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Radioiodide uptake in thyroid follicular epithelial cells, mediated by a plasma membrane transporter, sodium iodide symporter (NIS), provides a first step mechanism for thyroid cancer detection by radioiodide injection and effective radioiodide treatment for patients with invasive, recurrent, and/or metastatic thyroid cancers after total thyroidectomy. NIS gene transfer to tumor cells may significantly and specifically enhance internal radioactive accumulation of tumors following radioiodide administration, and result in better tumor control. NIS gene transfers have been successfully performed in a variety of tumor animal models by either plasmid-mediated transfection or virus (adenovirus or retrovirus)-mediated gene delivery. These animal models include nude mice xenografted with human melanoma, glioma, breast cancer or prostate cancer, rats with subcutaneous thyroid tumor implantation, as well as the rat intracranial glioma model. In these animal models, non-invasive imaging of in vivo tumors by gamma camera scintigraphy after radioiodide or technetium injection has been performed successfully, suggesting that the NIS can serve as an imaging reporter gene for gene therapy trials. In addition, the tumor killing effects of I-131, ReO4-188 and At-211 after NIS gene transfer have been demonstrated in in vitro clonogenic assays and in vivo radioiodide therapy studies, suggesting that NIS gene can also serve as a therapeutic agent when combined with radioiodide injection. Better NIS-mediated imaging and tumor treatment by radioiodide requires a more efficient and specific system of gene delivery with better retention of radioiodide in tumor. Results thus far are, however, promising, and suggest that NIS gene transfer followed by radioiodide treatment will allow non-invasive in vivo imaging to assess the outcome of gene therapy and provide a therapeutic strategy for a variety of human diseases. (Korean J Nucl Med 38(2):152-160, 2004)
Emerging trends for cardiac tissue engineering are focused on increasing the biocompatibility and tissue regeneration ability of artificial heart tissue by incorporating various cell sources and bioactive molecules. Although primary cardiomyocytes can be successfully implanted, clinical applications are restricted due to their low survival rates and poor proliferation. To develop successful cardiovascular tissue regeneration systems, new technologies must be introduced to improve myocardial regeneration. Electrospinning is a simple, versatile technique for fabricating nanofibers. Here, we discuss various biodegradable polymers (natural, synthetic, and combinatorial polymers) that can be used for fiber fabrication. We also describe a series of fiber modification methods that can increase cell survival, proliferation, and migration and provide supporting mechanical properties by mimicking micro-environment structures, such as the extracellular matrix (ECM). In addition, the applications and types of nanofiber-based scaffolds for myocardial regeneration are described. Finally, fusion research methods combined with stem cells and scaffolds to improve biocompatibility are discussed.
Bone is an active tissue, in which bone formation by osteoblast is followed by bone resorption by osteoclasts, in arepeating cycle. Proteomics approaches may allow thedetection of changes in cell signal transduction, and theregulatory mechanism of cell differentiation. LC-MS/MS-basedquantitative methods can be used with labeling strategies,such as SILAC, iTRAQ, TMT and enzymatic labeling. Whenused in combination with specific protein enrichmentstrategies, quantitative proteomics methods can identifyvarious signaling molecules and modulators, and theirinteracting proteins in bone metabolism, to elucidatebiological functions for the newly identified proteins in thecellular context. In this article, we will briefly review recentmajor advances in the application of proteomics for bonebiology, especially from the aspect of cellular signaling.
Conventionally, any physical or physiological index such as blood pressure or blood glucose was referred to as a biomarker. Currently, this term is identified with molecular or biological indicators and is an umbrella of genes and genetic variations, and expression differences in RNA, proteins and metabolites. Biomarkers as quantitative measures strongly impact issues of cost, access, toxicity, and the complete value of novel therapeutics. These indicators of disease are important in being able to diagnose and assess the disease condition, as well as to monitor response to treatment. Biomarkers can also form the foundation of therapy by assisting in decision making during early and late drug development stages, and monitoring clinical outcomes. Consequently, biomarker research and acceptance in clinical practice should attract greater funding and better awareness amongst the clinical community.