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Ancient (degenerated) schwannomas are benign tumors that display pronounced degenerative changes including cyst formation, calcification, hemorrhage, and hyalinization. The tumors are usually infiltrated by large numbers of inflammatory cells such as neutrophils, lymphocytes, siderophages, and histiocytes. They are located in deep locations such as the retroperitoneum and must be differentiated from malignant soft tissue tumors because spindle cells with nuclear atypia may be present. In the fine needle aspiration biopsy. The cytologic findings of two cases of ancient schwannoma occurring in posterior mediastinum and retroperitoneum, respectively, are described. Computerized tomographic findings of both cases showed changes of cystic degeneration or necrosis. A case occurred in retroperitoneum revealed features of destruction of vertebral body to suggest a malignant soft tussue tumor radiologically. The cytologic findings of aspiration biopsy of both tumors revealed that the tumor cells were spindle in shape with elongated nuclei. Some of tumor cells were arranged in a palisading fashion. Cell structures that resemble the Verocay bodies were observed. Some of the tumor cells showed pleomorphic bizarre nuclei, but no mitotic activity or chromatin clumping was seen. Inflammatory cells, siderophages and histiocytes were scattered in fibrillar material. These cytologic findings are important in the diagnosis of ancient schwannoma and in the differentiation of this tumor from the malignant spindle cell tumor.
The cytologic findings in fine needle aspiration of a case of myxoid liposarcoma of the mediastinum are described. The smear and cell block of the aspirate revealed solid clusters with background of amorphous material and scattered single tumor cells. The clusters were moderately cellular and consisted of atypical lipoblasts in varying stages of differentiation and delicate plexiform capillaries. Good correlation was found between the histologic and cytologic findings in the fine needle aspirates. The differential diagnosis between myxoid liposarcoma and other myxoid soft tissue tumors is discussed.
Despite the advantages of speed and accuracy in diagnosis during surgical procedures, intraoperative cytologic techniques are not widely used. The authors evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of intraoperative scrape cytology using lymph nodes referred for the detection of metastatic tumor. The cytology results were compared with the results of frozen and permanent sections. Of the 79 cases examined, 17 cases harbored metastatic carcinoma. The scrape cytology revealed metastatic tumor cells in all 17 positive cases(100%), while the frozen section failed to detect metastasis in 3 positive cases(82% accuracy). Thus we believe intraoperative scrape cytology can enhance diagnostic accuracy if combined with the conventional frozen section, and may replace it. This technique is safer, easier, faster and more economical than the conventional frozen section method.
The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has developed geological repository systems for the disposal of high-level wastes and spent nuclear fuels (SNFs) in South Korea. The purpose of the most recently developed system, the improved KAERI Reference Disposal System Plus (KRS+), is to dispose of all SNFs in Korea with improved disposal area efficiency. In this paper, a system-level safety assessment model for the KRS+ is presented with long-term assessment results. A system-level model is used to evaluate the overall performance of the disposal system rather than simulating a single component. Because a repository site in Korea has yet to be selected, a conceptual model is used to describe the proposed disposal system. Some uncertain parameters are incorporated into the model for the future site selection process. These parameters include options for a fractured pathway in a geosphere, parameters for radionuclide migration, and repository design dimensions. Two types of SNF, PULS7 from a pressurized water reactor and Canada Deuterium Uranium from a heavy water reactor, were selected as a reference inventory considering the future cumulative stock of SNFs in Korea. The highest peak radiological dose to a representative public was estimated to be 8.19×10-4 mSv‧yr-1, primarily from 129I. The proposed KRS+ design is expected to have a high safety margin that is on the order of two times lower than the dose limit criterion of 0.1 mSv‧yr-1.