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        • KCI등재

          농경지 온실가스 배출 산정을 위한 챔버법: 고찰

          주옥정,김준,박중수,강창성,Ju, Okjung,Kim, Joon,Park, Jung-Soo,Kang, Chang-Sung 한국농림기상학회 2018 한국농림기상학회지 Vol.20 No.1

          온실가스 배출로 인한 기후변화는 되먹임 고리의 형태로 연결되어 공진화 하는 자연생태계와 사회시스템의 지속가능성을 저해하는 위험요소가 되었다. 기후변화가 인위적인 온실가스 배출량의 상승에 의한 것으로 지적됨에 따라, 온실가스 배출원과 대기 간의 에너지 및 물질 교환과정에 대한 관심이 고조되었다. 본 고찰에서는 온실가스 모니터링의 배경에 대한 역사와 특별히 농업에서 배출되는 온실가스 관측을 위한 챔버법의 개발에 대해 요약하였다. 챔버를 이용하여 온실가스의 방출 특성을 분석한 국내 선행 연구들의 검토를 기반으로, 기후변화 적응을 위해 보다 나은 과학적 기초자료를 구축할 수 있도록 국내 챔버 관측의 문제점과 개선 방향을 간략히 논의하였다. Climate change has become a major risk factor for the co-evolving ecological and societal systems that are interconnected through biogeochemical cycles. As the increasing emission of anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHG) has been attributed to the principal cause of climate change, more attention has been given to the exchange between terrestrial sources/sinks of GHG and the atmosphere. In this review, we abridged a brief history of the background of GHG monitoring and the development of chamber method for the GHG measurement particularly from agriculture. Based on the reviews of prior domestic studies that analyzed the emission characteristics of GHG using chamber method, we discussed the concerns and the ways to improve chamber measurement to establish better scientific database for climate change adaptation.

        • KCI등재

          벼논 메탄 플럭스 측정용 폐쇄형 정적 챔버법: 고찰

          주옥정,강남구,임갑준 한국농림기상학회 2020 한국농림기상학회지 Vol.22 No.2

          Accurate assessment of greenhouse gas emissions is a cornerstone of every climate change response study, and reliable assessment of greenhouse gas emission data is being used as a practical basis for the entire climate change prediction and modeling studies. Essential, fundamental technologies for estimating greenhouse gas emissions include an on-site monitoring technology, an evaluation methodology of uncertainty in emission factors, and a verification technology for reductions. The closed chamber method is being commonly used to measure gas fluxes between soil-vegetation and atmosphere. This method has the advantages of being simple, easily available and economical. This study presented the technical bases of the closed chamber method for measuring methane fluxes from a rice paddy. The methane fluxes from rice paddies occupy the largest portion of a single source of greenhouse gas in the agricultural field. We reviewed the international and the domestic studies on automated chamber monitoring systems that have been developed from manually operated chambers. Based on this review, we discussed scientific concerns on chamber methods with a particular focus on quality control for improving measurement reliability of field data. 온실가스 배출량의 정확한 평가는 모든 기후변화대응 연구의 초석이며, 신뢰성이 높은 온실가스 배출량의 평가는 모든 기후변화 예측 및 모델링 연구의 실질적인 기초자료로서 활용된다. 온실가스 배출량 산정 기반 기술로서 온실가스 배출량 현장 모니터링 기술, 배출계수의 불확도 평가 기술, 온실가스 배출량 및 저감량 검증 기술 등이 필수적이다. 이런 기반 기술의 핵심에는 토양-식생-대기 간에 교환되는 온실가스 플럭스 산정을 위해 가장 보편적으로 많이 사용되는 폐쇄형 정적 챔버법의 모니터링 기술이 자리 잡고 있다. 본 연구에서는 농업분야 온실가스 단일 배출원으로 가장 큰 부분을 차지하는 벼논에서 발생하는 CH4 플럭스 측정용 폐쇄형 챔버법의 기술적 근간과, 수동형 챔버법에서 전 과정의 자동화 시스템으로 발전을 거듭하고 있는 자동화 챔버 모니터링 기술개발에 대한 국내⋅외 동향을 소개하였다. 이를 바탕으로 보편적으로 사용하고 있는 챔버법의 표준화된 방법의 고찰과 정확한 현장 자료를 얻기 위한 품질관리 방안이 마련될 수 있을 것이다. 또한 CH4 플럭스 측정방법의 신뢰성 높은 기술 발전 방향에 대해 조망하여 벼논 CH4 배출량 산정 결과들의 신뢰성 향상에 기여하게 될 것으로 전망한다

        • KCI등재

          고추와 배추 재배지에서 요소분해효소 억제제 함유 원예용 비료 시용에따른 아산화질소 배출 저감 효과

          주옥정,임갑준,이상덕,원태진,박중수,강창성,홍순성,강남구 한국환경농학회 2018 한국환경농학회지 Vol.37 No.4

          BACKGROUND: About 81% of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from agricultural land to the atmosphere is due to nitrogen (N) fertilizer application. Mitigation of N2O emissions can be more effective in controlling biochemical processes such as nitrification and denitrification in the soil rather than decreasing fertilizer application. The use of urease inhibitors is an effective way to improve N fertilizer efficiency and reduce N2O emissions. Several compounds act as urease inhibitors, but N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT) has been used worldwide. METHODS AND RESULTS: Hot pepper and chinese cabbage were cultivated in five treatments: standard fertilizer of nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium(N-P-K, NP2O5- K2O: 22.5-11.2-14.9 kg/ha for hot pepper and N-P2O5-K2O: 32.0-7.8-19.8 kg/ha for chinese cabbage), no fertilizer, and NBPT-treated fertilizer of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 times of nitrogen basal application rate of the standard fertilizer, respectively in Gyeonggi-do Hwaseong-si for 2 years(2015-2016). According to application of NBPTtreated fertilizer in hot pepper and chinese cabbage, N2O emission decreased by 19-20% compared to that of the standard fertilizer plot. CONCLUSION: NBPT-treated fertilizer proved that N2O emissions decreased statistically significant in the same growth conditions as the standard fertilization in the hot pepper and chinese cabbage cultivated fields. It means that NBPT-treated fertilizer can be applied for N fertilizer efficiency and N2O emissions reduction.

        • KCI등재

          온도와 광도가 톨루엔-NO<sub>x</sub>-공기 혼합물의 광산화 반응에 미치는 영향의 비교

          주옥정,배귀남,최지은,이승복,김영성,문길주,윤순창,Ju, Ok-Jung,Bae, Gwi-Nam,Choi, Ji-Eun,Lee, Seung-Bok,Ghim, Young-Sung,Moon, Kil-Choo,Yoon, Soon-Chang 한국대기환경학회 2007 한국대기환경학회지 Vol.23 No.3

          To differentiate temperature effect from the light intensity effect on the formation of secondary products during the photooxidation of toluene-$NO_x$-air mixtures, steady-state air temperature was changed from $20^{\circ}C\;to\;33^{\circ}C$ at the same light intensity of $0.39min^{-1}$ in an indoor smog chamber. Smog chamber consisted of 64 blacklights and a $5.8m^3$ reaction bag made of Teflon film. Air temperature was controlled by an air-conditioning system. The starting time for rapid conversion of NO to $NO_2$ was slightly delayed with decreasing air temperature. In contrast to light intensity effect, the ozone formation time and the ozone production rate were insensitive to air temperature. Although the formation time for secondary organic aerosols was not changed, the particle number concentration increased with temperature. However, the newly formed secondary organic aerosol mass at lower temperature was higher than that at higher temperature. Since light intensity significantly affected the starting time and quantity of ozone and aerosol formation, it is considered that the temperature could contribute partly the quantity of aerosol formation during the photooxidation of toluene-$NO_x$-air mixtures.

        • KCI등재

          한반도 배경대기 중 온실기체의 농도 변동 특성 분석

          주옥정,차준석,이동원,김영미,이정영,박일수 한국대기환경학회 2007 한국대기환경학회지 Vol.23 No.4

          Increase of the greenhouse gases emissions during last century has led remarkable changes in our environmentunderstand these changes around us. The concentrations of greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O, CFCs) have beencontinuously measured at Global Climate Change Monitoring station in Gosan, Jeju since January, 2002. In thisstudy, the variation characteristics of greenhouse gases as well as their annual, seasonal and diurnal trend using thedated with the methods recommended by WDCGG(World Data Center for Greenhouse Gases). The concentrationof CO2 was increasing continuously by 2.1 ppm/year, while CH4 did not show any increasing or decreasing trendclearly for 4 years. The concentration of N2O was slightly increasing and CFCs were decreasing except CFC-12to be consistent with the global trend. But the concentration level of CO2 in Korea was more or less higher than abroad.

        • KCI등재

          불확도 기반 밭토양 아산화질소 배출 저감 여부 판정

          주옥정,강남구,임갑준 한국농림기상학회 2019 한국농림기상학회지 Vol.21 No.4

          In the agricultural sector, greenhouse gas emissions vary depending on the interaction of all ecosystem changes such as soil environment, weather environment, crop growth, and anthropogenic farming activities. Agricultural sector greenhouse gas emissions resulting from many of these interactions are highly variable. Uncertainty-based evaluation that defines the interval with confidence level of greenhouse gas emission and absorption is necessary to take account of the variance characteristics of individual emissions, but research on uncertainty evaluation method is insufficient. This study aims to decide on the effect of reducing N2O emissions from upland soils using an uncertainty-based approach. An uncertainty-based approach confirmed whether there was a difference between confidence intervals in the 5 different fertilizer treatment groups to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Unlike the statistically significant test with three repetition averages, the uncertainty-based approach method estimated in this study is able to estimate the confidence interval considering the distribution characteristics of the emissions, such as the dispersion characteristics of individual emissions. Therefore, it is considered that the reliability of emissions can be improved by statistically testing the variance characteristics of emissions such as the uncertainty-based approach. It is hoped that the direction of the uncertainty-based approach for the effect of reducing greenhouse gas emissions in agriculture will be helpful in the future development of agricultural greenhouse gas emission reduction technology, adaptation to climate change, and further development of sustainable eco-social system. 기후변화 대응을 위한 토양수분 관리는 중요한 과제이며, 최적의 토양수분 함량을 예측할 수 있다면 대단위 토양수분 정보를 제공할 수 있다. 본 연구에서는 포장용수량 및 위조점의 실측값과 추정값에 대한 상관관계를 분석하였으며, 토양특성 인자와 토양수분 간 상관성을 조사하였다. 선정된 토양수분관측망 지점은 76 개이며, 모래함량이 높은 사토, 양질사토, 사양토가 77%를 차지하였으며, 유기물은 0.03∼3.50%, 용적밀도는 1.01∼1.69 Mg m-3 범위로 조사되었다. 포장용수량 및 위조점의 추정값은 실측값과 상관계수가 낮고 실측값보다 과소 평가되었으나 추정값과 실측값 간에는 고도로 유의한 정의상관관계(p<0.01)가 나타났다. 토양수분(포장용수량 및 위조점)은 미사, 점토, 유기물과는 고도로 유의한 정의상관(p<0.01)이었으며, 모래와는 고도로 유의한 부의상관(p<0.01)이었다. 하지만 본 연구에서 조사된 토양수분관측망 토양은 농업기상대 설치를 위하여 인위적으로 조성된 지점이 포함되어 있어 일반농경지 토양 특성을 그대로 반영하기 다소 어려움이 있다. 따라서 토양수분 측정 조사지점을 농경지까지 포함하여 표본수를 확대하고 토양 인자를 적절하게 활용할 경우 국내 실정에 맞는 토양수분 추정식을 도출할 수 있을 것으로 기대된다.

        • KCI등재

          밭토양에서 폐쇄형 자동 챔버법으로 측정한 아산화질소 농도에 대한 측정 불확도

          주옥정,강남구,임갑준 한국환경농학회 2020 한국환경농학회지 Vol.39 No.3

          BACKGROUND: The closed chamber method is the most commonly used for measuring greenhouse gas emissions from upland fields. This method has the advantages of being simple, easily available and economical. However, uncertainty estimation is essential for accurate assessment of greenhouse gas emissions and verification of emission reductions. The nitrous oxide emissions from upland field is very important for the nitrogen budget in the agriculture sectors. Although assessment of uncertainty components affecting nitrous oxide emission from upland field is necessary to take account of dispersion characteristics, research on these uncertainty components is very rare to date. This study aims at elucidation of influencing factors on measurement uncertainty of nitrous oxide concentrations measured by an automated open closed chamber method from upland field. METHODS AND RESULTS: The nitrous oxide sampling system is located in the upland field in Gyeonggi-do Agricultural Research and Extension Services (37°13′22″N, 127° 02′22″E). The primary measurement uncertainty components influencing nitrous oxide concentrations (influencing factors) investigated in this research are repeatability, reproducibility and calibration in the aspects of nitrous oxide sampling and analytical instrumentation. The magnitudes of the relative standard uncertainty of each influencing factor are quantified and compared. CONCLUSION: Results of this study show what influencing factors are more important in determination of nitrous oxide concentrations measured using the automated open closed chambers located in the monitoring site. Quantifying the measurement uncertainty of the nitrous oxide concentrations in this study would contribute to improving measurement quality of nitrous oxide fluxes. .

        • KCI등재

          벼논에서 폐쇄형 자동 챔버 시스템으로 측정한 메탄 농도에 대한 요인별 측정 불확도 비교

          주옥정,강남구,임갑준 한국환경농학회 2020 한국환경농학회지 Vol.39 No.3

          BACKGROUND: The closed chamber method is the most commonly used for measuring greenhouse gas emissions from rice fields. This method has the advantages of being simple, easily available and economical. However, a measurement result using the chamber method is an estimated value and is complete when the uncertainty is estimated. The methane emissions from a rice paddy account for the largest portion of the greenhouse gas emissions in the agriculture sectors. Although assessment of uncertainty components affecting methane emission from a rice paddy is necessary to take account of dispersion characteristics, research on these uncertainty components is very rare to date. The goal of this study was to elucidate influencing factors on measurement uncertainty of methane concentrations measured by a closed automated chamber system from a rice paddy. METHODS AND RESULTS: The methane sampling system is located in the rice paddy in Gyeonggi-do ′ ″ Agricultural Research and Extension Services (37° 13 15 ′ ″ N, 127° 02 22 E). The primary measurement uncertainty components influencing methane concentrations (influencing factors) investigated in this research were repeatability, reproducibility and calibration in the aspects of methane sampling and analytical instrumentation. The magnitudes of the relative standard uncertainty of each influencing factor were quantified and compared. CONCLUSION: Results of this study showed what influencing factors were more important in determination of methane concentrations measured using the chamber system and analytical instrumentation located in the monitoring site. Quantifying the measurement uncertaint .

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