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      • 고대 교회의 성지 순례

        채승희(Seong-Hee Chae) 영남신학대학교 2018 신학과 목회 Vol.50 No.-

        The Christian Pilgrim tradition has its origin in the early years of the Church. The Christians were keen to be at the places where Jesus had been; like Jerusalem and Bethlehem. This was, however, not the only holy places for the first Christians. The early Church had a lot of martyrs who were regarded as saints. These people had been part of the congregations and among those who celebrated the Liturgy and worshiped God. As time went by, the Church had martyrs and saints at many places and pilgrimages were common in the whole Christian world. People were searching for comfort, healing and forgiveness for their sins. In early fourth century, with the official acceptance of Christianity by Roman Empire, the tradition of pilgrimage played a role to combine the past and the present church. Christians were able to acknowledge that divine power in the past for the biblical events and saints worked in the same way in their own religious life. since then, Christian pilgrimage began to flourish with this acknowledgement of combining history with geography. Christian pilgrimage was not simply considered as a journey to follow the sacred text of the bible, but to search for traces of martyrs, monastic ascetics, saints in various ways. As a result, a pilgrimage's value in the monastic tradition came to be appreciated not in terms of an actual physical journey, but of a spiritual one. Churc fathers emphasized that the value of pilgrimage could not be placed into the place itself. They wanted to encourage Christians take part in pilgrimage to seek the true meaning of it so that they could gain spiritual maturity, knowing that the ideal of Christian was represented as a permanent stranger in this world and life itself was portrayed as and eternal pilgrimage.

      • KCI등재

        아우구스티누스의 여성 이해

        채승희(Seong Hee Chae) 장로회신학대학교 세계선교연구원 2009 선교와 신학 Vol.24 No.-

        본 소고는 서방 선학에 결정적인 영향을 미친 아우구스티누스의 여성관을 분석하여, 남성과 여성의 본질적 차이를 인정하지 않고 본성의 동등성을 주장하는 아우구스티누스의 여성 이해가 오늘날에도 바른 신학의 출발점이 될 수 있음을 보여 주고자 한다. 비록 아우구스티누스의 여성관이 21세기를 사는 현대 여성들에게 만족할 만한 여성주의 입장을 주장하지는 못한다 할지라도 그가 살았던 4-5세기 서방 교회로 우리의 사고의 시발점을 옮겨 놓을 때 아우구스티누스 여성 이해의 긍정적인 부분이 충분히 발췌되며 아울러 그의 여성 비하적 표현이 중화되리라 믿는다. 먼저 4-5세기의 그리스-로마 사회와 교회의 여성관을 비교해 볼 때 아우구스티누스는 세 가지 측면에서 ‘진보적' 여생 이해를 제시한다. 첫째, 다른 교부들, 특히 암브로시우스, 제롬, 요한 크리소스톰과 달리 아우구스티누스는 여성을 하나님의 형상으로 이해했다. 하나님 형상의 개념으로 봤을 때 여성은 남성과 어떠한 차등이 없는 동등한 가치로 존중된다. 둘째, 그는 여성의 도덕적 삶을 높이 평가했고, 죄의 본성이 남성보다 여성에게 더 크다고 생각지 않았다. 하와가 먼저 죄를 범하고 이를 아담에게 전가했다고 보는 교부들의 보편적 여성 폄하적 인식을 불식시키고 오히려 여성이 도덕적 삶으로는 남성보다 훨씬 우월하다고 하였다. 마지막으로 그는 남자와 여자가 모두 생명 탄생에 동등히 기여한다고 보았으며 결혼 생활에서 남편과 아내의 우정을 강조했다. 우정은 서로의 신뢰와 사랑으로 지켜지는 값진 것으로 결혼 생활이 고상한 덕에 이르게 하는 요소이며 부부는 결혼 상태를 유지하기 위해 상호의 의무를 다하여야 한다고 하였다. 이 세 가지 내용은 동시대의 그리스-로마 문화와 교회의 여성관을 뛰어넘는 훨씬 진보적인 입장임이 틀림없다. 그러므로 아우구스티누스가 여성과 남성의 본성의 동등성을 강조한 것은 교회와 사회의 바른 신학적 출발점이 될 수 있다. Augustine has been known as one of the greatest theologians in the western church. Even now, it is useful to investigate Augustine's view on women, it is not in order to find the answer to modem questions, but to reconstruct the history which precedes the women's issues in church today. It is not easy to demonstrate clearly Augustine's view of women because it seems to be obscure. For example, in some parts of his writings he advocates women's spiritual equivalence to men while in other parts he asserts women's subordination to men due to their inferiority by nature. However, even so, through this article, I attempt to separate myself from condemning him as one of the representatives of the misogynous early church fathers; rather, I see him as one of the feminist apologetics. My sympathy for Augustine will be persuasive when people examine the nature of the society in which Augustine lived and his contemporaneous theologians. After researching general thoughts in fourth and fifth century-Greco-Roman culture, I will demonstrate Augustine was a forerunner of feminist Christian thought by examining three main points. First, Augustine insists that all human being are images of God. The image of God is not situated in the bodies, but in the virtue of their rational minds. Man and woman do not differ in the spiritual character as the image of God. Second, Augustine admits the moral superiority of women and his disappointment at men's moral weakness due to their lust (libido). While he reproaches men's moral weakness, Augustine praises women for being stronger than men by showing a greater self-control and conjugal fidelity. Last, Augustine states equal conjugal right and friendship in marriage life. If they have same right, then they have too the same obligation. On this point, Augustine accuses the Roman law of injustice and discrimination towards women. He emphasizes that mutual love and friendship are important elements in order to lead marriage life to a higher and greater good. I do not deny the traditional understanding of Augustine's position on women, which is androcentric. However, my challenge is to see his contribution to break through traditional opinions in the fourth and fifth centuries. Augutstine opens several new perspectives and we, today's Christians, should take over his positive views in order to construct just theological legacy regarding women by reconstructing the thoughts of a great author whose theologies still influence us today's.

      • KCI등재

        안디옥의 이그나티우스의 교회 일치를 위한 포용성에 관한 연구

        채승희(Seong Hee Chae) 장로회신학대학교 세계선교연구원 2011 선교와 신학 Vol.27 No.-

        초기 기독교 공동체가 조직을 갖추어 가려는 2세기 시작 즈음,이그나티우스 속사도 교부는 예수를 고백한다는 죄목으로 체포되어 형 집행을 위해 로마로 압송되는 과정에 7개의 서신을 남긴다. 마그네시아,트랄라스, 에베소, 로마,서머나,필라델피아 교회에,그리고 서머나 교회 감독 폴리 캅에게 보내는 서신이 그것들이다. 이런 서신을 통해서 이그나티우스 당시 소아시아 교회의 현상을 알 수 있다. 본 논문은 마그네시아 교회와 필라델피아 교회에 보내는 두 서신을 중심으로 당시 이그나티우스가 대적하고 싸운 이단의 정체와 그가 열망하는 궁극적인 목적을 알아보고자 한다. 두 교회에 들어와 교회를 혼란하게 하는 이단은 유대주의 기독교이다. 이그나티우스는 이들과 싸우며 거짓 가르침으로부터 교회를 보호하고 감독제를 중심으로 교회가 하나 될 것을 권고한다. 유대주의적 기독교인은 원래부터 유대교로부터 훈련받고 자란 자들로서 후에 예수 그리스도를 믿고 영접하여 그리스도인이 된 자들이다. 그들은 비록 복음을 받아들였지만 여전히 유대 율법의 중요성을 강조하며 할례나 안식일,음식과 정결법과 같은 율법을 준수해야 한다고 믿었다. 이러한 사고를 가진 유대주의 기독 교인은 교회 내 이방계 기독교인에 대해 자신들이 우월하다고 믿었으며 이방계 그리스도인을 자신들과 같은 지위에 두고 동등하게 받아들이지는 않았다. 이 같은 그들의 우월성과 배타성은 교회 생활 여러 부분에서 분열을 초래하였다. 주의 만찬조차도 따로 행하였으며 더욱 심각한 것은 회당의 리더십 구조를 교회에서 그대로 답습하려 했기 때문에 감독 중심의 새로운 리더십으로 발전해 가는 교회 제도를 달가워하지 않았다. 이처럼 유대주의 관습에서 자유하지 못한 자두들의 신앙생활은 타인에 대한 배타성을 드러냈고 이방계 기독교인과 자신들을 차별화하여 교회를 ‘분열'의 위기로 몰고 갔다. 이그나티우스에 의하면 교회의 분열은 진정으로 그리스도를 따르는 것이 아니므로 성도는 한 감독 아래 일치를 이루어야 한다고 강조한다. 교회 일치를 향한 이그나티우스의 갈망은 서신 구석구석에서 물어 나온다. 교회 일치를 위해 유대주의적 기독교인은 자신들의 배타성을 버리고 이방계 그리스도인을 포용함으로써 하나가 되고 한 감독과 일치하여 하나님과 화합 하여야 한다고 주장한다. 2세기 한 속사도 교부의 갈망은 분열의 아픔 속에서 교회 일치의 과제를 안고 있는 오늘날 교회가 귀 기울여야 할 메시지이다.

      • KCI등재

        2~3세기 교부들의 글에 나타난 초대교회 기적(Miracles)의 특징들

        채승희(Seong Hee Chae) 장로회신학대학교 세계선교연구원 2016 선교와 신학 Vol.40 No.-

        초대교회에서 기적은 초대교회 신앙생활의 한 부분으로 나타난다. 초대교회에 나타나는 기적들의 특징내지는 성격을 네 가지로 살펴보았다. 첫째, 초대교회의 기적은 초대교회의 신앙고백이었다. 그리스도교가 믿는 하나님의 이름으로만 기적은 일어날 수 있고 구분만이 유일한 신이라는 확증으로 타 종교들의 기적현상들로부터 자신들의 기적을 분리시켰다. 둘째, 초대교회에서 기적은 생소하거나 드문 현상이 아니었다. 기적을 일으키고 체험하는 것은 초대교회의 신앙생활의 일부처럼 보편적이었다. 그리고 기적은 특정한 사람들에 의해 행해지는 것이 아니고 신실한 성도들 누구나가 기적의 주체자가 될 수 있었다. 교회는 그러한 기적 현상에 대해 매우 익숙했으며 발생한 기적을 함께 나누며 공공의 선을 이루어가려고 노력하였다. 기적에는 두 가지 기능이 있었다. 전도적 기능과 윤리적 기능이 그것이다. 그러므로 초대교회 기적의 세 번째 특징은 기적의 전도성이다. 기적은 그리스도교가 성장하고 사회 속으로 팽창해가는 데 절대적인 동력이 되었다. 당시 그리스-로마 사회가 기적들을 믿었으므로 그들이 믿는 신들 보다 강하고 능한 그리스도교 하나님의 이름을 전하고 확증할 때 비 그리스도인들이 개종하고 교회로 오게 되었다. 중요한 것은 초대교회에서 기적의 전도성은 그리스도교의 메시지를 전달하고 확증하는 중요한 신학적 기능임을 잊어서는 안 된다는 점이다. 기적은 기적 자제 현상들보다 기적을 통해 전달되는 메시지가 중요했다. 기적을 통해 그리스도가 하나님 되심을 전하고 그리스도의 가르침을 진리로 확증시켰다. 마지막으로 네 번째 특징은 기적의 윤리성이다. 교부들은 인간의 실존 삶에 하나님의 초자연적 개입은 개인과 공동체의 윤리적 변화가 동반되어야 한다는 교훈을 잊지 않았다. 기적을 행한 자와 기적의 혜택을 입은 자 모두 선한 양심으로 성결하고 구별된 삶을 살고 그리스도인의 덕목을 추구하며 살아야 함을 가르친다. 초대교회에서 기적은 윤리와 분리되지 않았다. 오늘날 기적을 추구하는 몇몇 소수의 개인과 공동체가 기적 현상을 지나치게 이기적으로 해석. 활용하여 주변 사회와 이웃으로부터 비난을 듣는다면 초대교회가 보여주는 진정한 기적의 이해와 가치를 숙지할 필요가 있다. 초대교회의 기적의 윤리적 기능을 제대로 이해하고 배운다면 오늘날 교회가 기적으로 말미암아 발생하는 부정적인 내용을 충분히 이겨낼 수 있을 것이다. 오늘날 과학화, 다원화, 상대화, 세속화 등 포스트모더니즘의 여러 흐름들 가운데서 교회가 무력해고 있는 느낌을 받는 것은 비단 필자만의 생각은 아닐 것이다. 박해 시기에도 성장(양적, 질적)을 멈추지 않았던 초대교회의 원동력이자 도덕적 지침이 된 기적을 다시 한 번 되새기면서 오늘날 지성으로만 높아지고 메마를 수 있는 교회에 건전한 도전이 되기를 바란다. Four distinctive features of miracles in the early church have been examined. First of all, Christians distinguished the miracles in their tradition from non-Christian miracles. the source of miracles is more important than the miracles themselves. For them, it is only miracles performed through the name of Jesus Christ that are true miracles, any wonders performed through unnamed gods (or non-Christian gods) were considered as simply magics or fakery. In the early church, miracles were not uncommon, they were accustomed to working miracles. Miracles were a regular part of the religious life of the early church. Miracles in the early church were the work of believers in general. Miracles in the early church played two significant roles. Those are the roles of propaganda and ethics. A third feature is the role they played in evangelism. Miracles were the most effective means of conversion in a missionary setting. During the early centuries, people believed in that demons existed and that they exercised their power throughout the world. In this belief system, Christians' miracles such as exorcism, healing, raising the dead, prophecy made great contribution to winning souls and spreading Christianity throughout the world. When we examine the role of miracles as propaganda, the primary focus lies in their value as proof for the Christian message. The fourth feature is ethical implication of miracles. Miracles in the early church are connected with Christian ethics. The balance between miracles and ethics is emphasized most by the church fathers. Spectacular supernatural intervention must be placed alongside of ethical transformation. The motivation of miracles is to pursue the goodness for both each individual soul and the community in the context of up-right morality. Maintaining a vibrant religious experience through the practice of the supernatural was great for churches, not simply in terms of numeric growth but also the spiritual welfare of believers. I hope my study will challenge churches today, which are far too comfortable with rigid, intellectual conformity. Our churches today need to restore the expectation of miracles they can find in the early Christian church.

      • 신학교 인성교육을 위한 인문학의 중요성

        채승희(Seong-Hee Chae) 영남신학대학교 2016 신학과 목회 Vol.46 No.-

        We will examine St. Chrysostom's life and writings and his education in order to suggest that humanities are important courses in theological education. I want to show that Chrysotom's mind had been trained not only in Holy Scripture but from the earliest days of his life he had been diligently educated in the Greek humanistic classics. For not only priestly formation, but spiritual formation for all believers, Chrysostom enouraged to learn Greek humanities because he believed that Greek humanities are not an enemies of Christianity. Rather it is useful to strengthen theology and build up the quality of human character. First of all he focused on greek language. It is a great power to approach to the true meaning of the Scripture. His study of the Bible was extensive and exceptionally profound. The influence of his classical education is evident not only in many of his writings, but in his spirituality and leadership as bishop in Constantinople. Second, Hellenistic philosophy is no conflict and no contradiction between the divine source of wisdom and human quest for divine wisdom. These two sources of wisdom converge and complement one another. In nature, Greek philosophies are disposition for the religious mysteries and theological truths. Third, Greek ethics were especially valued by the Christian Fathers for they were ecumenical in nature. for examples, Hellenistic nobles reveal the ethos and the ethical disposition. Greek ethical theory has been found broader in scope and more encompassing in practice. This is the reason why Chrysostom valued Greek ethics. He used the principles of Greek ethical theory in order to demonstrate that the Hellenistic idea of virtue is among Christians. In debt to the Greek religious and philosophical background, his life and education raised up personal and social conscience as the innate voice of God. According to what he believed, his aim was the moral reformation of Church and Society. He attacked the ostentatious luxury of the wealthy classes as well as the sensuality, gluttony and avarice of women of the imperial court, the clergies. He spent his life for eradication of inequality and elimination of social injustice. For him, without practice, knowledge of philosophy and theology is meaningless. Chrysostom's classical education reminds us that a modern theological school or students in it should be excellently trained in the classical humanities in order to better understand Christianity. There are several other aspects of Chrysostom's life, education, and teachings which are significant for us especially in theological education courses today. His views on the priesthood, on education, on wealth and poverty, and several more ecclesiastical and theological issues. Today, more than ever, in an age of high technology and the physical sciences, we need to place more emphasis on the classical humanities as a preparation for theology and pastoral ministry. Our seminaries (including Youngname theological seminary and university) need to bring back humanities in a well-rounded theological education.

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        “의로운 전쟁”에 대한 요하네스 크리소스토모스의 신학적 이해

        채승희(Seong Hee Chae) 한국기독교학회 2013 한국기독교신학논총 Vol.88 No.1

        “Just War” theory can be seen as an effort of the church to understand the situation of why war never ceases throughout the world and ages, and to determine the ethical teaching about war. This article will show that the Orthodox Christian faith`s views regarding “Just War” has been developed on the Just-War theory of John Chrysostom. In 2003 the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople Bartholomew I identified two views on war (including any kind of violence). One is that war is justifiable as an armed defense against oppression and violence; the other that war is never permissible because war and violence are never means used by God in order to achieve a good result. We see the coherence of the modern Orthodox position on war through Chrysostom in the fourth century and then Constantine-Cyril in the ninth century. In his treatise, On the Priesthood, Chrysostom suggests an ethical distinction between the actions of the clergy and the actions of the laity. The hierarchy between the priest and laity is the foundation of Chrysostom`s faith and deeds. Since the priests are responsible for the doctrinal and spiritual state of the church, they are required to give uncompromising obedience to Christ`s teaching. However, the ethics for the laity are not that strict. His drawing of a sharp line between the priests and laity was extended to the just-war theory. For Chrysostom, priest or monks are prohibited to participate in any form of violence no matter what. But for the laity, it is forgivable in certain situations. An explanation of the yes and no sides of just-war theory is found in Constantine-Cyril, who understands Jesus` commandments within a hierarchal matrix. For him, John 15:13 is the pinnacle of all other commandments. While Jesus` mandate requiring nonviolence in Matt 5:38-44 is very important to follow, John 15:13 is telling about the greatest love the Christians can ever practice. In this verse, a Christian`s participation in war against injustice is justifiable. One step beyond that, Cyril states that safeguarding one`s neighbors and sacred persons is a duty for Christian soldiers. And those soldiers` death on the battle field is as praiseworthy as a martyr`s. Constantine-Cyril`s view on war is legacy of Chrysostom in the ninth century. In conclusion, the position of the Orthodox Church about war has two aspects. Chrysostom`s two aspects of yes and no in participating in war and violence laid the foundation of the medieval and modern Orthodox position of Just- War.

      • 영남신학대학교 신학과의 역량중심 교과과정을 위한 방안 연구

        채승희(Seong-Hee Chae) 영남신학대학교 2020 신학과 목회 Vol.54 No.-

        This paper presents an alternative model for the curriculum based on the concept of core competencies in higher education. The goal is to restore our Christian identity by reaffirming the Christian principles that are the basis of our ideals and inform the reassessment of our educational goals: “Love for God & Love for our Neighbors.” The question is, by what means can we best accomplish this in the modern world? It is important to focus on the Department of Theology, which has been facing a three-folded crisis: a decline in new enrollment, a loss of prestige for schools of theology in general, and a feeling of lacking cultural relevance due to the social isolation enforced during the pandemic. In the face of these difficult circumstances, we are struggling to raise the level of our school to that of a strong, if small, school of theology, to say nothing of looking beyond that! This paper gives an overview of the current philosophy and structure of YTUS, its curriculum and extracurricular activities, and of the Department of Theology in particular. Included is a modified vision and goals statement for the Dept. of Theology which is consistent with goal of changing the environment of education. This alternative is focused on core competencies, which are divided them into three main categories: religion, community and professionalism. Each of these includes pertinent competencies: spirituality, morality, values and attitudes; communication and interpersonal skills and leadership; self-directed learning, creativity and international competencies. The general approach to including core competencies in the Dept. of Theology will be to incorporate research-based best practices in both regular courses and extra-curricular activities to produce an up-to-date educational system. One more task that a Christian university should attend to is to adjust to the age of 4<SUP>th</SUP> industrial revolution. Integrating digital technologies into theological education will help to update our methods of education. Modernizing both the equipment and the systems to accustom students to the digital environment is both important and necessary if not only we but more importantly they are to remain competitive in the world of the future.

      • 키프리아누스의 교회론

        채승희(Seong-Hee Chae) 영남신학대학교 2017 신학과 목회 Vol.48 No.-

        Ecclesiology was not concretely established in Cyprian's time. It was after Decius' persecution when his thought on the church was presented. The persecution under the emperor Decius divided the churches and caused to many lapsed Christians. After persecution ended, the curing of the lapsed by repentance was urged upon the churches. In Cyprian's church the confessors played a key role. They issued certificates of reconciliation for the lapsed. Cyprian criticized their action. Councils in Rome and Cartage met in the summer of 251 to resolve the matter of the discipline of the lapsed. The finally councils decreed the reception of all penitents back into the church. However, some like Novatian didn"t agree with it because the lapsed cannot be pardoned by any authority in the earth. So they divided church. Cyprian had to deal not only with resolving the problem of the lapsed, but with the division in the churches which it had caused. For the both of matter, he focused on the unity of church. This is the foremost task of the churches. He criticized schism, division from what he perceived as the one true church. Schism is Antichrist. For the unity of church, Cyprian emphasized that there can be no faith outside the unity of Peter and no church other than the one founded upon his throne. Only those acknowledged by the bishop belong. The unity of Church can be sustained manifested through apostolic succession, directed by Christ to feed his sheep. At the same token, baptism in schism is no longer baptism because the Holy Spirit does not exist outside the Catholic Church. The first one was accepted as ecclesiology of the Catholic church, but not the second one. However, the spirit to Cyprian to pursue the unity of church has been lasting long, even challenging churches today.

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