prosperity to decline. This change had been reflexed on its foreign policies on the basis of the 'ban on maritime trade (海禁)' and the 'tribute(朝貢).' The reason that it choose and continued those policies remains problematic. Nonetheless, its policies of external exchanges has been divided into the period of tribute trade and public ship trade(1368-1566) which Shibosi(市舶司) initiated the oversea trade and the period of merchant ship trade and smuggling(1567-1644) which the private merchants led the trade with the border of Longqing(隆慶) First year when the ban policy had been lifted partly. Corresponding to these maritime policies of central authorities, the activities of Quanzhou people had exposed various appearances. This article interrogates how the Quanzhou was influenced by the antagonism between the central authorities and the local powerful after the ban policies had been enforced, and how Quanzhou people's maritime activities had been changed in accordance with the maritime policies. In spite of the ban policy of central authorities, Quanzhou people who had inherently the maritime qualities spontaneously violated laws and acted as the pirates in the sea. They constructed Ouanzhou-bang (Quanzou-network) by means of the organization of the persons from the same province sharing the blood ties, the regionalism, and the language in the sea, as they had done so on the land.

        • 日帝 强占期 上海 移住 韓國人의 삶과 기억

          최낙민(Choi, Nack-Min) 한국해양대학교 국제해양문제연구소 2010 해양도시문화교섭학 Vol.- No.2

          Under Japanese imperialism, Korean people immigrated into Shanghai in search of freedom because of its historical trait as a concession and its geographic aspect of traffic convenience. Korea had translated into an imperialist colony, becoming a monopolistic place from where the intervention of Others had been excluded to provide profits for Imperialism. On the other hand, Shanghai served to be an open and symbiotic place where the peoples from over 50 countries and their cultures could interact and co-exist. What Shanghai had been reform as the city of immigrants owed to the economic profitability, political openness, and cultural tolerance of Shanghai as a sea port city. The place of Shanghai had been given the personal and spatial probability of the multi-cultural condition by the immigrations. Koreans, immigrated into a symbiotic and mixed place of Shanghai, became encountered Western materialism and imperialism by means of building groups that europeans set up, such as skyscrapers, department stores, and theatres. They, also, contracted various immigrants from all around world, and consequently would learn new sciences and accept the socialist and anarchist thoughts which pursued to the well-being of all. In Shanghai, Koreans tried to rediscover the independence of homeland, integrating Korean circle by establishing the settlement corporation and setting up the national school which offered the learning opportunities to the descendants and cultivated the national spirit. Korean youth with agony would experience the mutation of thoughts by which they translated into cosmopolitan beyond the simple nationalism in Shanghai. It can be said that these facets were not only the dynamism of Shanghai as a sea port city, but also the valid values to the present.

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