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Lacanian theory makes a libidinal trilogy of need, demand and desire. Need is a purely organic energy, instinct and demand are ultimately the demand for love. Where need aims at an object which can satisfy it, demand appeals another in such a way that even if the demanded object is given, there can be no satisfaction. Desire is the actual principle of physical processes. A refusal to respond to this demand will precipitate the emergence of desire. Like both need and demand, desire exhibits the characteristics of the wish. In William Faulkner's As I Lay Dying the members of the Bundren family each have their own desires or the demands. Before her death, Addie has a strong desire to recover her missing complements. She endeavors to recover them by means of sexual unions with men all her life, only to find that she fails. Darl, unlike Addie, expresses the demand for love. He yearns for the love of his mother, even after her death although she never accepted him; never loved him. Anse, on the other hand, seeks the satisfaction of narcissistic desires, while carrying the corpse of his wife, Addie, to her hometown according to her last wish. He makes a scapegoat of Darl, his second son, for his interests. All human beings have their own desires which they seek to satisfy. Desire in itself is not good nor bad, but is concerned with pleasure. This makes the Bundren's story ironic, since their desires are narrated in the course of a funeral journey which should be solely occupied with sorrow.
The Scarlet Letter(1850) is a very ambiguous novel which permits various, even conflicting, interpretations. However, as far as the theme of self is concerned, the three major characters reveal themselves in different ways. First, Roger Chillingworth shows up a negative self-image. Putting himself in the position of Puritan power, he secretly keeps a revengeful watch on his wife's lover and makes him confess his sin. It is the former's egoistic self that destroys the latter. Second, Arthur Dimmesdale exposes a dependent self-image. The clergyman loses an opportunity to bring the self to the full development with his love in the other world. He is too conscious of other people to be a person of self-reliance. Third and last, Hester Prynne appears in the novel as the only the character of self-affirmation, self-determination, and self-sustenance. Under a severe trial by the scarlet letter she grows up into a woman of self-dependence.
The Blithedale Romance is an imaginative treatment of reform issues raised at Brook Farm. When he participated in the Farm, Hawthorne found that he was unfit to work there and left after six months. Throughout the novel he describes from a critical viewpoint the fictional community of Blithedale which is based on the Farm. He suggests that the reformers' experiment in communal living was to be unsuccessful from the start. The reasons may be summarized as the following three. First of all, the reformers set to constructing an ideal community only with heroism, not having any detailed plan. For a utopia to come, they throw off all the established customs and institutions. Secondly, contrary to their motto, Blithedalers are not rid of selfish motives. The society of cooperation they desired turns into a world of rivalry and enmity. The millenium of love that the utopians dreamt at the outset comes true ironically as a society of free love. Lastly, as reformers they ought to do hard work which the Blithedale farmers are doing in everyday life. However, the strain of hard work proves unbearable to them. As a natural consequence, Blithedale falls into a failed utopian community.