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      • Role of Prostaglandin E in Modulating Immune Response in Lymph Nodes Draining the Uterus during the Implantation Period in Rats

        조혜성,유경자,김창미,Cho, Hye-Seong,Ryu, Kyung-Za,Kim, Chang-Mee The Korean Society of Pharmacology 1989 대한약리학잡지 Vol.25 No.1

        본 교실의 연구결과에 의하면 토끼와 흰쥐에서 수정란 착상시기에 peripheral lymphocyte와 thymocyte의 활성도가 저하될 뿐만 아니라 착상기간중 생성되는 prostaglandin E(PGE)의 생리적인 농도로도 peripheral lymphocyte와 thymocyte의 활성도가 억제되었다. 그러므로 본 연구에서는 흰쥐의 착상시기에 전신적인 면역기능 뿐만 아니라 국소적으로 DLN lymphocyte의 활성도가 억제되는지를 관찰하고 PGE가 어떠한 기전으로 모체의 면역기능을 억제하는가를 관찰하여 다음과 같은 결과를 얻었다. 1. 흰쥐의 착상시기에 DLN lymphocyte의 활성도가 임신하기 않은 흰쥐의 DLN lymphocyte에 비하여 통계적으로 유의하지는 않으나 저하되었으며 이러한 저하현상은 100% 흰쥐에서 관찰되었다. 2. 착상시기의 DLN lymphocyte에 prostaglandin 합성억제제인 indomethacin(ID)를 처리하면 DLN lymphocyte의 활성도가 통계적으로 유의하게 증가하였다. 그러나 임신하지 않은 흰쥐의 DLN lymphocyte의 활성도는 증가되어 있으나 $PGE_2$를 전처리하면 DLN lymphocyte의 활성도가 유의하게 억제되며 $PGE_2$를 전처치한 후 ID를 처리하면 DLN lymphocyte의 활성도가 $PGE_2$로 전처치하지 않고 ID를 처리한 경우에 비하여 유의하게 증가하였다. 그러나 $PGE_2$ 대신estradiol, progesterone 및 hCG를 전처치하였을 경우에는 ID 처리로 DLN lymphocyte의 활성도가 증가하지 않았다. 3. 임신하지 많은 흰쥐의 DLN lymphocyte에 $PGE_2$를 전처리하면 PGE-producing cell이 유도되어 PGE 생성이 증가하는지를 확인하기 위하여 $PGE_2$를 전처리하고 Con A를 처리한 후 배양액의 PGE를 정량한 결과 PGE를 전처리하지 않은 DLN lymphocyte에 비하여 유의하게 PGE 생성이 증가하였다. 이상의 결과로 보아 흰쥐의 착상시기에는 모체의 DLN lymphocyte의 활성도가 저하되며, 특히 PCE는 PGE-producing cell을 유도함으로써 착상시기의 모체의 면역기능에 영향을 주는 것으로 생각된다. In our previous studies, it was found that activities of maternal peripheral lymphocytes and thymocytes were depressed during the implantation period in rats and rabbits. This study was therefore attempted to clarify further this immunosuppression locally by determining lymphocyte response in lymph nodes draining the uterus (DLN) and to elucidate the mechanism by which prostaglandin E (PGE) modulates immune response during the implantation process in rats. As compared with non-pregnant rats, the response of DLN lymphocytes to concanavalin A (Con A) was depressed during the implantation period in 100% of rats studied. The activity of DLN lymphocytes depressed on day 8 of pregnancy was, however, restored partially by the treatment of indomethacin (ID), indicating that prostaglandin (PG) might be one of factors responsible for immunomodulation during the process of implantation. DLN lymphocyte activity in non-pregnant rats was suppressed if PGE was pre-treated prior to Con A and this suppression was partially restored by the treatment of ID. Furthermore, DLN lymphocytes pre-treated with PGE produced PGE in vitro and this PGE production was blocked by the treatment of ID, suggesting that PGE induced PGE-producing cells. However, the pretreatment of estradiol, progesterone, and hCG at doses enough to suppress lymphocyte activity was ineffective in inducing PGE-producing cells. From these results, it is suggested that PGE induces PGE-producing suppressor cells, thereby increasing PGE concentration and PGE in turn depresses maternal local immune response as well as systemic immune response during the implantation period in rats.

      • Depression of Maternal Immune Response during the Period of Implantation in Rabbits

        조혜성,유경자,홍사석,Cho, Hye-Seong,Ryu, Kyung-Za,Hong, Sa-Suk The Korean Society of Pharmacology 1987 대한약리학잡지 Vol.23 No.2

        본 실험에서는 가토에서 배반포가 자궁내막에 착상할 때, 모체의 면역기능의 변화를 알아보고, 착상시 관여하는 호르몬과 모체의 면역기능과의 연관성을 관찰하여 다음과 같은 결과를 얻었다. 1. 임신 7일째 가토의 말초혈관 림프구에 concanavalin A를 처리하면, 임신하지 않은 가토의 림프구보다 훨씬 낮은 자극지수를 나타냄으로써 면역억제 현상이 나타나는 것을 관찰할 수 있었다. 2. 임신 7일 때의 혈청 progesterone농도인 11.56 ng/ml을 임신하지 않는 가토의 말초혈관 림프구에 처리하면, 억제현상을 나타내지 않았으나, Progesterone의 농도가 1000 ng/ml 이상에서는 농도에 비례하여 림프구의 활성도가 감소되었다. 3. 4.5 ng/ml${\sim}$4,500 ng/ml의 $PGF_{2{\alpha}}$는 concanavalin A처리시 림프구의 활성도에 별다른 영향을 끼치지 않았으나, PGE는 4.5 ng/ml${\sim}$4,500 ng/ml에서 농도에 비례하여 림프구의 활성도를 유의하게 감소시켰다. 그러나 임신 제 8일째의 말초혈관 림프구에 prostaglandin 합성 억제제인 indomethacin 0.1 또는 $1\;{\mu}g/ml$을 처리하면 억제되었던 림프구 활성도가 각각28%, 23% 증가되었다. 이상의 결과로 보아 토끼의 착상기간중 모체의 면역기능이 저하되며 PGE가 착상기간중 면역기능을 저하시키는 요소중 하나인 것으로 생각된다. We determined the maternal peripheral lymphocyte response to mitogen during the period of implantation and evaluated the effects of hormones, which are known to be involved in the process of implantation, on the lymphocyte activity in rabbits. As compared with peripheral lymphocyte activity in non-pregnant rabbits, lymphocyte activity was significantly depressed on days 6, 7 and 9 of pregnancy. Although concentrations of serum progesterone were gradually increased during the implantation period, progesterone did not inhibit lymphocyte activity at physiological concentration. Serum $PGF_{2{\alpha}}$ was significantly increased on day 7 while PGE was slightly increased. $PGF_{2{\alpha}}$ did not modify lymphocyte activity even with greater concentrations than physiological level. However, lymphocyte activity was significantly inhibited by PGE even with physiological doses. The treatment of indomethacin at doses of 0.1 or $1.0\;{\mu}g/ml$ tended to enhance lymphocyte response, which was depressed on day 8 of pregnancy, 28% or 23% respectively. Although in non-pregnant rabbit, enhancement of lymphocyte response was also shown after the treatment of indomethacin, this enhancement was much less than that in pregnant rabbits. These results strongly suggest that maternal immune response was depressed during the process of implantation and PGE might be one of factors for immunomodulation during this period.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재
      • 마이크로 채널 내에서 세포의 크기 및 위치에 따른 전단응력의 해석

        조혜성(Hye-Sung Cho),이성훈(Sung-Hoon Lee),박민철(Min-Cheol Park),권건우(Keon-Woo Kwon),서갑양(Kahp-Yang Suh) 대한기계학회 2007 대한기계학회 춘추학술대회 Vol.2007 No.10

        We present simple functions of shear stress on an adherent cell trapped within narrow microchannel. There are many cell traps or docking methods in micro fluidic applications, but we classify the cell docking methods into three types by trapped cell position in microchannel and perform several computational fluid dynamics simulations. Based upon the cell radius R, channel height H, channel length L, we define the dimensionless geometric factor (G.F) as maximum shear stress over wall shear stress(τ<SUB>max</SUB> /τ<SUB>wall</SUB>). In here, the wall shear stress τ<SUB>wall</SUB> and the maximum shear stress τ<SUB>max</SUB> are linearly proportional to inlet average velocity. So G.F is not dependent on inlet average velocity. Finally we can calculate the maximum shear stress very simply as a function of inlet velocity and G.F. This study shows that the maximum shear stress on a cell can be decreased by 10?¹ using well-shape-geometry docking. All analysis performed by COMSOL Multiphysics 3.3 A.

      • 얇은 잔존층을 갖는 고분자 나노 구조물의 제작과 응용

        조혜성(Hye-Sung Cho),김홍남(Hong-Nam Kim),김재관(Jae-Kwan Kim),서갑양(Kahp-Yang Suh) 대한기계학회 2009 대한기계학회 춘추학술대회 Vol.2009 No.5

        Recently, nanoimprint lithography method has been used to fabricate polymer nanostructures on various substrates such as Si wafer, metal-layer, organic or inorganic materials. Accordingly, the extensive efforts have been made to obtain small polymer nanostructures by using special mold, which having much small size of pattern. Meanwhile, the polymeric residual layer that remains under the nanostructures after process of nanoimprint, is not thin compared with the height of nanostructures. Frequently, polymeric nanostructure is used as barrier in etching process, additional process will be needed to remove the remained residual layer. In this research, we demonstrate very thin residual polymeric layer under nanostructures that leads to direct etching of substrate.

      • KCI등재

        NONFINALITY 제약의 재고

        조혜성 ( Hye Sung Cho ) 21세기영어영문학회 2015 영어영문학21 Vol.28 No.4

        The goal of this paper is to reexamine the proper applications of NONFINALITY constraints, in particular, NONFINALITY(´σ) constraint and NONFINALITY (FT) constraint within Optimality Theory (OT). To properly describe the prosodic status of final syllables in languages with trochaic systems like Latin and English, we propose that the foot-leveled NONFINALITY(FT) constraint be replaced with a new NONFINALITY(σweak-in-foot) constraint regulating the foot membership of word-final syllables. Although NONFINALITY(FT) constraint is for antepenultimate stress patterns in more than 3-syllabled words, it fails to account for the stress patterns of 2-syllabled words in size because they are undersized for the constraint application. With the ranked NONFINALITY(´σ ) constraint and NONFINALITY(σweak-in-foot) constraint interaction, we can capture and describe both of the avoided prosodic structures, word-final stressed syllables and weak-footed syllables word-finally. NONFINALITY(FT) constraint still survives to reduplicate the effects of Foot Extrametricality within constraint-based approaches.

      • KCI등재

        Secondary stress in Modern Greek

        조혜성(Hye-Sung Cho) 한국음운론학회 2005 음성·음운·형태론 연구 Vol.11 No.3

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 9시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        This paper reexamines secondary stress in Modern Greek. Debates about secondary stress are as follows: (a) the relative prominence of two stresses found in the cliticized words; (b) the presence and role of rhythmic secondary stress. In this paper, it is shown that the added stress, in the process of cliticization, rather than the original lexical stress, is the most prominent because the former satisfies primary-specific constraints, EndRule-R, and *Final-Long-Lapse. Also, it is demonstrated that the presence of rhythmic stress in the phrase-level is phonologically justified based on vowel reduction/elision phenomena. A cophonology approach proposed by Anttila (2002) is employed here to handle two different sets of co-existing stress patterns, that is, those of words and cliticized words. Phrasal rhythmic stress is accounted for by interaction between *Clash constraint and *Lapse constraints, along with basic stress assignment principles. Significantly, there is a split in anti-lapse constraints into *Lapse, *Final-Long-Lapse, and *Lapse_(Left). Of greater importance is to avoid lapse within final three syllables and lapse to the left of a stronger stress than avoid just adjacent unstressed syllables in Modern Greek.

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