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The Deterioration Factor (DF) for a single pollutant within an engine family is computed as the ratio of two points on a linear regression line describing durability vehicle test results as a function of accumulated mileage. It is inteded to represent the factor by which emissions will increase during the ''useful life" of a vehicle in the engine family. Here are discribed procedures for computing the DF and how consideration of the DF is included in the development for the motor vehicle emission certification process. This paper is aimed to develop the distribution of the DF for three pollutant and to estimate the parameter values for the distribution of the DF.
In establishing Multi-Stage Machining process inspection procedures, however, where costs of inspection md defective products are often directly measurable, a better method for formulating inspection plans is available. If one of the primary interest of a manufacturing concern is to maximize profits, then optimal inspection plans ought to be selected so as to minimize costs. This paper is aimed to find a methodology of optimal inspection planning in Multi-stage Machining process and to develope a proper algorithm.
One method of controlling the quality of incoming lots is through attribute sampling inspection plan. To simultaneously control several (possible dependent) attributes, properly chosen single attribute sampling inspection plans can be merged into a multiple sampling inspection plan. The general form of such a plan is given and various alternatives are discussed. The multinomial distribution is used to develop formulae necessary for an analysis of a multiple attribute sampling inspection plan. In this paper, we due to the lengthy nature of the calculation involved, a computer algorithm is outlined.
Today, as globalization continues and international trading blocks are formed, world are intensely competitive and abound in product variety, volume, complexity and environmental management. Specifically, green consumer's needs and expectations are changing and diversifying, resulting in a changed global environment for industry. Due to these changes, domestic companies are striving to achieve the Environmental Management System (ISO 14000) certification. This is considered a basis step in meeting the guiding principle and practice of ISO/TC 207/SC 3 resolution. In this paper, we will present three type(Ⅰ,Ⅱ,Ⅲ) of Environmental Labelling programs to build a model for environmental management system by analysing practitioner and stakeholder. After companies establish an ISO 9000 quality system these companies should focus on improve toward their own Environmental Labelling program and continue to build ISO 14000.
Life Cycle Assessment is a process to evaluate the environmental burdens associated with a product or process by identifying and quantifying energy and materials used and wasters released to the environment ; to assess the impact of those energy and material uses and releases to the environment ; and to identity and evaluate opportunities to affect environmental improvements. A tool to aid decision making on environmental criteria. go beyond environmental safety and consider environmental quality by assessing the overall environmental effects of the life cycle on a global scale. In this paper, we will present three steps (inventory, impact, improvement) of life cycle assessment to build a model for life cycle analysing by energy and material. After companies an ISO 14000 environmental management systems these companies should focus on improve toward their own Life Cycle Assessment and continue to build ISO 14040-49.
Environmental Impact Assessment includes all of the procedures and activities related to the more performance(value) from less materials, less energy, less environmental burdens. Since our country has greater pollutant loadings than any other countries due to the greater population density and degree of industrialization, special efforts to overcome the problems are required to the ISO 14000. Therefore, the government is implementing the stringent environmental regulations and developing the post and pretreatments as more competitive environmental industries. Industries are also making great efforts to develop the pollution reducing technologies to meet the regulations. Researches on clean and Environmental Impact Assessment(EIA) are being performed as international projects. In this paper we are planning to perform the EIA related to the pollution prevention rather pollution treatment, classification(resource depletion, environmental and human impacts), characterization (quantification of the risk), valuation(results of the characterization are compared, significance of the results of the impact assessment is determined).