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Trachobronchial aspiration of foreign bodies is one cause of fatal accidents in children. Serious complications and death of these children is avoided by early diagnosis and early removal of foreign bodies. The purpose of this report is to analyze the alteration of anesthetic method for removal of tracheobronchial foreign bodies in 54 children(62 anesthesia) experienced in St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic Medical College, Seoul, Korea, from Jan. 1, 1963 to Sep. 30, 1980. The removal of tracheobronchial foreign bodies for all cases was done under general anesthesia. Results were as follows: 1) Most tracheobronchial foreign bodies appeared in the 1~3 year old group(24 cases among 54 children). 2) The kinds of foreign bodies were foods and metals. Most were peanuts and beans, which were not visible on chest X-ray films. These foregn bodies can cause atelectasis and emphysema in 24 hours, which was evidenced by chest X-ray. 3) During bronchoscopy, the chest was compressed manually after mask ventilation. Recently 100% oxygen was inhaled through a thin plastic catheter allowed safe anesthesia for bronchoscopic procedure. 4) Anesthetic time required for bronchoscopic procedure was 31~60 minutes on the average. 5) Pulse rate was increased in 33 cases during bronchoscopic procedure.
Anthocyanins (ACs) and flavonoids were isolated from three different berry species (blueberry, black chokeberry, and cranberry) via high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). A total of 19 ACs and 9 flavonoids in three berry extracts were characterized using LC-ESI-MS/MS. The MS/MS spectra of ACs and flavonoids produced a commonly abundant [M-gluc]+ ion due to the easy cleavage of the glycosidic ether bond, which is directly reflected the structural information of the aglycon moiety and linked glucose. Among the identified 19 ACs, the major compounds were identified as glycosylated ACs linked with 3-O-galactose, 3-O-glucose, 3-O-arabinoside, and 3-O-xylose. Three ACs and four flavonoids were the first time observed in three berry extracts. Particularly for the black chokeberry extract, the total amounts of ACs were 10-fold higher than other two berry extracts. LC-MS/MS combined with HSCCC will be alternative technique for identifying new ACs and for the quality evaluation of ACs in colored fruits.
Background : When the insertion of endotracheal tube (ETTs) though the nostril, the tube may be encountered some resistance. Forcing ETTs into the nasal cavity develope mucosal and soft tissue injuries and subsequent epistaxis during passage of the tube even when vasoconstictor and/or lubricant tube are employed. Therefore, We determined whether nasopharyngeal airway (NPA) insertion reduces the incidence of epistaxis and increase the ease of the tube advancement in the nasal cavity during nasotracheal intubation. Methods : Two hundred adult patients who schesuled for elective surgery were divided into two groups, control (n=100), and NPA (n=100). The NPA insertion group received an armored tube after nasoparyngeal airway inserts, while control group received a plain armored tube. All patients in both groups was inserts ETTs by conventional nasotracheal insertion techniques. Result : The NPA insertion group had a significantly low incidence of epistaxis (11%) than control group (34%) (p<0.05). But, provided nt easier passage during nasotracheal intubation than control group. Conclusion : We conclude that nasophryngeal airway reduces the incidence of epistaxis during nasotracheal intubation, but not to increase easy passage of the tube advancement. (Korean J Anesthesiol 1999; 36: 955∼959)
Background: When the insertion of endotracheal tubes(ETTs) through the nostril, The tubemay be encountered some resistance. Forcing ETT into the nasal cavity develop mucosal and soft tissue injuries and subsequent epistaxis during passage of the tube even when vasoconstrictors and/or a lubricated tube are employed. Therefore, We determined whether balloon dilation technique(BDT) reduces the incidence of epistaxis and increases the ease of the tube advancement in the nasal cavity during nasotracheal intubation. Methods: Sixty adult patients who scheduled for maxillofacial surgery were divided into two groups, BDT(n=30) and non BDT(n= 30). The BDT group received an armored tube,which a 14 Fr-all-silicone Foley catheter insert through the tube, while non BDT group received a plain armored tube. All patients in both groups was inserted ETTs by conventional nasotracheal insertion techniques. Results: The BDT group had a signifieantly lower incidence of epistaxis(0/30 vs 8/30; p$lt;0.05) and provided a significantly easier passage in the nasal cavity than non BDT group (difficult tube advancement in the nasal cavity, 3/30 vs 17/30; p$lt;0.05). Conclusions: The BDT helps to make an easy and smooth passage of the tube and to prevent epistaxis during nasotracheal tube insertion. This study indicates that nasotracheal intubation using BDT is an easily learned, safe, effective and atraumatic method.
The strength of ceramic was improved by lamination by suppressing the propagation of cracks with compressive residual stress in the face layer of the laminate. Hot pressed SiAlON+SiC/SiC/SiAlON+SiC laminate discs were fabricated for tailored residual stress. The residual stress in this laminate was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD). There was considerable compressive residual stress in the face layer. A Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was performed to support the measured XRD results and to determine the stress field in the laminate. The residual stress measured by XRD had satisfactory agreement with the analytically calculated and FEA values. The measured value by XRD was −385 ± 20 MPa over most of the face layer. The calculated and FEA values were −386 MPa and −371MPa, respectively. FEA also showed significantly modified stresses and the maximum tensile stress near the edge region which are possible crack generators in the presence of flaws or contact damage.
A steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) accident, which is a partial reactor building bypass scenario, has a low probability and high consequences. SAMG has been used to manage the progression of severe accidents and the release of fission products induced by an SGTR at the Wolsong plants. Four of the six SAGs in the SAMG are used to manage the progression of a severe accident induced by an SGTR at the Wolsong plants. The results of the ISAAC code calculation have shown that the proper use the SAMG can stop a severe accident from progressing and keep the reactor building intact during a severe accident. These results confirm that the SAMG is an effective means of managing the progression of severe accidents initiated by an SGTR at the Wolsong plants.