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Objectives: The objective of this case report is to introduce the development process, structure, characteristics, and effectiveness of the web database (DB) system developed for the hypertension management program in the primary health care setting in the low-income urban areas of Peru. Methods: A Korean research team cooperated with a Peruvian IT startup company to develop a web DB system to improve the data management of the hypertension management program. The entire web application infrastructure was hosted using the Amazon Web Service. Two different web platforms were established for the user groups of health workers and researchers (program managers). Results: A total of 2,827 program participants were registered in the web DB system until December 2017. Health professionals can input the participant data while providing consultation to the program participants, and the data is accumulated in the web DB in real time. Input errors or data loss is prevented by setting restrictions in the data entry system. During the 4-year project period, 7,696 hours of working time and USD 39,536.48 for data management were saved as the result of web DB system utilization. Conclusions: The developed web DB system contributed to improve the health condition of the health program participants by providing necessary information to the health professionals at the right time. This case report could be a reference for other researcher to develop web databases for their own context, especially in developing countries.
Despite its potential significance for industrial utilization, any activities associated with the mining of manganese (Mn) nodules might have substantial impacts on benthic ecosystems. Because microorganisms respond quickly to changing environmental conditions, a study of microbial communities provides a relevant proxy to assess possible changes in benthic ecosystems associated with mining activities. We investigated fine-scale microbial community composition and diversity inside and on the surface of Mn nodules and in nearby deep-sea sediments in the Korea Deep Ocean Study (KODOS) area located in the Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone (CCFZ) of the northeast equatorial Pacific. Although microbial cell density was lower within nodules (3.21 × 106 cells g-1) than in sediment (2.14 × 108 cells g-1), nodules provided a unique habitat for microorganisms. Manganese-oxidizing bacteria including Hyphomicrobium and Aurantimonas in Alphaproteobacteria and Marinobacter in Gammaproteobacteria were abundant in nodules, which implied that these bacteria play a significant role in nodule formation. In contrast, Idiomarina in Gammaproteobacteria and Erythrobacter and Sulfitobacter in Alphaproteobacteria were abundant in sediments. Meanwhile, Thaumarchaeota, a phylum that consists of ammonia-oxidizing chemolithoautotrophs, were the predominant archaeal group both in nodules and sediment. Overall, microbial communities in Mn nodules were unique compared to those observed in sediments. Furthermore, the phylogenetic composition of microorganisms in the KODOS area was distinguishable from that in the nodule provinces claimed by China and Germany in the CCFZ and nodule fields in the central South Pacific Gyre, respectively.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the current status in elementary school and ESD, identifies the barriers faced by elementary school teachers in doing ESD. The survey was carried out by teachers who were selected to work at the elementary school in Seoul. The questionnaire which has been developed from based on the advanced research was modified and used to understand the current status and the barriers of ESD. To identify the characteristics of object, descriptive statistics were calculated. The Excel and i-STATistics program were used to analyze the results. The results of the study are as follows: First, teachers facing barriers in ESD rather than teachers not facing barriers are inclined to have more education topics of 'biodiversity' and 'food'. But, most ESD topics that are used in elementary school class are composed of the environmental domain such as 'climate change', 'energy', 'biodiversity', 'water use'. So, it needs further development of a well-balanced topic among environment, economy and society domain. Second, the teachers facing barriers of ESD rather than teachers not facing barriers need to support the educational materials with diverse and high quality on the internet, because they tend to obtain educational materials through the mass media than others. Third, most teachers need ‘Expanded awareness of ESD' and ‘Expansion of teaching materials on ESD‘ to support the activation of ESD. Furthermore, it is expected to activate ESD of elementary school if ESD is included in curriculum after expanding the awareness and forming an educational consensus. In conclusion, it is necessary to need the awareness cultivation and professionalism of elementary teachers on ESD to activate ESD in elementary school, through the development of materials on ESD, expansion of more training program for teachers. 본 연구는 초등학교 교사를 대상으로 지속가능발전교육의 운영현황과 교육 시 교사가 경험하는 장애요인에 대해 알아봄으로써 초등학교에서 지속가능발전교육의 활성화 방안에 대한 시사점을 도출하고자 하였다. 이를 위해 서울시 소재 초등학교 교사 115명의 대상으로 설문조사를 진행하였다. 선행연구를 기초로 개발된 교육현황과 장애요인을 알아보는 설문지를 본 연구의 목적에맞게 수정하여, 지속가능발전교육 현황을 알아보고, 지속가능발전교육 실천에 있어 교사가 경험하는 장애요인을 분석하였으며, 설문지 결과 분석은 엑셀과 i-STATistics 통계 프로그램을 사용하였다. 본 연구를 통하여 나타난 초등학교 지속가능발전교육 운영현황과 교사가 경험하는 장애요인에 대한 결과는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 지속가능발전교육에 장애를 느끼는 교사는 장애를 느끼지 않는 교사에 비하여 수업시간에 ‘생물다양성‘과 ‘먹을거리‘ 주제에 있어 통계적으로 유의한 차이를 보였다. 그러나 지속가능발전교육을 실시할 때, 대부분의 교사들은 ‘기후변화', ‘에너지', ‘생물다양성', ‘물의 이용'과 같은 환경 영역의 주제를 선택하는 것으로 볼 때, 환경, 사회 및 경제 영역에 대한 균형성을 가진 주제를 발굴하고, 그에 맞는 다양한 교재 및 수업자료를 개발이 요구된다. 둘째, 지속가능발전교육에 장애를 느끼는 교사는 그렇지 않은 교사보다 대중매체를 통해 교육자료를 수집하는 경향이 있으므로 인터넷에서 다양하고 질 높은 교육 자료를 얻을 수 있도록 지원이 필요하다. 셋째, 지속가능발전교육 강화를 위한 필요 요소에는 ‘지속가능발전교육에 대한 인식확대'와 ‘교재 및 수업자료 확충‘이 필요한 것으로 나타났는데, 지속가능발전교육에 대한 인식이 확대되어공감대가 형성되고 지속가능발전교육에 대한 수업 자료들이 확충되는 등 여건이 조성될 때 초등학교 지속가능발전교육이 활성화될 수 있을 것으로 기대된다. 본 연구 결과, 초등학교에서 지속가능발전교육이 활성화되도록 하기위해서는 지속가능발전교육에 대한 교사들의 인식과 전문성 함양이 필요하며, 이에 따라 자료개발이나 연수 기회의 확대와 같은 노력이 요구되는 것으로 보인다.
This study was aimed to determine preoperative diagnostic factors of uterine sarcoma. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 34 patients with uterine sarcoma, between 2003 and 2011. The control group was selected by 1:3 matching for age, among all patients who underwent hysterectomy for the treatment of uterine myoma over the same period. The size of lesion measured by sonography was significantly larger in sarcoma group (50.0% vs. 23.5%, p=0.004), although the number of lesions was not different between the two groups (p=0.157). Also, the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) was significantly greater in sarcoma group (3.7 ± 4.87 vs. 1.9 ± 1.13, p=0.001). In addition, patients with low body mass index (BMI ≤ 20) were more frequently observed in sarcoma group (20.6% vs. 5.0%, p=0.006). Multivariate analysis revealed that higher NLR (> 2.1), larger diameter of the lesion (> 8.0 cm), and lower BMI (≤ 20) were independent diagnostic factors of uterine sarcoma (p=0.012, 0.026, and 0.034, respectively). Our findings suggest that the NLR, size of lesion, and BMI can be useful in the differential diagnosis of uterine sarcoma, preoperatively.
This study was aimed to evaluate the clinical impact of nodal yield on recurrence in patients with node negative, early stage cervical cancer. Retrospective chart review was performed for 93 women with early stage (clinical stage 1A2 to 1B1) cervical cancer, who underwent radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy between 2003 and 2011. According to the cut-off value (nodal yield > 27) which has been determined by the receiver operating characteristic curve, patients were divided into group A (nodal yield ≤ 27) and group B (nodal yield > 27). Patients in group B were associated with recurrence (p=0.058). Also, the disease-free survival was poor in group B, although it failed to show significance (87.1 ± 3.67 months vs. 67.9 ± 4.42 months, p=0.210). Clinicopathologic characteristics in both groups were not different, except for a larger tumor size of group B (p=0.044). Cox`s regression analysis revealed that a higher amount of nodal yield (p=0.049, 95% CI 0.050-0.997) and deep stromal invasion (p=0.045, 95% CI 0.048-0.963) were poor prognostic factors. Our findings show that an excessive pelvic lymphadenectomy had no benefit in reference to disease recurrence and survival.