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Between the year of 1924 and 1943, 3 'Cho-sun Kinema' film companies has established and made each own Films. Firstly cho-sun kinema co. has opened in 1924 at Busan, the second big city of korea,. Joined by local big shots including a monk, a medical doctor, a gun shop owner. and that company made four films like 'the tragedy of the sea' 'the lover of the king' 'the make up of the God' Second one is cho-sun kinema production opened at seoul, the capital of korea. in 1926. The owner of company was a business man who runned 'the Yotoya', a hat shop. That company has made 6 films including 'Arirang' 'The Drifting Hero'. and soon became most popular and influential film company at that time, but internal conflict between Na woon gyu, the Star of the company, and other members. Third one was cho-sun kinema co. Known as another new company with cho-sun kinema production. Actually that company was same company of cho-sun kinema production. After several conflict between the Membersof that company, the company has changed system, a private owned to a joint stock company. so new cho-sun kinema co. is sequel of cho-sun kinema production.
일본은 1910년, 한국과 을사보호조약을 체결한 것을 계기로 한반도에 대한 식민지 통치를 시작했다. 조선총독부는 한국 내에서 입법, 사법, 행정력을 독점한 최고 권력기관이었다. 일본의 한국지배는 1945년까지 계속되었으며 조선총독부 또한 그때까지 존속했다. 조선총독부는 일본의 한국통치 정책을 충실하게 집행하는 기관이었으며 한국인의 반일, 항일 행위를 무마하고 일본에 대해 우호적인 태도를 갖도록 하기 위한 정책을 지속적으로 펴나갔다. 이를 위해 일본은 일본과 한국은 같은 뿌리에서 탄생한 공동운명체라는 개념을 의식회하여 ‘內鮮一體’ 정책을 주요 수단으로 삼았다. 궁극적으로는 일본과 한국이 하나의 국가라는 개념을 실현하려는 것이다. 이같은 방침에 따라 일본은 한국인을 일본인으로 통화시키기 위한 정책을 지속적으로 펴나갔는데, 1910년부터 1919년까지는 억압적인 통제에 의존했다. 그러나 이같은 조치는 1919년 3월 l일을 기해 대대적으로 일어난 항일 민중봉기에 의해 전면적인 전환을 하기에 이른다. 이후에 취임한 3대 총독 사이토(齊藤寶)는 보다 우호적인 문화정치를 표방하며 한국인을 적극적으로 회유하고자 했다. 정책의 변화는 여러 가지 후속 조치들로 구체화 되었는데 민영 언론매체의 설립 허용, 시찰단 구성, 박람회 개최 같은 일들이 그것이다. 일간신문의 경우 이전에는 매일신보 경성일보,Seoul Press 등 총독부 기관지만 발행되었으나 이후 동아일보, 조선일보 등의 한국어 신문이 허용되었으며 잡지들도 발간되기 시작했다. 이와 함께 일본과 한국의 상호 이해를 증진시키기 위한 조치로서 일본과 한국시창단을 구성하여 상호방문하는 사업을 펴기도 했고, 박람회를 개최해 일본의 우수한 문물을 한국인들에게 과시하려는 시도도 나왔다. 이같은 조치의 기저는 ‘周知와 宣傳’을 보다 효과적으로 실행하기 위한 것이었다. 이 과정에서 중요한 역할을 담당한 것이 영화였다. 조선총독부가 활동사진반을 설치하고 홍보 선전 영화의 제작과 배급에 각별한 노력을 기울인 것은 영화의 선전기능과 효과를 십분 이해하고 있었기 때문이다. 중국(만주), 미국과 차례로 전쟁을 시작한 1937년 이후에는 민간의 영화제작을 엄격하게 금지하는 한편 선전영화 제작을 위한 영화사를 별도로 설립했다. 1942년부터 1945년 사이에 는 조선총독부의 조종을 받는 한개 영화사만이 존재해 선전영회만을 제작했다. Japan started to colonize Korea in 1910. It’s when it forced and made Chosun sign on the Treaty of Protectorate. The Government-General of Chosun was the most powerful organization governing over the legislature, the judicature and the administration as a whole. Japan had ruled over Korea until 1945 and the Government-General of Chosun lasted by then. The Government-General of Chosun faithfully practiced Japan’s colonial policy over Korea. Futhermore, it stopped many Koreans from an anti-Japanese movement and tried to make Koreans have a positive attitude towards Japan. For this, Japan advertised the policy called Nae-sun-il-che which meant Korea and Japan were a community together from the same root. Ultimately, it targeted on absorbing Korea within their territory. With this goal, Japan kept on practicing the policy to acculturize and brainwash Koreans, totally depending on force and pressure from 1910 to 1919. However, this policy had changed by the overall anti-Japanese movement happening on March 1st, 1919. Saito, the third governor-general who was appointed laster on, made an effort to win over the favor of Koreans in a less forceful way of the cultural politics. The change of policy had been specified in diverse actions such as permitting civil mass-media bodies, forming the observation groups and opening conferences. In the case of daily newspapers, Japan had permitted only the ones by the Government-General of Chosun such as Maeil-shinbo, Kyunsung-ilbo, and Seoul Press before, but then other civil newspapers in Korean stated to be released. Along this, Japan formed both Korean and Japanese observation groups to promote the mutual understanding and showed off Japan’s goods in conferences. These actions were aimed for practicing and advertising the political propaganda in a more effective way. In the process, it was a film that played an important role. Actually, the Government-General of Chosun put special efforts into producing and distributing of the propaganda films by implementing a film department. It’s because Japan totally recognized and understood the impact of films. Therefore, Japan distinctively established a film agency for the production of propaganda movies while it banned the civil film production after 1937 when Japan started the war against China and USA in a row. So, only one film agency, ruled by the Government-General of Chosun, produced movies from 1942 to 1945.
스크린쿼터제는 한국영화계의 가장 중요한 쟁점 중의 하나다. 이 제도가 한국의 영화산업의 보호와 성장에 크게 유용 하다는 주장과 오히려 과도한 제도적 보호가 자생력을 약화사키는 요인이 된다는 주장이 대립하고 있기 때문이다. 2년 7 월 l일부터 연간 73일 수준으로 축소되었는데, 이전에 비해 절반으로 줄어든 것이다. 역사적으로 한국에서 스크린쿼터제는 두 번의 시행과정을 겪었다. 첫 번째는 일본이 한국을 식민통치하고 있던 1935년부터 1945년의 해방까지의 기간 동안에 시행된 것이며 또 한 번은 1967년부터 시작해 현재까지 이르는 기간이다. 전자는 식민지 기간 동안 영화를 정치선전 수단￡로 활용하려던 일본인들이 외국영화 특히 미국영화의 수입을 제한하기 위한 조치로 시행되었다. 1935년에는 외국영화의 상영비율이 전체 영화의 4분의 3 수준을 넘지 못하도록 제한했으며 1936년에는 3분의 2, 1937 년에는 절반을 넘지 못하도록 점진적으로 제한 비율을 확대했다. 일본이 미국 진주만을 공격한 이후 태평양 전쟁이 밀어난 이후에는 미국영화의 수입을 전면적으로 금지했다. 외국영화의 상영을 제한했던 이유는 일본영화와 한국영화를 모두 포함하는 국산영화의 상영을 강제적으로 늘리기 위해서였다. 전쟁수행을 위한 정치적 선전 수단으로 활용하려고 한 것이다. 후자는 한국영화의 산업적 성장을 유도하기 위한 목적으로 시도되었다. 그러나 제도의 시행에도 불구하고 한국영화의 경쟁력 은 개선되지 않았으며 극심한 불황에 시달렸다. 정책의 보호로 시장을 독과점한 한국의 영화사들은 관객이 원하는 영화를 개 발하는 대신 외국영화의 수입을 통해 이익을 극대화하는데 만족하고 있었기 때문이다. 영화사 설립은 엄격하게 제한되었으며 외국영화 수입도 마찬가지였다. 영화사는 경쟁자가 없는 상태에서 특별한 보호를 받는 것에 만족하고 있었다. 관객들은 그런 한국영화를 외면했으며 외국영화를 더 좋아했다. 게다가 스크린 쿼터제는 극장측에 일방적인 의무를 부과함으로서 제작과 유통을 적대적인 관계로 대립하게 만들었다. 경쟁력이 미약한 한국영화를 의무적으로 상영해야 하는 극장 측은 정부의 정책에 지속적으로 반발했다. 스크린 쿼터제는 영화제작자, 극장 운영자, 관객 어느 누구도 만족시켜주지 못했다. 과도한 보호가 오히려 한국영화의 경쟁력을 약화시킨 것이다. The screen quota system is one of the most controversial issues in the Korean film industry. There are two different points of view regarding the system. Some say it is highly effective to protect and nurture Korean movies. However, others argue that it hurts the quality of the Korean movies. The number of days, for which Korean movies have to play on local screens, has been reduced to 73, starting on July 1st, 2006. Actually, it is 50 percent fewer than the previous year. In fact, Korea has implemented the screen quota. system two times. First, it was practiced from 1935 to 1945, during the Japanese colonial period. This was to regulate imported movies, especially American ones, as the Japanese government was to use movies for the political propaganda. In 1935, the number of foreign movies screened had to be less than three fourths of the total. And they gradually reduced the size by two thirds in 1936, and again by half in 1937. After the attack on Pearl Harbor when the Pacific War happened, Japan completely banned importing American movies in Korea. The reason why it regulated the imported foreign films is to increase the number of domestic movies, both Japanese and Korean. It was for making propaganda films for carrying the war. The second practice of the screen quota is from 1967 to the present year. It was designed to boom the Korean film industry. However, the competitive power of Korean films has not been improved in spite of the practice of the system. Moreover, the film industry has gone through the depression. Korean film agencies have occupied the Korean film market thanks to the protection by government. The founding of the film agencies has been strongly regulated. So has importing foreign movies. Under the special protection like this, Korean film agencies have been enjoying the monopoly. In the mean time, they have pursued income not by making quality movies but by importing foreign movies. As a result, cinema audiences tum away form Korean films and prefer foreign movies. Furthermore, the screen quota system hurts the relationship between film producers and distributors, imposing the duties only on theaters. In short, the screen quota system has satisfied neither film producers, theater runners, nor film goers. In other words, the excessive protection has weakened the competitive power of Korean film industry.
Writer Kim Yoo-Jung(1908?1937) is one of pioneers that who brought new morning of mordern writing to Korean Literature. He had left 31 works of short story and most of them are deserve high reputation of brillant wording, sentencing and description of the contemporarial life of under japanese colonial Korean people around 1930`s, especially rural in poverty. Among his 31 short stories, Eight were adaptated to Movies. Film makers were interested in his fame and popularity to audience. but result was not so well. Nowdays, Kim Yoo-Jung` works are renewaly illumanating as highly concentraed source of Korean culture and life.
Among those films made in the south and north Korea there are over 20 movies that were adapted from Korean classical literature Choonhyang. The first one was filmed in 1923, and the latest one was in 2000. Although, Choonhyang-jeon was re-made over 20 times, everytime, they aroused many interesting issues and made box-office hit. It is such a unique situation because in the case of fims with one particular subject Choonhyang-jeon remained steady popularity repeatedly. The main reason Choonhyang maintained such popularity is because it manifests ordinary Korean people's most common and hidden desire in the way of epic poetry. Specially, in the movies, in order to distinguish the traits of main characters, the class and occupations were exaggerated by using the dialect of a certain province in Korea. For example, the characters who are in the higher class use standard language regardless of their origination. On the other hand, the characters of third class use authentic dialect of the province. In other words, the dialects classifies the higher class characters such as noblety, and aristocrats (commonly the main characters rolls in the movies) and the third class characters such as servants, low class government employees, (the supporting rolls). Among many remakes of Choonhyang, the better use of dialect, the more box office hit it made. It shows a good example which showed a successful good use of dialects.
영화, 테마파크, 게임처럼 재미있는 공간이 될 수 있다는 것을 일깨워 주었다는 의미에서 상하이영화박물관은 미래의 박물관이 지향해야할 한 방향을 제시하고 있다. 본 논문은 당대 중국에서 이 박물관이 수행하는 사회적 기능을 분석하고 있다. 이 같은 목적을 위해서 상하이영화박물관의 시각적 정체성과 전시-내러티브를 분석하고 그것을 포스트-사회주의 중국이라는 역사 속에서 맥락화시켜 보았다. 그리하여 다음과 같은 결론에 이르고 있다. 첫째 상하이영화박물관의 시각적 정체성은 관람객을 영화의 세계로 초대하고, 전시-내러티브는 죽어있던 과거에 새로운 생명력을 부여하여 과거와 현재, 판타지와 현실, 그리고 역사와 산업을 부단히 소통시킴으로써 과거 상하이 영화의 영광을 약속된 미래로서 재연하려고 시도한다. 둘째 이와 같은 박물관의 시각적 정체성과 전시-내러티브는 사회주의의 깃발을 내리지 않으면서도 자본주의의 길을 가고 있는 포스트-사회주의 중국의 혼란을 극복하기 위하여 자본주의와 관련된 기억을 생성하는 ‘상상된 향수’를 주조하는 과정이다. 셋째, 금기시된 과거를 바라보는 동시에 감시하는, 파노라마-판옵티콘의 시각 기술을 통해 위험한 과거를 안전하게 소비함으로써 상하이영화박물관은 사회주의 시기의 인민을 포스트-사회주의 시기의 국민으로 재발명하는 사회적 기능을 수행하고 있다. Shanghai Film Museum is the most successive and advenced museum, which is mixed with film, theme park and game. In this context, it has the figure of future museum. In this paper, we try to identify the social function of Shanghai Film Museum in post-socialism China. For this project, we analayse the visual identity and display-narrative, and situate the textuality in the context of the post-socialism China. Consequently, In Shanghai Film Museum, the visual identity invites the audience to the the world of film. And display-narrative of this museum tries to recuperate the honor and glory of the Shnaghai film 1920~30s, through the linkage of the past and present, fantage and reality, and history and industry. But the visual identity and display-narrative of this museum suggest "the imagined nostalgia" and "panorama-panopticon" of visual technology which purpose to transform from the people to nation. And the social function of this museum display and look out the disquiet past of the Shanghai modern and cinema 1920~30s. That is the government policy and technology of the post-socialism China.
Motion pictures were first introduced in Korea in 1899. An American traveller, Elios Burton Holmes(1870-?) showed a motion picture in the palace to Emperor Kojong and personages of the royal court. At this time, only a few specially chosen people could see films. However, as popular interest grew, American businessmen Henry Collbran and H.R. Bostwick started charged public screenings. This was in June of 1903. Film production in Korea began in 1923. With this beginning, numerous enthusiastic cineastes appeared and participated in film production. Among them, Na Woon-Kyu(1902-1937) was a personality who attracted special attention. He started working in motion pictures as a actor in 1925 and broadened the scope of his zealous activities to include those of scriptwriter, director, and producer. During his lifetime, he acted in or directed 27 motion pictures. He was the first star to attract mass popularity, as well as a proficient director and a talented scriptwriter. Particularly, Arirang (1926), for which he wrote the script and in which he played the leading role, was the most successful Korean motion picture produced up to that time, and it also made Na Woon-Kyu a popular star for the masses. In 1945, Korea was liberated from Japanese colonial rule. However, Korea was divided into North and South, and from that time on maintained two different ideologies and systems. Naturally, the social roles of films were different, too. In South Korea, the role of mass entertainment was importantly brought into relief while in North Korea, the emphasis was put on the role of propaganda. Because North and South Korea maintained a politically and ideologically hostile confrontation, exchanges in all fields were limited in the extreme. Exchanges in the field of motion pictures were likewise strictly regulated. Nevertheless, both North and South Korea judge Na Woon-Kyu as a pioneer representative of the Korean motion picture world and as a personality who formed a creative realm of motion pictures. It is noteworthy that, while maintaining two different systems since liberation, with different political and cultural understandings, North and South Korea have Na Woon-Kyu in common. It should not be omitted that this is possible not only because Na Woon-Kyu's activities and success in motion pictures were especially important, but also because the period of his activities was limited to the Japanese colonial period. The period during which he was active in the motion picture industry between 1925 to 1937 was a time when the Japanese colonial rule was in place, but it can be said that it was not a period of forced political choices. At the time when Na Woon-Kyu was active, the Korean motion picture industry was in dire need of manpower, equipment, and capital, among other things, for the production of films, and it was faced with extreme difficulties due to the lack of cultural and artistic understanding, not to mention the loss of national power under Japanese colonial rule. Needless to say, it was impossible to survive even a day living as a cineaste in such circumstances without beliefs based on the premise of self-sacrifice, but at least ideological choices were not brought up as important issues. However, during the period after Japan started the Pacific War against the U.S. in the 1940s to the liberation in 1945, all artists and intellectuals were forced to participate in Japan's propaganda policy. Because of this, numerous artists and intellectuals such as Choi Nam-Sun and the famous novelist Lee Kwang-Su "changed coats" and committed the ineradicable error of aligning themselves with Japan's colonization policy. In addition, after liberation from Japanese colonial rule, ideological antagonism intensified when Korea was divided into North and South. They showed extreme criticism and hostility towards characters of different ideologies, and because of this numerous people became victims of ideology.<
This study focuses on the emergence of yonsekuk stage play mixed with projected moving image. These works played a significant role in the development of the Korean film industry, while also influencing the first Korean film productions. Korea's first commercialized box-office film was produced in 1923. This action film, entitled Kuk-kyung(The Border), was shown 24 years after film was first introduced into the country. The production of films in Korea provides an illustration of one manner in which modem and foreign influences became a part of Korean culture, after an initial period of assimilation and social scrutiny. Korea's lack of any film production business for 24 years implies that public acceptance of film had been difficult. However there was a lack of such necessary items as capital, technology, and manpower. Making of number of yonsekuk has changed this condition. The first yonsekuk, entitled Urijuk-guto(Faithful Revenge), appeared in 1919 and enjoyed a successful run until 1922. Yonsekuk are a fusion of film and live performance, involving the projection of a film onto screens during the course of a play. In terms of form, the movie screens which were inserted into the play can be considered an element of theater, because the plays only incorporated film to provide a 'moving background.' However, those screens that at first merely made up the background of the play began to develop theatrical elements of their own, thus bringing the plays closer to a 'cinematic format'. The importance of yonsekuk in Korea rests in their becoming the basis for film production. Film was first introduced to Korea in 1899 and screenings first became popular in June 1903. Korean society at that time was surprised and largely attracted by what film had to offer, yet in many ways Koreans were not prepared to produce films. The business of film production requires such equipment as cameras and film, and knowledge of such techniques as developing and editing. Experts who can oversee the process of filmmaking are also needed. However, Korean society could not meet these needs at the time, and therefore film production was out of the question. The audience, on the other hand, having experienced such wonder and interest, desired to watch films that were produced by Koreans. The number of people calling for Korean films steadily increased, and attempts to satisfy that desire took place in various ways. The production of yonsekuk took the initiative, meeting the needs of the masses as well as testing the potential for a filmmaking business in Korea on a trial basis. Yonsekuk, in some ways, cannot be considered responsible for the introduction of Korean film as they were just a part of theater. The cost of filming yonsekuk was not high, since they were short in length and required no actors. Technical problems were not of great consequence. Nonetheless they became a useful showcase to prepare for the business of filmmaking, enabling technicians to detect difficulties, and allowing entrepreneurs an opportunity to verify the potential for a filmmaking business.