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The purpose of this study was to establish an analytical framework and quantitative methodologies to analyze ‘the cognitive effects of web map use’ and to empirically test it. This experimental design was established based on the literature about spatial cognition. Accuracy, reaction time, and confidence within each participant were compared to measure the cognitive effects of web map use for wayfinding. Geometric accuracy of the cognitive maps was estimated and calculated based on the bidimensional regression. The experimental results showed that characteristics of map users and repetition of map use rather than types of map representation did significantly affect accuracy and reaction time of spatial cognition by using web maps. And confidence appeared to be low when the participants referred to both 2D and 3D maps for wayfinding tasks on the web maps. Understanding spatial cognition of web map users, which was suggested in the study, will help cartographers make more effectively-communicated maps. 이 연구는 공간인지 이론을 기반으로 하여 최근에 급격히 발달하고 있는 길찾기 목적의 웹지도 효과를 측정하기 위한 기본 개념과 평가틀을 설정하고 정량적 분석방법을 제안하는 것을 목적으로 한다. 이를 위해 특정 지도사용상황에서 길찾기 과제를 수행한 후 지도사용으로 얼마나 효과적으로 공간인지가 이루어졌는지를 측정하는 ‘인지적 지도사용효과’의 개념과 정확성, 신속성, 자신감의 분석항목을 기반으로 하는 평가틀을 제안하였다. 제안한 평가틀을 실증적으로 검증하기 위해 실험조사를 실시하고, 실험 결과물인 인지지도를 2차원 회귀분석 방법을 적용하여 실험결과를 계량화하였다. 분석결과, 공간을 정확하게 인식하거나 빠르게 회상하는 데에는 지도표현방법보다 사용자의 특성과 반복적인 지도사용 등의 요소가 영향을 미치며, 2차원 지도와 3차원 지도를 동시에 참조하는 경우 공간인지에 대한 자신감이 낮은 것으로 나타났다. 이 연구결과는 효과적일 것이라고 예상되는 새로운 지도표현방법이 실제로 그렇지 않거나, 사용자마다 효과적이라고 판단하는 지도표현방법이 다른 이유에 대한 근거를 제공해 준다.
von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is an autosomal dominant inherited tumor syndrome characterized by the development of tumors in the eye, brain, spinal cord, inner ear, adrenal gland, pancreas, kidney, and epididymis, associated with germline mutations in the VHL gene. We used sequentially sequencing method and multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analysis and detected germline mutations in the VHL in 15/15 (100%) of VHL patients fulfilling the clinical criteria. Of the 15 distinct mutations detected, large deletions were detected in 5/15 (33.3%) patients, including 4/15 (26.7%) partial deletions and 1/15 (6.6%) deletion of the entire VHL gene by MLPA and the remainder were point mutations detected by sequencing method, of which five mutations were novel. Using MLPA analysis, we detected large deletions including both partial deletions and complete gene deletion, which has not been reported in Korean VHL patients. In conclusion, sequential application of sequencing method and MLPA analysis might make possible to identify germline mutations in most patients with VHL.
In this study, by using the Water footprint technique, the water consumption by washing machines, which holds higher ranks in using water than any other electric appliances, was analyzed during their life cycle. The life cycle is defined as raw materials production step, manufacturing step, and using step. In raw materials production step, Input materials were researched by using LCI DB(Life Cycle Inventory Database) and the water consumption was calculated with consideration of approximately 65% Input materials which were based weight. In manufacturing step, the water consumption was calculated by the amount of energy used in assembly factories and components subcontractors and emission factor of energy. In using step, referring to guidelines on carbon footprint labeling, the life cycle is applied as 5 years for a washing machine and 218 cycles for annual bounds of usage. The water and power consumption for operating was calculated by referring to posted materials on the manufacture’s websites. The water consumption by nation unit was calculated with the result of water consumption by a unit of washing machine. As a result, it shows that water consumption per life cycle s 110,105 kg/unit. The water consumption of each step is 90,495 kg/unit for using, 18,603 kg for raw materials production and 1,006 kg/unit for manufacturing, which apparently shows that the using step consume the most water resource. The water consumption by nation unit is 371,269,584tons in total based on 2006, 83,385,649 tons in both steps of raw material production and manufacturing, and 287,883,935 tons in using step.
Bacillus subtilis chungkookjang produces a new biofunctional polymer, poly y-glutamic acid (γ-PGA). γ-PGA consists of D and/or L-glutamate and its ratio is different depending microorganisms and culturing environrrents, Here we are reporting the new enzymatic method to determine the stereochemistry of D-glutamic acid composition ratio in γ-PGA D-amino acid aminotransferase (D-AAT) can catalyzes transamination between D-amino acids and a-keto acids. Thus the amount of D-glutamate in γ-PGA can be determined by the assaying the amount of produced D-alanine followed by the reaction of D-AAT in the presence of pyruvic acid. D-glutamate and D-alanine can be separated by thin layer chromatography (TLC) in NH₄0H : ethanol (2:8, v/v) solvent system D-alanine can be visualized by ninhydrin (0.5% in 75% ethanol) spraying and quantitated by the measurement the absorbance of TLC spot followed by the elution with 0.005% copper sulfate in 75% ethanol at EOOnm. Partially purified D-AAT is good enough to carry out this new and very convenient method to determine the amount of D-glutamic acid in γ-PGA.
Background and Objectives:The purpose of this study was to examine whether the different etiologies of intrauterinegrowth restriction (IUGR) produce different autonomic nervous modulation and instability of the fetalheart rate (FHR) regulation. Subjects and Methods:We investigated the frequency-domain variability andinstability in the FHR from 150 uneventful pregnancies (control group), 47 pregnancies with idiopathic IUGR(iIUGR group) and 48 with IUGR associated with severe pre-eclampsia of the mother (PEIUGR group). TheFHR was analyzed for the power spectrum and very short-term intermittency (C1α), which are used to quantifythe instability in FHR. Results:Compared to the control group, the iIUGR group showed significantly increasedlow- and high-frequency powers (LFP and HFP, respectively). In contrast, the PEIUGR group showed significantlydecreased LFP and LFP/HFP ratio, but significantly increased C1α compared to the control and iIUGRgroups. Conclusion:The IUGR of an idiopathic cause produces abnormally increased the autonomic modulationof the FHR. In contrast, the IUGR due to pre-eclampsia abnormally decreased the autonomic modulation in thelow-frequency range, but increased the instability of the fetal heart rate regulation. 배경 및 목적:특발성 IUGR 그룹과 고혈압과 연관된 IUGR 그룹 간의FHR의 자율신경조율과 FHR 조절의 불안정성에서의 차이를 알아보고자 하였다.방 법:재태기간 31주에서 42주까지의 건강한 태아 150명을 대조군(control group)으로 포함하여 특발성 IUGR 태아 47명, 자간전증과 연관된 IUGR 태아 48명을 대상으로 하여조사하였다. FHR의 파워스펙트럼분석으로 자율신경조율을그리고 FHR의 초단기 간헐성(C1α)으로 불안정성을 각각 정량화하였다.결 과:대조군에 비해 iIUGR군은 LFP와 HFP는 유의하게 증가 되어있었으나 C1α와 LFP/HFP에서는 유의한 차이를 보이지 않았다. 대조군에 대한 PEIUGR 그룹에서의 C1α 증가는 대조군에 대한 iIUGR group에서의 C1α 증가보다 유의하게높게 나타났다. PEIUGR군은 대조군에 비해 LFP와 LFP/HFP에서 유의한 감소를 보였으며 C1α은 의미 있게 증가되어있었다 결 론:IUGR의 다른 원인에 따라 자궁내 심장자율신경조율과 심박수조절의 불안정성은 달라진다. 즉 특발성인 경우는 자율신경조율의 비정상적으로 항진되나 전자간증에 의한 경우는 저주파영역의 자율신경조율은 감소하고 불안전성은 비정상 적으로 증가한다.
Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine whether school-aged children with Kawasaki disease(KD) have an increased risk for early atherosclerosis. Methods: The study included 98 children. The children were divided into the following groups: groupA (n=19), KD with coronary arterial lesions that persisted or regressed; group B (n=49), KD withoutcoronary arterial lesions; and group C (n=30), healthy children. Anthropometric variables and thelevels of biochemical markers, including total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C),low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein A, apolipoprotein B, homocysteine, highsensitivityC-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and brachial artery stiffness using pulse wave velocity werecompared among the three groups. Results: There were no significant differences in blood pressure and body index among the threegroups. Additionally, there was no sex-specific difference. Moreover, the levels of triglyceride, HDL-C,apolipoprotein A, and hs-CRP did not differ among the three groups. However, the levels of totalcholesterol (P =0.018), LDL-C (P =0.0003), and apolipoprotein B (P =0.029) were significantly higherin group A than in group C. Further, the level of homocysteine and the aortic pulse wave velocity weresignificantly higher in groups A and B than in group C (P =0.0001). Conclusion: School-aged children after KD have high lipid profiles and arterial stiffness indicating anincreased risk for early atherosclerosis.