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Meningioma is a common neoplasm of the central nervous system; however, primary extracranial meningioma of the paranasal sinus, especially the maxillary sinus, is rare. We report a case of primary extracranial meningioma (fibrous type) of the maxillary sinus and present a literature review of the imaging features that correlate with fibrous meningioma.
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Objectives The length ratio of the second to the fourth finger (2D:4D) is a known indirect measure of prenatal sex hormone exposure. Sex hormones influence brain development through structural and epigenetic modifications of neurons. We examined the 2D:4D in schizophrenia patients and normal controls to investigate the relationship between prenatal sex hormone exposure and the genesis of schizophrenia. Methods The participants were 187 schizophrenia patients (94 male, 93 female) and 190 normal controls (95 male, 95 female). We determined handedness via the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory and age of onset of schizophrenia via clinical records or directly questioning the patients. We measure digit length using vernier caliper and performed T-tests, ANOVA, and ANCOVA to analyze the data. Results There were no significant 2D:4D differences between schizophrenic participants and normal controls. Also, there was no significant correlation between the 2D:4D and the age of onset of schizophrenia. Among the controls, the 2D:4D was significantly higher (more “feminized”) in females than in males (F=4.937, p=.027). But, there were no significant 2D:4D sex differences among the schizophrenia patients (F=3.429, p=.066). Conclusion These results imply that sex hormone changes during fetal development might play some role in the development of schizophrenia
In this study, I aimed to reconsider the concept of the lesson in the Korean allegorical literature, Wooun(寓言). The reason why Wooun had been in a controversy whether that was novel or not is the coexistence of fictionality and lesson. Until now, the lesson were misunderstood to interrupt in narrative fiction, because the lesson and narrative fiction have been regarded as the incompatible things with each other. The concept of 'fiction', in general, means that a short story or novel in which the attempt is not to suspend the reader's disbelief in the character and plot, but to take advantage that the reader can never completely forget that she is reading about something that did not happen. This concept of fiction has been rooted in 'Mimesis', the literary process of attempting to create a convincing and uninterrupted illusion of real life. But if the concept, constructed in the foundation of Western thought, is regarded as universal and solitary one, then so many narratives which were based on the Korean classical thought including Confucianism can't be the fiction, neither even literature. While the mimetic fiction tries to build up another 'independent universe' which is unreal but seems to be real, the allegorical texts try to be connection with the truth, Tao(道). In this study, I suggested that the lesson in allegorical literature should be understood in the standpoint of relation with the tradition of East Asian culture, so called 'Correlative Thinking'.
In general, based on traffic data in a ideal traffic condition, BPR cost function is used to a variety of transportation policies. However, Some researchers have reported that BRP cost function is not appropriate for analyzing traffic pattern as well as forecasting future demand. (Spiess,1989 ; Singh, 1999) Therefore, in this paper to solve this problem, a methodology based on data through Micro traffic Simulator Based (MSB) is developed. As a result, following outputs are obtained ; (1) presenting a methodology to develop a travel cost function through VISSIM in order to assess transportation policies and (2) developing BRP cost function and MSB cost function from data analysis through VISSIM and verifying availability of MSB function by comparative analysis.
공자의 春秋에서 유래된 ‘春秋筆法’은 역사서를 읽는 독자로 하여금, 특정한 역사적 사건이나 인물에 대해 객관적으로 보이는 기록 속에서 일정한 평가를 내리도록 유도하는 역사 기술 방식이다. 이와 같은 춘추필법은 소통 과정에서 일정한 ‘지식’으로서의 전고가 요구된다는 점에서 ‘자격 있는 독자’ 개념을 상정할 수 있는 작법이자 독법이다. 본고에서는 이와 같은 춘추필법이 단순히 역사 기술 방식에 그치지 않고, 심성가전과 같은 허구적 서사 형성의 주요한 원천 중 하나라고 보았다. 이러한 가정을 입증하기 위하여, 춘추와의 관련성이 강하게 드러나는 천군본기의 서사 구성 방식을 살폈다. 천군본기는 본문 기사만으로는 서사로 구성되기 어렵다. 그러나 관련 사실들이 기록된 논평을 함께 읽으면서 적극적인 맥락화를 시도할 때, 서사로 구성된다. 여기서 심성가전이 취하고 있는 역사서의 체재야말로 이와 같은 서사화 방식을 가장 효과적으로 펼칠 수 있는 수단임을 지적했다. 또한 이러한 서사 구성 방식이 유가적 역사 담론과 관련된 것임을 지적하면서, ‘편철성’ 문제를 새롭게 조망하였다. In this study, I inquired into the narrative constitution of Cheon- gun-bon-gi(天君本紀), a fictional history of the kingdom governed by the king as personalized heart-and-mind(心), focussing on the correlation with the Chun-chu-pil-bup(春秋筆法: the descriptive style and principal of the Spring and Autumn Annals). Originated from the descriptive and interpretative way of the Spring and Autumn Annals(春秋) written by Confucius, the Chun-chu-pil-bup makes a reader take a view of moral evaluation about a certain person, happening, country, etc. It is natural that the communication of the texts described by the Chun-chu-pil-bup needs a 'qualified reader' who already possesses knowledge assumed by the texts and applies it to contextualize them. The comments, generally added to the main records of each year and so excluded from the narrative, play an important roles in the narrative constitution of Cheon-gun-bon-gi. A 'qualified reader' have to be able to use the pre-texts which have been authorized as canon for the contextualization and narrativitization of the text. The historiographic formation of Cheon-gun-bon-gi, I think, must be the effective matter of working out as the narrative fiction.
本稿는 殊異傳에 실려 있었다고 추정되는 原-텍스트를 각기 다른 방식으로 變改하여 수록한 <金現感虎>와 <虎願>의 두 텍스트의 差異를 정밀하게 分析하고자 하였다. <金現感虎>에서 金現의 이야기와 申屠澄의 이야기는 각각 異物과의 感應에 成功한 이야기와 失敗한 이야기로 구분될 수 있으며, 後者는 前者를 强調하기 위한 역할을 하고 있다. 결국 <金現感虎>는 金現이나 申屠澄이라는 구체적인 인물의 이야기에 관심이 있는 것이 아니라, 그 인물들과 異物 혹은 부처사이의 感應에 초점이 맞추어진 텍스트이다. 이러한 관점에서 제목 ‘金現感虎’는 ‘金現이 호랑이와 感應하다’의 意味로 파악되며, <虎願>과 비교할 때 생략된 부분은 敍事 내에서 여인의 죽음에 대한 內的 必然性을 生成하는데 필수적인 부분이었다. 즉 ‘虎願’은 超越的 存在의 主宰에 의한 異物과의 感應이 전혀 문제되지 않으며, ‘호랑이의 所願’이라는 내용을 摘示하는 제목이라고 보았다.
Purpose: Donor site seroma is the most common complication of extended latissimus dorsi flap for breast reconstruction. One of preventive treatments is to use the fibrin sealant in donor site before closure. Experimentally, it has been used successfully in the prevention of latissimus donor site seroma, but its clinical efficacy and results were very controversial. Thus, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical efficacy and to determine the optimal dose of fibrin sealant. Methods: A retrospective study was done of patients operated under same surgical conditions by one operator with variable doses of fibrin sealant. The study group consisted of 60 consecutive patients who underwent breast reconstruction with extended latissimus flap reconstructions from January 2005 to December 2006. Patients were divided into 4 group by applied fibrin sealant amount(group 1=0mL, group 2=1mL, group 3=2mL, group 4=4mL). Retrospective data were obtained from total postoperative drainage amount, time from surgery to drain removal, and incidence and quantity of seroma formation in matched patients group.Results: Total drainage amount decreased relative to the amount of fibrin sealant. The seroma formation rate of 30% in the study group 4 was significantly less than group 1 rate of 71%(p<0.05). It was an improvement over the rates of as much as 79% described previously in the literature. Also, time from surgery to drain removal was shortened significantly in group 4 patients (p<0.05).Conclusion: The use of fibrin sealant in the extended latissimus dorsi flap donor site appears effective in preventing seroma. However, important factors to obtain lower seroma formation rates are proper techniques and proper amounts such as the authors suggested amount: 0.01mL/cm2 with spray type fibrin sealant.
This paper proposes a method to adjust the turn ratio of a transformer for the high-efficiency operation of an LLC converter with a wide input range in a wired/wireless integrated charging system for electric vehicles. The characteristics of the inductive power transfer converter in the integrated charging system are analyzed to design the LLC converter, and the DC-link voltage range is derived. The aspect of voltage gain following each parameter of the LLC converter is analyzed, and the resonant network and transformer are designed. Based on the designed parameters, the feasibility of the design and control method is verified by implementing the operation of the LLC converter according to the DC-link and battery voltages.