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        • KCI등재

          연속촬영 전자조사 문 영상을 이용한 오프라인 기반 치료 중 내부 장기 움직임 확인 시스템의 개발

          주상규,홍채선,허웅,김민규,한영이,신은혁,신정석,김진성,박희철,안성환,임도훈,최두호,Ju, Sang-Gyu,Hong, Chae-Seon,Huh, Woong,Kim, Min-Kyu,Han, Young-Yih,Shin, Eun-Hyuk,Shin, Jung-Suk,Kim, Jing-Sung,Park, Hee-Chul,Ahn, Sung-Hwan,Lim, Do-Ho 한국의학물리학회 2012 의학물리 Vol.23 No.2

          방사선치료 중 내부 장기의 움직임을 확인하고 이를 보정하는 것은 움직이는 종양에 정확히 방사선을 조사하는데 매우 중요한 역할을 한다. 실제 치료 중 획득한 연속촬영 전자조사 문(cine EPID) 영상을 이용해 치료 중 내부 장기 움직임을 추적하는 오프라인 기반 분석 시스템(IMVS, Internal-organ Motion Verification System using cine EPID)을 개발하였고 모형을 이용하여 개발된 시스템의 정확도와 유용성을 평가했다. IMVS는 cine EPID영상을 이용한 내부 장기 움직임 추적을 위해 내부 표지자를 이용한 유형 정합 알고리즘을 이용했다. 시스템의 성능평가를 위해 폐와 폐 종양을 묘사한 인체 모형과 이를 상하(SI, superior-inferior)방향으로 직선 운동시키는 구동 장치와 제어 프로그램을 고안했다. 모형을 4초 주기로 2 cm 직선 운동 시키면서 10 MV X선으로 3.3 fps, 6.6 fps속도로 cine EPID 영상($1,024{\times}768$ 해상도)를 획득했다. 획득된 cine EPID 영상은 IMVS를 이용하여 표적의 움직임을 추적하고 기존 외부 표지자를 이용한 비디오 영상 기반 추적시스템(RPM, Real-time Position Management, Varian, USA)으로부터 얻은 결과와 비교했다. 정량적 평가를 위해 두 시스템으로부터 움직임의 평균 주기(Peak-To-Peak), 진폭과 패턴(RMS, Root Mean Square)을 측정하여 비교했다. RPM과 IMVS로 측정한 폐 종양 모형의 움직임 주기는 각각 $3.95{\pm}0.02$ (RPM), $3.98{\pm}0.11$ (IMVS 3.3 fps), $4.005{\pm}0.001$ (IMVS 6.6 fps) 초로 실제움직임 주기인 4초와 잘 일치했다. IMVS로 획득한 모형 내부장기의 평균 움직임 진폭은 3.3 fps에서 $1.85{\pm}0.02$ cm, 6.6 fps에서 $1.94{\pm}0.02$ cm으로 실제 진폭 2 cm에 비해 각각 0.15 cm (오차 7.5%) 및 0.06 cm (오차 3%)의 차를 보였다. 움직임 신호의 일치성 평가를 위해 측정한 RMS는 0.1044 (IMVS 3.3 fps), 0.0480 (IMVS 6.6 fps)로 계획된 신호와 잘 일치 했다. cine EPID 영상을 이용하여 내부 표지자의 움직임을 추적하는 IMVS는 모형 실험에서 내부 장기의 움직임을 3% 오차 내에서 확인 가능했다. IMVS는 치료 중 내부장기 움직임을 측정하고 이를 사차원 방사선 치료계획과 비교하여 오차를 보정하는데 기여할 것으로 생각된다. Verification of internal organ motion during treatment and its feedback is essential to accurate dose delivery to the moving target. We developed an offline based internal organ motion verification system (IMVS) using cine EPID images and evaluated its accuracy and availability through phantom study. For verification of organ motion using live cine EPID images, a pattern matching algorithm using an internal surrogate, which is very distinguishable and represents organ motion in the treatment field, like diaphragm, was employed in the self-developed analysis software. For the system performance test, we developed a linear motion phantom, which consists of a human body shaped phantom with a fake tumor in the lung, linear motion cart, and control software. The phantom was operated with a motion of 2 cm at 4 sec per cycle and cine EPID images were obtained at a rate of 3.3 and 6.6 frames per sec (2 MU/frame) with $1,024{\times}768$ pixel counts in a linear accelerator (10 MVX). Organ motion of the target was tracked using self-developed analysis software. Results were compared with planned data of the motion phantom and data from the video image based tracking system (RPM, Varian, USA) using an external surrogate in order to evaluate its accuracy. For quantitative analysis, we analyzed correlation between two data sets in terms of average cycle (peak to peak), amplitude, and pattern (RMS, root mean square) of motion. Averages for the cycle of motion from IMVS and RPM system were $3.98{\pm}0.11$ (IMVS 3.3 fps), $4.005{\pm}0.001$ (IMVS 6.6 fps), and $3.95{\pm}0.02$ (RPM), respectively, and showed good agreement on real value (4 sec/cycle). Average of the amplitude of motion tracked by our system showed $1.85{\pm}0.02$ cm (3.3 fps) and $1.94{\pm}0.02$ cm (6.6 fps) as showed a slightly different value, 0.15 (7.5% error) and 0.06 (3% error) cm, respectively, compared with the actual value (2 cm), due to time resolution for image acquisition. In analysis of pattern of motion, the value of the RMS from the cine EPID image in 3.3 fps (0.1044) grew slightly compared with data from 6.6 fps (0.0480). The organ motion verification system using sequential cine EPID images with an internal surrogate showed good representation of its motion within 3% error in a preliminary phantom study. The system can be implemented for clinical purposes, which include organ motion verification during treatment, compared with 4D treatment planning data, and its feedback for accurate dose delivery to the moving target.

        • KCI등재후보

          Development of a Tongue Immobilization Device Using a 3D Printer for IMRT of Nasopharyngeal Cancer Patients

          주상규,안용찬,김영비,박승규,최유미,나초희,홍채선,오동렬,권동렬,김철종,김동현 대한암학회 2021 Cancer Research and Treatment Vol.53 No.1

          Purpose This study aimed to reduce radiation doses to the tongue, a patient-specific semi-customized tongue immobilization device (SCTID) was developed using a 3D printer for helical tomotherapy (HT) of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPCa). Dosimetric characteristics and setup stability of the SCTID were compared with those of a standard mouthpiece (SMP). Materials and Methods For displacement and robust immobilization of the tongue, the SCTID consists of four parts: upper and lower tooth stoppers, tongue guider, tongue-tip position guide bar, and connectors. With the SCTID and SMP, two sets of planning computed tomography and HT plans were obtained for 10 NPCa patients. Dosimetric and geometric characteristics were compared. Position reproducibility of the tongue with SCTID was evaluated by comparing with planned dose and adaptive accumulated dose of the tongue and base of the tongue based on daily setup mega-voltage computed tomography. Results Using the SCTID, the tongue was effectively displaced from the planning target volume compared to the SMP. The median mucosa of the tongue (M-tongue) dose was significantly reduced (20.7 Gy vs. 27.8 Gy). The volumes of the M-tongue receiving a dose of 15 Gy, 30 Gy, and 45 Gy and the volumes of the mucosa of oral cavity and oropharynx (M-OC/OP) receiving a dose of 45 Gy and 60 Gy were significantly lower than using the SMP. No significant differences was observed between the planned dose and the accu-mulated adaptive dose in any dosimetric characteristics of the tongue and base of tongue. Conclusion SCTID can not only reduce the dose to the M-tongue and M-OC/OP dramatically, when compared to SMP, but also provide excellent reproducibility and easy visual verification.

        • 각국 언어 특성에 독립적인 CELP 계열 보코더에서의 계산량 단축 알고리즘

          주상규(Ju, Sang-Gyu) 한국산학기술학회 2010 한국산학기술학회 학술대회 Vol.- No.-

          In this paper, we propose the computation reduction methods of LSP(Line spectrum pairs) transformation that is mainly used in CELP vocoders. In order to decrease the computational time in real root method the characteristic of four proposed algorithms is as the following. First, scheme to reduce the LSP transformation time uses mel scale. Developed the second scheme is the control of searching order by the distribution characteristic of LSP parameters. Third, scheme to reduce the LSP transformation time uses voice characteristics. Developed the fourth scheme is the control of searching interval and order by the distribution characteristic of LSP parameters. As a result of searching time, computational amount, transformed LSP parameters, SNR, MOS test, waveform of synthesized speech, spectrogram analysis, searching time is reduced about 37.5%, 46.21%, 46.3%, 51.29% in average, computational amount is reduced about 44.76%, 49.44%, 47.03%, 57.40%. But the transformed LSP parameters of the proposed methods were the same as those of real root method.

        • 가변 윈도우를 이용한 CELP 부호화기의 음질 향상에 관한 연구

          주상규(Ju, Sang-Gyu) 한국산학기술학회 2010 한국산학기술학회 학술대회 Vol.- No.-

          There have been proposed two types of low bit rate vocoder upto now : One is MBE type using the spectrum modeling and another is CELP type using the hybrid coding method. CELP type vocoder has mainly studied between them. Specially, much of intensity is concentrated in CELP vocoder due to the emergence of Internet Phone and PCS in a domestic. In order to improve the speech quality in CELP vocoder, in this paper, we proposed a new spectrum analysis algorithm with variable window. In CELP vocoder, the spectrum of the synthesised speech signal is distorted because the fixed size windows is used for spectrum analysis. So we have measured the spectral leakage and in order to minimize the spectral leakage have adjusted the window size. Applying this method G.723.1 ACELP, we can get SD(Spectral Distortion) reduction 0.084(dB), residual energy reduction 6.3% and MOS(Mean Opinion Score) improvement 0.1.

        • 불균등 간격조절과 선형 스펙트럼 쌍 분포특성을 이용한 계산량 단축 알고리즘

          주상규(Ju, Sang-Gyu) 한국산학기술학회 2010 한국산학기술학회 학술대회 Vol.- No.-

          Fast algorithm is proposed by using mel scale and the distribution characteristic of LSP parameters, and is to reduce the computational amount. Computational amount means the calculating times of transformation from LPC coefficients to LSP parameters. Among conventional methods, the real root method is considerably simpler than other, but neverthless, it still suffer from its indeterministic computational time. Because the root searching is processed sequentially in frequency region. In this paper, the searching interval is arranged by using mel scale but not it is uniform and searching order is arranged by the distribution characteristic of LSP parameters that is most LSP papameters are occured in specific frequency region. In experimental results, computational amount of the proposed algorithm is reduced about 48.95% in average, but the transformed LSP parameters of the proposed method were the same as those of real root method.

        • KCI등재

          사차원전산화단층촬영과 호흡연동 직각 Kilovolt 준비 영상을 이용한 간 종양의 움직임 분석

          주상규(Sang Gyu Ju),홍채선(Chae Seon Hong),박희철(Hee Chul Park),안종호(Jong Ho Ahn),신은혁(Eunhyuk Shin),신정석(Jung Suk Shin),김진성(Jin Sung Kim),한영이(Youngyih Han),임도훈(Do Hoon Lim),최두호(Doo Ho Choi) 대한방사선종양학회 2010 Radiation Oncology Journal Vol.28 No.3

          '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

          목 적: 4-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) 영상과 on board imaging (OBI) 및 real time position management (RPM) 장치로 매 회 치료 시마다 얻은 호흡연동 직각 kilovolt (KV) 준비 영상(gated orthogonal kilovolt setup image)을 이용해 간암 환자를 치료하는 동안 발생하는 종양 위치의 불확실성을 평가하고자 했다. 대상 및 방법: 3차원입체조형치료가 예정된 20명의 간암 환자를 대상으로 RPM과 전산화단층촬영모의치료기를 이용해 치료계획용 4DCT를 시행했다. 표적 근처에 위치한 간동맥화학색전술 후 집적된 리피오돌(lipiodol) 혹은 횡격막을 종양의 위치 변이를 측정하는 표지자로 선택했다. 표지자의 위치 차이를 이용해 온라인 분할간 및 분할중 내부 장기 변이와 움직임 진폭을 측정했다. 측정된 자료의 정량적 평가를 위해 통계 분석을 실시했다. 결 과: 20명 환자로부터 측정된 표지자의 분할간변이의 중앙값은 X (transaxial), Y (superior-inferior), Z (anteriorposterior)축에서 각각 0.00 cm (범위, -0.50∼0.90 cm), 0.00 cm (범위, -2.4∼1.60 cm), 0.00 cm (범위, -1.10∼0.50 cm) 였다. 4명의 환자에서 X, Y, Z축 중 하나 이상에서 0.5 cm를 초과하는 변이가 관찰되었다. 4DCT와 호흡연동 직각 준비 영상으로부터 얻은 표적의 움직임 진폭의 차이는 X, Y, Z 축에서 각각 중앙값이 -0.05 cm (범위,-0.83∼0.60 cm), -0.15 cm (범위, -2.58∼1.18 cm), -0.02 cm (범위, -1.37∼0.59 cm) 였다. 두 영상간 표적의 움직임 진폭 차이가 1 cm를 초과하는 환자가 Y축 방향으로 3명 관찰되었으며, 0.5 cm 초과 1 cm 미만의 차이를 보이는 환자도 Y축과 Z축 방향을 합쳐 5명 관찰되었다. 분할중 표지자 위치 변이의 중앙값은 X, Y, Z축에서 각각 0.00 cm (범위, -0.30∼0.40 cm), -0.03 cm (범위, -1.14∼0.50 cm), 0.05 cm (범위, -0.30∼0.50 cm)였으며 2명의 환자에서 1 cm를 초과하는 변이가 Y축 방향으로 관찰되었다. 결 론: 4DCT와 호흡연동 직각 KV 준비 영상으로 얻은 표지자의 분할간, 분할중 및 움직임 진폭에서 큰 변이가 관찰되었다. Purpose: In order to evaluate the positional uncertainty of internal organs during radiation therapy for treatment of liver cancer, we measured differences in inter- and intra-fractional variation of the tumor position and tidal amplitude using 4-dimentional computed radiograph (DCT) images and gated orthogonal setup kilovolt (KV) images taken on every treatment using the on board imaging (OBI) and real time position management (RPM) system. Materials and Methods: Twenty consecutive patients who underwent 3-dimensional (3D) conformal radiation therapy for treatment of liver cancer participated in this study. All patients received a 4DCT simulation with an RT16 scanner and an RPM system. Lipiodol, which was updated near the target volume after transarterial chemoembolization or diaphragm was chosen as a surrogate for the evaluation of the position difference of internal organs. Two reference orthogonal (anterior and lateral) digital reconstructed radiograph (DRR) images were generated using CT image sets of 0% and 50% into the respiratory phases. The maximum tidal amplitude of the surrogate was measured from 3D conformal treatment planning. After setting the patient up with laser markings on the skin, orthogonal gated setup images at 50% into the respiratory phase were acquired at each treatment session with OBI and registered on reference DRR images by setting each beam center. Online inter-fractional variation was determined with the surrogate. After adjusting the patient setup error, orthogonal setup images at 0% and 50% into the respiratory phases were obtained and tidal amplitude of the surrogate was measured. Measured tidal amplitude was compared with data from 4DCT. For evaluation of intra-fractional variation, an orthogonal gated setup image at 50% into the respiratory phase was promptly acquired after treatment and compared with the same image taken just before treatment. In addition, a statistical analysis for the quantitative evaluation was performed. Results: Medians of inter-fractional variation for twenty patients were 0.00 cm (range, −0.50 to 0.90 cm), 0.00 cm (range, −2.40 to 1.60 cm), and 0.00 cm (range, −1.10 to 0.50 cm) in the X (transaxial), Y (superiorinferior), and Z (anterior-posterior) directions, respectively. Significant inter-fractional variations over 0.5 cm were observed in four patients. Min addition, the median tidal amplitude differences between 4DCTs and the gated orthogonal setup images were −0.05 cm (range, −0.83 to 0.60 cm), −0.15 cm (range, −2.58 to 1.18 cm), and −0.02 cm (range, −1.37 to 0.59 cm) in the X, Y, and Z directions, respectively. Large differences of over 1 cm were detected in 3 patients in the Y direction, while differences of more than 0.5 but less than 1 cm were observed in 5 patients in Y and Z directions. Median intra-fractional variation was 0.00 cm (range, −0.30 to 0.40 cm), −0.03 cm (range, −1.14 to 0.50 cm), 0.05 cm (range, −0.30 to 0.50 cm) in the X, Y, and Z directions, respectively. Significant intra-fractional variation of over 1 cm was observed in 2 patients in Y direction. Conclusion: Gated setup images provided a clear image quality for the detection of organ motion without a motion artifact. Significant intra- and inter-fractional variation and tidal amplitude differences between 4DCT and gated setup images were detected in some patients during the radiation treatment period, and therefore, should be considered when setting up the target margin. Monitoring of positional uncertainty and its adaptive feedback system can enhance the accuracy of treatments.

        • KCI등재후보

          필름을 사용한 세기변조치료법에 대한 선량측정

          주상규(Sang Gyu Ju),여인환(Inhwan Jason Yeo),허승재(Seung Jae Huh),최병기(Byung Ki Choi),박영환(Young Hwan Park),안용찬(Young Chan Ahn),김대용(Dae Yong Kim),공영건(Young Kun Kong) 대한방사선종양학회 2002 Radiation Oncology Journal Vol.20 No.2

          '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

          목 적 : 원자 번호가 높은 물질로 구성된 필름은 저 에너지 광자선에 과반응하여 선량 측정 시 인체조직에서와 다른 흡수양상을 보인다. 이러한 현상은 조사면의 경계인 반음영 및 그 외곽 부위에서 두드러지게 관찰된다. 따라서 반음영이 조사면내에 위치하게되는 세기변조치료법에서 필름을 이용한 선량 측정 시 이러한 현상이 미치는 영향을 분석하고 개선 방법을 강구하고자 한다. 대상 및 방법 : 6 MV X-선의 5∼7개의 크기가 다른 고정형 조사면을 이용해 두가지 유형의 세기변조 조사면을 만들었으며 전리함 및 저감도 측정용 필름을 사용하여 각 조사면의 빔 프로파일을 측정했다. 측정 깊이와 최대 조사면적을 변화시켰으며 필름에 대해 수직 및 수평 조사하여 이에 따른 선량 분포 변화를 관찰했다. 또한 필름 선량 측정 시 저 에너지 광자선에 의한 선량 과평가 현상을 막기 위해 납 필터(0.01 inch)를 필름 양측에 부착하여 이로 인한 영향을 관찰했다. 결 과 : 필름만을 사용한 빔 프로파일에서는, 전리함 측정치에 비해 저 선량 영역 및 조사면 경계에서의 선량 과평가 현상이 수직 및 수평 조사 모두에서 관찰되었다. 이러한 현상은 측정 깊이가 증가함에 따라 크게 나타났으며 10 ㎝ 깊이의 역 피라미드형 세기변조 조사면 중심에서 최고 약 15%의 상대오차를 보였다. 필터를 사용한 경우에서는, 수직 조사 시 필터에 의한 선량 저 평가 현상이 관찰되었으나 수평 조사에서는 전리함 측정치와 3% 이내의 오차를 보여 매우 잘 일치하였다. 결 론 : 필름을 이용한 세기변조 조사면의 선량 측정 시 선량 과반응에 의한 오차는 조사면의 조합 형태 및 반음영 위치와 밀접한 관계를 가지며, 선량 평가 시 이에 대한 고려가 필요하다. 납 필터를 사용한 수평조사 방법은 이러한 오차를 줄이는데 도움을 주며 입사 방사선의 물리적 특성을 고려한 적정 두께의 필터 선택이 요구된다. Purpose : X-ray film over responds to low-energy photons in relative photon beam dosimetry because its sensor is based on silver bromide crystals, which are high-Z molecules. This over-response becomes a significant problem in clinical photon beam dosimetry particularly in regions outside the penumbra. In intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), the radiation field is characterized by multiple small fields and their outside-penumbra regions. Therefore, in order to use film dosimetry for IMRT, the nature the source of the over-response in its radiation field need to be known. This study is aimed to verify and possibly improve film dosimetry for IMRT. Materials and Methods : Modulated beams were constructed by a combination of five or seven different static radiation fields using 6 MeV X-rays. In order to verify film dosimetry, we used X-ray film and an ion chamber were used to measure the dose profiles at various depths in a phantom. In addition, in order to reduce the over-response, 0.01 inch thick lead filters were placed on both sides of the film. Results : The measured dose profiles showed a film over-response at the outside-penumbra and low dose regions. The error increased with depths and approached 15% at a maximum for the field size of 15×15 ㎠ at 10 ㎝ depth. The use of filters reduced the error to 3%, but caused an under-response of the dose in a perpendicular set-up. Conclusions : This study demonstrated that film dosimetry for IMRT involves sources of error due to its over-response to low-energy photons. The use of filers can enhance the accuracy in film dosimetry for IMRT. In this regard, the use of optimal filter conditions is recommended.

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